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Archaeology and Anthropology in East Malaysia and Brunei

  • Vinson H. Sutlive, Lucas Chin and David McCredie

Dirges mark endings. And though it may seem strange to begin a report on archaeology and anthropology in East Malaysia and Brunei with a “dirge”, it is precisely the ritual form suited to set the tone for this review.

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1 Cotter, Conrad P., Bibliography of English Language Sources on Human Ecology: Eastern Malaysia, 2 vols. (Honolulu, Department of Asian Studies, University of Hawaii, 1965); Yin, Loh Chee, The Sarawak Museum Journal: An Index to All the Issues Published from 1911 to 1979 (Kuching: Sarawak Museum, 1980); Miller, David, A Checklist of the Works of Tom Harrisson (1911–1976) (Williamsburg, VA.: Department of Anthropology, The College of William and Mary, Special Publication of the Borneo Research Council, 1974); Shulman, Frank Joseph, Doctoral Dissertations on Malaya and Malaysia: A Comprehensive Bibliography (East Asia Collection, McKeldin Library, College Park, University of Maryland, 1978); Sutlive, Vinson H. Jr., “Anthropology”, in Lent, John A. (ed.), Malaysian Studies: Present Knowledge and Research Trends, Occasional Papers No. 7, Center for Southeast Asian Studies, Northern Illinois University, 1979, pp. 59134; Appell, G. N. and Wright, Leigh (eds.), The Status of Social Science Research in Borneo, Southeast Asia Program Data Paper 109 (Ithaca: Cornell University, 1978).

2 Steward, Julian, Theory of Culture Change (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1955), pp. 9596.

3 Without belabouring the point, from approximately 1975, foreign scholars and graduate students routinely were denied visas, and West Malaysian students have reported waits of up to four months for permission to study in East Malaysia. Invitations recently tendered to some foreign scholars to work on specific projects of interest to Government, in Sarawak, for example, indicated presage of a general relaxation of restrictions and the beginning of a new period of openness and free exchange.

4 Baring-Gould, S. and Bampfylde, C. A., A History of Sarawak Under Its Two White Rajahs, 1839–1908 (London: Henry Sotheran, 1909).

5 Beccari, Odoardo, Wandering in the Great Forests of Borneo: Travels Researches of a Naturalist in Sarawak (London: Archibald Constable, 1904).

6 Brooke, Margaret, Ranee, of Sarawak, , Life in Sarawak: The Ranee of Sarawak (London: Methuen, 1913).

7 Evans, Ivor H. N., Among Primitive Peoples in Borneo: A Description of the Lives, Habits, and Customs of the Piratical Head-Hunters of North Borneo, with an Account of Interesting Objects of Prehistoric Antiquity Discovered in the Island (London: Seeley, 1922).

8 Gomes, Edwin H., Seventeen Years among the Sea Dyaks of Borneo: A Record of Intimate Association with the Natives of the Bornean Jungles (London: Seeley, 1911).

9 Haddon, A. C. and Start, Laura, Iban or Sea Dayak Fabrics and Their Patterns (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1936).

10 Hose, Charles, Natural Man: A Record from Borneo (London: MacMillan, 1926).

11 Keppel, Henry, The Expedition to Borneo of the H.M.S. Dido for the Suppression of Piracy, 2 vols. (London: Chapman and Hall, 1846).

12 Roth, Henry Ling, The Natives of Sarawak and British North Borneo (London: Truslove and Hanson, 1896).

13 Low, Hugh, Sarawak: Its Inhabitants and Productions (London: Bentley, 1848).

14 Rutter, Owen, Pagans of North Borneo (London: Hutchinson, 1929).

15 John, Spenser St., Life in the Forests of the Far East (London: Smith and Elder Co., 1862); The Life of Sir James Brooke, Rajah of Sarawak (Edinburgh: William Blackwood, 1879).

16 Jaganath Pathy, “Social Anthropology in India: A Comment”, unpublished manuscript; Voget, Fred W., “The History of Cultural Anthropology” in Handbook of Social and Cultural Anthropology, ed. Honigmann, John J. (Chicago: Rand McNally and Company, 1973).

