Ashworth, R., Boyne, G. and Delbridge, R. (2007), ‘Escape from the iron cage? Organisational change and isomorphic pressures in the public sector’, Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, 19, 1, 165–87.
Australian National Audit Office (ANAO) (2017), Jobactive: Design and monitoring. Canberra: Commonwealth of Australia.
Bartlett, W. (1991), ‘Quasi-markets and contracts: A markets and hierarchies perspective on NHS reform’, Public Money and Management, 11, 3, 53–61.
Beckert, J. (2010), ‘Institutional isomorphism revisited: Convergence and divergence in institutional change’, Sociological Theory, 28, 2, 150–66.
Bennett, H. (2017), ‘Re-examing british welfare-to-work contracting using a transaction cost perspective’, Journal of Social Policy, 46, 1, 129–48.
Bredgaard, T. and Larsen, F. (2007), ‘Implementing public employmnet policy: What happens when non-public agencies take over?’, International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, 27, 7/8, 287–300.
Bredgaard, T. and Larsen, F. (2008), ‘Quasi-markets in employment policy: Do they deliver on promises?’, Social Policy and Society, 7, 3, 341–52.
Considine, M. (2001), Enterprising states: The public management of welfare-to-work, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Considine, M. and Lewis, J.M. (1999), ‘Governance at ground level: The frontline bureaucrat in the age of markets and networks’, Public Administration Review, 59, 6, 467–480.
Considine, M., Lewis, J.M. and O’Sullivan, S. (2011), ‘Quasi-markets and service delivery flexibility following a decade of employment assistance reform in Australia’, Journal of Social Policy, 40, 4, 811–33.
Considine, M., Lewis, J.M., O’Sullivan, S. and Sol, E. (2015), Getting welfare to work: Street-level governance in Australia, the UK, and the Netherlands. New York: Oxford University Press.
Considine, M., O’Sullivan, S. and Nguyen, P. (2014a), ‘New public management and welfare-to-work in Australia: comparing the reform agendas of the ALP and Coalition’, Australian Journal of Political Science, 49, 3, 469–85.
Considine, M., O’Sullivan, S. and Nguyen, P. (2014b), ‘Governance, boards of directors and the impact of contracting on not-for-profits organisations: an Australian study’, Social Policy and Administration, 48, 2, 169–187.
Considine, M., O’Sullivan, S. and Nguyen, P. (2018), ‘The policymaker’s dilemma: the risks and benefits of a 'black box’ approach to commissioning active labour market programmes’, Social Policy and Administration, 52, 1,. 229–51.
DiMaggio, P.J. and Powell, W.W. (1983), ‘The iron cage revisited: Institutional isomorphism and collective rationality in organisational fields’, American Sociological Review, 48, 2, 147–60.
Finn, D. (2011), Job Services Australia: Design and implementation lessons for the British context. London: Department for Work and Pensions.
Finn, D. (2012), Subcontracting in public employment services: The design and delivery of 'outcome based’ and 'black box’ contracts. Brussels: European Commission.
Fletcher, D.R. (2011), ‘Welfare reform, jobcentre plus and the street-level bureaucracy: Towards inconsistent and discriminatory welfare for severely disadvantaged groups’, Social Policy and Society, 10, 4, 445–58.
Frumkin, P. and Galaskiewicz, J. (2004), ‘Institutional isomorphism and public sector organisations,’ Jounral of Public Administration Research and Theory, 14, 3, 283–307.
Fuertes, V. and Lindsay, C. (2016), ‘Personalisation and street-level practice in activation: The case of the UK’s work programme’, Public Administration, 94, 2, 526–41.
Greer, I., Breidahl, K.N., Knuth, M. and Larsen, F. (2017), The marketisation of employment services: The dilemmas of Europe’s work-first welfare states: Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Hill, J.C. (2013), ‘The marketisation of employment services and the British work programme’, Competition and Change, 17, 2, 197–207.
Jobs Australia (2015b), Submission on the competition policy review final report. Melbourne: Jobs Australia.
Jobs Australia (2018), Submmision to senate inquiry into the appropriateness and effectiveness of the objectives, design, implementation and evaluation of jobactive. Melbourne: Jobs Australia.
Kitchener, M. (1998), Quasi-market transformation: An institutionalist approach to change in uk hospitals. Public Administration, 76:Spring, 73–95.
Knill, C. and Balint, T. (2008), ‘Explaining variation in organisational change: The reform of human resource management in the European Commission and the OECD’, Journal of European Public Policy, 15, 5, 669–90.
Marston, G. and McDonald, C. (2008), ‘Feeling motivated yet? Long-term unemployed people’s perspectives on the implementation of workfare in Australia’, Australian Journal of Social Issues, 43, 2, 255–69.
McDonald, C. and Marston, G. (2008), ‘Re-visiting the quasi-market in employment services: Australia’s Job Network’, Asia Pacific Journal of Public Administration, 30, 2, 101–17.
NESA (2018), Nesa’s response to the senate inquiry into the appropriateness and effectivesnnes of the objectives, design, implementation and evaluation of jobactive. Melbourne: National Employment Services Association.
Ramia, G. and Carney, T. (2000), ‘Contractualism, managerialism and welfare: The Australian experiment with a marketised employment services network’, Policy and Politics, 29, 1, 59–83.
Ramia, G. and Carney, T. (2010), ‘The Rudd government’s employment services agenda: Is it post-NPM and why is that important?’, Australian Journal of Public Administration, 69, 3, 263–73.
Sainsbury, R. (2017), ‘Activation in the UK: The frontline and the “black box” of employment service provision’, van Berkel, R., Caswell, D., Kupka, P. and Larsen, F. [Eds] Frontline delivery of welfare-to-work policies in europe: Activating the unemployed. New York: Routledge.
Senate Education and Employment References Committee (
SEERC) (2019), Jobactive: Failing those it is intended to service. Canberra: Commonwealth of Australia.
Senate Standing Committee (SSC). (2009), DEEWR tender process to award employment services contracts. Canberra: Commonwealth of Australia.
Struyven, L. (2014), ‘Varieties of market competition in public employment services: a comparision of the emergence and evolution of the new system in Australia, the Netherlands and Belgium’, Social Policy and Administration, 48, 2, 149–68.
Taylor, R., Rees, J. and Damm, C. (2016), ‘UK employment services: Understanding provider strategies in a dynamic strategic action field,’ Policy and Politics, 44, 2, 253–67.
van Berkel, R. (2014), ‘Quasi-markets and the delivery of activation: A frontline perspective’, Social Policy and Administration, 48, 2, 188–203.
Wiggan, J. (2015), ‘Varieties of marketisation in the UK: Examining divergence in activation markets between Great Britain and Northern Ireland 2008–2014’, Policy Studies, 36, 2, 115–32.