17 Data were not collected using techniques which would make them amenable to verification and replication.

18 Though it is useful for purposes of analysis to distinguish the two periods (the Recent marking the imposition of restrictions), write-ups in the Recent Period of fieldwork, done during the Florescent Period, obviate neat boundaries, and appear to require a combination of the two periods.

19 Wilhelm G. Solheim II, Floyd Wheeler and Joan Wheeler, “Archaeology in Malaysia, Brunei, and Singapore” (typescript), n.d.

20 Ibid., p. 14.

21 Chin, Lucas, Cultural Heritage of Sarawak (Kuching: Sarawak Museum, 1980).

22 For more comprehensive discussions of contributions, observations and recommendations, see Appell, G. N., “The Status of Social Science Research in Sarawak and Its Relevance for Development” in Sarawak: Research and Theory, Studies in Third World Societies (STWS), Publication No. 2, 1977, pp. 390; and V. H. Sutlive Jr., “Anthropology”.

23 Stuster, Jack, “Punan Bibliography”, Borneo Research Bulletin (BRB) 6 (1974): 4950.

24 Needham, Rodney, “Penan and Punan”, Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, Malayan Branch (JMBRAS) 27 (1954): 7383; “Penan” in Ethnic Groups of Insular Southeast Asia, Vol. 1: Indonesia, Andaman Islands, and Madagascar (New Haven, CT.: Human Relations Area Files Press, 1972).

25 Needham, Rodney, “The System of Teknonyms and Death-names of the Penan”, Southwestern Journal of Anthropology (SWJA) 10 (1954): 416–31.

26 Needham, Rodney, “Blood, Thunder, and Mockery of Animals”, Sociologus No. 14, 2 (1964): 136–49.

27 Langub, Jayl, “Distribution of Penan and Punan in the Belaga District”, BRB 7 (1975): 4547.

28 Nicolaisen, Johannes, “The Penan of the Seventeenth Division of Sarawak: Past, Present and Future”, Sarawak Museum Journal (SMJ) XXIV, No. 45 (1976): 3561; Penan Death Names”, SAJ XXVI, No. 47, pp. 2941.

29 Yaman, Josephine, “Socio-Cultural Change among the Penans of Kampong Tanjong Belipat, Batu Niah: A Study Conducted in Sarawak” (B.A. thesis, Universiti Malaya, 1978/1979).

30 Hoffman, Carl, “Some Notes on the Origins of the ‘Punan’ of Borneo”, BRB 13, 2 (1981): 7175.

31 Freeman, J. D., Iban Agriculture, London School of Economics, Monographs on Social Anthropology, No. 41 (1955) reissued in 1970, Report on the Iban; Iban Augury”, Bidragen totde Taal-Land-en Volkenkunde (BIJD) 114 (1961): 141–67.

32 Freeman, J.D., “Shaman and Incubus”, in The Psychoanalytic Study of Society, ed. Muesnsterberger, , Warner, and Axelrad, Sidney, Vol. 4 (New York: International Universities Press, 1967), pp. 314–43; Pringle, Robert, Rajahs and Rebels: The Ibans of Sarawak Under Brooke Rule, 1841–1941 (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1970).

33 Jensen, Eric, “Iban Belief and Behaviour” (Ph.D. dissertation, Oxford University, 1968); “Sickness and the Iban Manang”, Folk 14–15, pp. 93–102; The Iban and Their Religion (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1974).

34 Kedit, Peter Mulok, “The Iban of Skrang Village” (B.A. Honours Thesis, University of Queensland, 1970).

35 Kedit, Peter Mulok, “Modernization among the Ibans” (M. A. Thesis, University of Queensland, 1976).

36 Sutlive, Vinson H. Jr., “From Longhouse to Pasar: Urbanization in Sarawak, East Malaysia” (Ph. D. dissertation, University of Pittsburgh, 1972); The Iban of Sarawak (North Arlington Heights, II.: AHM Press, 1978).

37 Wagner, Ulla, “Colonialism and Iban Warfare” (Ph. D. dissertation, Stockholms Universitet, 1972).

38 Seymour, James Madison, “The Rural School and Rural Development among the Iban of Sarawak, Malaysia” (Ph. D. dissertation, Stanford University, 1967).

39 Komanyi, Margit Ilona, “The Real and Ideal Participation in Decision-Making of Iban Women: A Study of a Longhouse Community in Sarawak, East Malaysia” (Ph. D. dissertation, New York University, 1973).

40 Heppel, Michael, “Iban Social Control: The Infant and the Adult” (Ph. D. dissertation, Australian National University, 1977).

41 Looi, Lili Chan Lean, “Christian Missions and the Iban of Sarawak during the Brooke Rule (1840's-1940's)” (B.A. Thesis, Australian National University, 1975).

42 Austin, Robert F., “Iban Migration: Patterns of Mobility and Employment in the 20th Century” (Ph.D. dissertation, University of Michigan, 1977).

43 Padoch, Christian, “Migration and its Alternatives among the Iban of Sarawak” (Ph.D. dissertation, Columbia University, 1978).

44 Uchibori, M., “The Leaving of this Transient World: A Study of Iban Eschatology and Mortuary Practices” (Ph. D. dissertation, Australian National University, 1978).

45 Masing, James Jimut, “The Coming of the Gods: A Study of an Invocatory Chant (Timang Gaai Amat) of the Iban of the Baleh River Region of Sarawak” (Ph. D. dissertation, Australian National University, 1981).

46 Whittier, H. L., “Social Organisation and Symbols of Social Differentiation: An Ethnographic Study of the Kenyah Dayak of East Kalimantan (Borneo)” (Ph.D. dissertation, Michigan State University, 1973); Whittier, Patricia Ruth, Systems of Appellation Among the Kenyah Dayak of Borneo, Ph.D. dissertation, Michigan State, 1981; Chung, Chin See, Agriculture and Subsistence in a Lowland Rain Forest Kenyah Community, 2 vols., Ph.D. dissertation, Yale University, 1984.

47 Seeler, Joan Dewitt, Kenyah Dance, Sarawak Malaysia: A Description and Analysis (University of Hawaii, 1975).

48 Hong, Evelyn, “Kenyah Society in Transition: A Baram Case Study”, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 1977.

49 Rousseau, Jerome, “The Social Organizations of the Baluy Kayan” (Ph. D. dissertation, Cambridge University, 1973); “The Baluy Area”, in The Peoples of Central Borneo, ed. Rousseau, Jerome, SMJ Special Issue 22, No. 3 (Kuching: Sarawak Museum, 1974); “A Vocabulary of Baluy Kayan”, in The Peoples of Central Borneo; “The Kayan”, in Essays on Borneo Societies, ed. King, Victor (Hull Monographs on Southeast Asia 7, 1978).

50 Nicolaisen, Ida, “Form and Function of Punan Bah Ethno-historical Tradition”, SMJ XXIV, No. 45 (1976): 6395.

51 Schneider, William M., “Social Organization of the Selako Dayak of Borneo” (Ph.D. dissertation, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 1974); “The Biik Family of the Selako Dayak Western Borneo” in Sarawak: Linguistics and Development Problems, STWS Publication No. 3, 1978, pp. 148–82.

52 Mois, Awang Hasmadi Awang, “Adat Selako” (B.A. Thesis, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 1977); “Adat dan Ugama Selako” (M.A. Thesis, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 1979).

53 Grijpstra, Bouwe Gerald, Common Efforts in the Development of Rural Sarawak, Malaysia (Wageningen: Landbouwhoge School, 1976); “The Transition from Shifting Cultivation to Cash Crops: Changes in a Land Dayak Village” in Sarawak: Linguistics and Development Problems, pp. 127–47.

54 Daane, Jon R. V., “Internal and External Co-operation of Land Dayak Villages” (Wageningen, The Netherlands: Agricultural University, 1974).

55 Peter Metcalf, “The Baram District: A Survey of Kenyah, Kayan and Penan Peoples” in The Peoples of Central Borneo; “Berawan Adoption Practices” in The Peoples of Central Borneo; “A Berawan Journey into Death: Mortuary Rituals of a Central North Borneo People” (Ph. D. dissertation, Harvard University, 1976); A Borneo Journey into Death (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1982).

56 For materials on these and other groups, see Loh Chee Yin, The Sarawak Museum Journal.

57 Morris, H.S., Report on a Melanau Sago Producing Community in Sarawak, Colonial Research Studies 9 (London: H. M. Stationery Office, 1953); Clayre, I.F.C.S., “Melanau Studies”, BRB 4, 1:2223.

58 Fidler, Richard C., “Kanowit: An Overseas Chinese Community in Borneo” (Ph.D. dissertation, University of Pennsylvania, 1972); Population Diversity in a Sarawak Bazaar Town”, SMJ XX (1972): 195236; Mee-Kuok, Kiu, “The Diffussion of Foochow Settlement in Sibu-Binatang Area Central Sarawak” (M.A. thesis, University of Hawaii, 1972); Lockard, Craig Alan, “Chinese Immigration in Sarawak 1868–1917” (M.A. thesis, University of Hawaii, 1967); Ju-K'ang, Ti'en, The Chinese of Sarawak: A Study of Social Structure, Monographs on Social Anthropology No. 12 (London: Lund Humphries, 1953).

59 Deegan, James L., “Change among the Lun Bawang, A Borneo People” (Ph.D. dissertation, University of Washington, 1973); “Community Fragmentation among the Lun Bawang” in The Peoples of Central Borneo.

60 Kling, Zainal, “The Saribas Malays of Sarawak: Their Social and Economic Organization and System of Values” (Ph.D. dissertation, University of Hull, 1974); Ibrahim, Tunku Zainah Tunku, “Malay Ethnicity in Sarawak: The Case of the Orang Miri” (M.A. thesis, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 1978).

61 Sather, Clifford, “Kadayan Settlement in the Miri District of Sarawak”, BRB 8, 1 (1976): 312; “Kinship and Contiguity: Variation in Social Alignments among the Semporna Bajau Laut” in The Societies of Borneo: Explorations in the Theory of Cognatic Structure, ed. Appell, G.N. (Washington: AAA Special Publication 6, 1976).

62 Roger D. Peranio, “Bisaya”, in Frank M. Lebar (ed.), Ethnic Groups of Insular Southeast Asia; “The Structure of Bisaya Society: A Ranked Cognatic Social System” (Ph.D. dissertation, Columbia University, 1978).

63 Vinson H. Sutlive, Jr., The Iban of Sarawak; McKeown, Francis Alexander, The Merakai Iban: An Ethnographic Account with Especial Reference to Dispute Settlement, Ph.D. dissertation, Monash University, 1983.

64 Yahya, Talla, “The Kelabit of the Kelabit Highlands, Sarawak”, School of Comparative Social Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 1979.

65 Jackson, James C., Sarawak: A Geographical Survey of a Developing Nation (London: University London Press, 1968); Sarawak: Satu Kajian Ilmu Alam Tentang sebuah Negri yang sedang Membangun (Kuala Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka, 1976).

66 Leng, Lee Yong, Population and Setlement in Sarawak (Singapore: Asia Pacific Press, 1970).

67 Dixon, Gale, “Rural Settlement in Sarawak” (Ph.D. dissertation, University of Oregon, 1972).

68 Geddes, William R., The Land Dyaks of Sarawak: A Report on a Social Economic Survey of the Land Dyaks of Sarawak, Colonial Research Studies No. 14 (London: H. M. Stationery Office, 1954).

69 William Schneider, “The Biik Family of the Selako Dayaks”; “The Selako Dayak”.

70 Dove, Michael R., “Tree-Rights, Tree-Holding Units and Tree-Using Units among the Melaban Kantu: The Factors of Land Use, Scarce Labor, and Scarce Knowledge in their Evolution”,Paper presented at the 75th Annual Meeting of the American Anthropological Association,Washington,18 November 1976.

71 G. N. Appell, “Observational Procedures for Land Tenure and Kin Groupings in the Cognatic Societies of Borneo”, duplicated (1971); Systems of Land Tenure in Borneo: A Problem in Ecological Determinism”, BRB 3 (1971): 1720; Kayan Land Tenure and the Distribution of Devolvable Usufruct in Borneo”, BRB 18 (1986): 119309.

72 J.D. Freeman, Iban Agriculture.

73 G.N. Appell, “Observational Procedures for Land Tenure”; “Systems of Land Tenure in Borneo”.

74 Weinstock, Joseph Aaron, Land Tenure Practices of the Swidden Cultivators of Borneo (Cornell University, 1979).

75 Lockard, Craig Alan, “The Southeast Asian Town in Historical Perspective: A Social History of Kuching, Malaysia, 1820–1970” (Ph.D. dissertation, University of Wisconsin at Madison, 1973).

76 Bin, Ong Liang, “Malay Houses of Kuching” (B. A. thesis, University of Singapore, 1975–76).

77 Peng, David Wee Kim, “Squatters in Kuching: A Case Study of Attap Pah Squatter Settlement from Socio-economic and Demographic Aspects” (B. A. thesis, Faculty of Arts and Social Science, University of Malaya, 1981).

78 Vinson H. Sutlive, Jr., “From Longhouse to Pasar”, The Iban of Sarawak; Iban Urban Migration into Sibu, Sarawak: Part I”, BRB 17, 2 (Sept. 1985): 8595; op. cit., Part II, BRB 18, 1 (April 1986): 27–45.

79 Appell, G.N., “The Dusun Languages of Northern Borneo: Rungus Dusun and Related Problems”, Oceanic Linguistics 7(1968): 115.

80 A.B. Hudson, “Linguistic Relations among Bornean Peoples with Special Reference to Sarawak: An Interim Report”, Sarawak: Linguistics and Development Problems.

81 Timothy G. Babcock, “Indigenous Ethnicity in Sarawak” in The Peoples of Central Borneo.

82 Richard C. Fidler, “Kanowit: An Overseas Chinese Community in Borneo”; “Population Diversity in a Sarawak Bazaar Town”; “Religion and Festivals in a Multi-Cultural Bazaar Town”.

83 Tunku Zainah, “Malay Ethnicity in Sarawak”.

84 Nor, Hasan Mat, “Beberapa Masalah Klasifikasi Etnik di Kalangan Kumpulan Minoriti di Sarawak”, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 1979.

85 Robert A. Blust, “Some New Proto-Austronesian Trisyllables”, Working Papers in Linguistics 10 (Honolulu, University of Hawaii, Department of Linguistics); New Subgroupings of the Languages of West Borneo”, BRB 4 (1970): 45; “A Murik Vocabulary” in The Peoples of Central Borneo; “The Proto-North Sarawak Vowel Deletion Hypothesis” (Ph.D. dissertation, University of Hawaii, 1974); Early Austronesian Social Organization: The Evidence of Language”, Current Anthropology 21, No. 2 (April 1980): 205247.

86 Dyen, Isidore, A Lexicostatistical Classification of the Austronesian Languages, Indiana University Publications in Anthropology and Linguistics, Memoir 19, International Journal of American Linguistics, 1965; Grace, George, “Austronesian Lexicostatistical Classification: A Review Article”, Oceanic Linguistics 5:1331.

87 A. B. Hudson, “Linguistic Relations among Bornean Peoples”.

88 Robert A. Blust, Early Austronesian Social Organization; see also footnote 85.

89 Kimball, Linda Amy, “Review, Second International Conference on Austronesian Linguistics: Fascicles 1 and 2”, American Anthropologist (AA) 83, No. 3 (September 1981): 653–54.

90 J.D. Freeman, “Iban Augury”.

91 Henry Ling Roth, The Natives of Sarawak.

92 J.D. Freeman, “Shaman and Incubus”.

93 Freeman, J.D., “Thunder, Blood, and the Nicknaming of God's Creatures”, Psychoanalytic Quarterly 37, No. 3 (July 1968): 353–99.

94 Eric Jensen, The Iban and Their Religion.

95 Peter Metcalf, “A Berawan Journey into Death”; A Borneo Journey into Death.

96 Clayton Chu's unpublished collection of interview notes on the Shaman will provide a rich supplement to published reports. See also David Miller, A Checklist of the Works of Tom Harrisson (1911–1976); Clifford A. Sather, “Benedict Sandin, 1918–1982: A Biographical Memoir”, to be published in the Sarawak Museum Journal. For a summary of other studies of religion in East Malaysia, see G. N. Appell, “The Status of Social Science”.

97 G. N. Appell, “The Status of Social Science”.

98 Petre-Quadens, Olga, BRB 1 (1982): 2.

99 Harrisson, Barbara, The Orang-Utan (New York: Doubleday, 1963).

100 Mackinnon, John, The Red Ape (London: Collins, 1974).

101 BRB 11, 2: 57–58.

102 J.D. Freeman, “Shaman and Incubus”; “Thunder, Blood, and the Nicknaming of God's Creatures”.

103 Jensen, Eric, “Sickness and the Iban Manang”, Folk 14–15 (1972–73): 93102.

104 Sutlive, Vinson H. Jr., “The Iban Manang: An Alternative Route to Normality” in Studies in Borneo Societies: Social Process and Anthropological Explanation, Appell, G.N. (ed.) (Dekalb, Il.: Center for Southeast Asian Studies Special Report 12, 1976), pp. 6471.

105 Nissom, M.P., “Land Dayak Concept of Mental Illness”, Medical Journal of Malaya 21 (1967): 352–57.

106 T. C. Chiu, E. Tong and K. E. Schmidt, “A Clinical Survey Study of Latah in Sarawak, Malaysia”, duplicated, n.d.

107 Barbara and Tom Harrisson, The Prehistory of Sabah (1971).

108 Sopher, David Edward, “The Sea Nomads: A Study of the Maritime Boat People of Southeast Asia, Based on the Literature” (Ph.D. dissertation, University of California at Berkeley, 1955); The Sea Nomads: A Study based on the Literature of the Maritime Boat People of Southeast Asia (Singapore: Memoirs of the National Museum 5, 1965).

109 Sather, Clifford, “Kinship and Domestic Relationships among the Bajau Laut of Northern Borneo” (Ph.D. dissertation, Harvard University, 1971); “Kinship and Continuity: Variation in Social Alignments among the Semporna Bajau Laut” in The Societies of Borneo: Explorations in the Theory ofCognatic Social Structure, ed. Appell, G.N. (Washington: AAA Special Publication 6, 1976).

110 Nimmo, H. Arnold, “Bajoe: A Sama Community of Watampone, Sulawesi”, BRB 9, 2 (1977): 102105.

111 Warren, Carol, Ideology, Identity and Change: The Experience of the Bajau Laut of East Malaysia, 1969–1975, Southeast Asian Studies Centre Monograph No. 14 (Townsville, Australia: James Cook University, 1982).

112 Appell, G. N., “The Nature of Social Groupings among the Rungus Dusun of Sabah, Malaysia” (Ph.D. dissertation, Australian National University, 1964); “The Dusun Languages of Northern Borneo”; Ethnographic Classification of the Dusun-speaking Peoples of Northern Borneo”, Ethnology 8 (1969): 212–27; “The Rungus: Social Structure in a Cognatic Society and its Ritual Symbolization”, The Societies of Borneo; “The Status of Social Science Research”; “The Rungus of Sabah, Malaysia” in Essays on Borneo Societies, ed. King, Victor T., Hull Monograph on South-East Asia 7 (Oxford University Press, 1978); “Land Tenure and Development Among the Rungus of Sabah, Malaysia” in Modernization and the Emergence of a Landless Peasantry: Essays on the Integration of Peripheries to Socioeconomic Center, ed. Appell, G. N., Studies in Third World Societies Publication No. 33 (Williamsburg, Virginia: Studies in Third World Societies, 1985).

113 Harrisson, Robert, “An Analysis of the Variation among Ranau Dusun Communities of Sabah, Malaysia” (Ph.D. dissertation, Columbia University, 1971); “Hamlet Organization and Its Relationship to Productivity in the Swidden-Rice Communities of Ranau, Sabah, Malaysia” in The Societies of Borneo.

114 Prentice, David John, “The Murut Languages of Sabah” (Ph.D. dissertation, Australian National University, 1969); “The Linguistic Studies in Northern Borneo” in Pacific Linguistic Studies, ed. Wurm, S. A. and Laycock, D.C., Pacific Linguistics Series C, No. 13, 1970.

115 Williams, T.R., The Dusun: A North Borneo Society (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1965).

116 Fortier, David Harry, “Culture and Change among Chinese Agricultural Settlers in British North Borneo” (Ph.D. dissertation, Columbia University, 1964).

117 D. Fernando, “The Kadazan Way of Life in the Interior of Sabah (Borneo)”, An Ethnographic Survey for the Board of Studies in Rural Development Science of the Madurai University of South India, 1978.

118 Dixon, Gale, “Geographical Research in Borneo”, BRB 5, 2 (1973): 4749.

119 Readers are referred to Godfrey Chatfield, Sabah: A General Geography, which may contain useful information on this topic.

120 Tarling, Nicholas, “Britain, the Brookes, and Brunei” (Kuala Lumpur/Singapore: Oxford University Press, 1971); Whelan, F.G., A History of Sabah (Singapore: MacMillan, 1970).

121 Leng, Lee Yong, North Borneo: A Study in Settlement Geography (Singapore: Eastern Universities Press, 1965).

122 Bhar, Supriya, “Sandakan: Gun Running Village to Timber Centre, 1879–1979”, JMBRAS 53, 1 (1980): 120–48.

123 D.H. Fortier, “Culture and Change among Chinese Settlers”.

124 Fong, Han Sin, “A Study of the Occupational Patterns and Social Interaction of Overseas Chinese in Sabah, Malaysia” (Ph. D. dissertation, University of Michigan, 1971).

125 D.J. Prentice, “The Murut Language”.

126 G.N. Appell and Laura W.R. Appell, “A Provisional Field Dictionary of the Rungus Dusun Language of North Borneo” (duplicated), 1961.

127 BRB 15, 1:46–48; Kenneth D. Smith, “The Languages of Sabah: A Tentative Lexicostatistical Classification” (unpublished manuscript).

128 Blom, Julie K., “Dialect Comparison and Bilingualism: The Kudat Division”, 1979, to be published by the Sabah State Museum.

129 Hurlbut, Hope and Pekannen, Inka, “Dialect Comparison: The Upper Kinabatangan River Area”, 1980, to be published.

130 Pekannen, Inka, “Some Consonantal Sound Changes in the Kadazan Dialects of the Penampong, Papan, and Beaufort Districts of Sabah, Malaysia”, BRB 13, 1:3347.

131 Ivor, , Evans, H.N., The Religion of the Tempasuk Dusuns of North Borneo (Cambridge: The University Press, 1953).

132 Appell, G.N., “A Survey of the Social and Medical Anthropology of Sabah: Retrospect and Prospect”, Behaviour Science Notes 3 (1968): 154.

133 Koblenzer, P. J., “The Fertility and Child Loss Rates of the Rungus Dusun of Maksangkong-Dampirit, with a Study of the Conditions Responsible for the Latter” (Ph. D. dissertation, University of London, 1959–60).

134 Schmidt, K. E., “Some Concepts of Mental Illness of the Murut of Sarawak”, International Journal of Social Psychiatry 14 (1967): 2431.

135 Carey, T. F., “Two Early Muslim Tombs at Brunei”, JMBRAS XI, No. 2 (1933): 183; Harrisson, Tom, “The Golden Hoard of Limbang”, BMJ I, No. 1 (1969): 5771; Brown, D.E., Brunei: The Structure and History of a Bornean Malay Sultanate, Monographs of the Brunei Museum Journal, Vol. 2, No. 2, 1970.

136 Omar, Matussin and Shariffuddin, P.M., “The Stone Age in Brunei”, Brunei Museum Journal (BMJ) 3, 4(1976): 127–41.

137 Brown, Carrie, “An Early Account of Brunei by Sun Lien”, BMJ 2, No. 4 (1972): 219–31; D. E. Brown, Brunei: The Structure and History; Nicholl, Robert, European Sources for the History of the Sultanate of Brunei in the Sixteenth Century (Bandar Seri Begawan, Brunei Museum, 1975).

138 Kimball, Linda Amy, “Borneo Medicine: The Healing Art of Indigenous Brunei Malay Medicine” (Ann Arbor: University Microfilms, 1979).

139 Brown, D.E., “Brunei in Comparative Perspective”, SMJ XXVI, No. 47 (1978): 135–60.

140 Kimball, Linda Amy, “Borneo Medicine: The Healing Art of Indigenous Brunei Malay Medicine” (Ann Arbor: University Microfilms, 1979).

141 Johannes Franz, Das Sultanat Brunei: Erdol Reichtum und Entwicklungsprobleme, Nurnberg, Im Selbsrverlag des Wirtschafts – und Sozialgeographischen Institut der Friedrich-Alexander-Universitat, 1980.

142 BRB 13, 2:122.

143 J. St. J. Groome, “Evaluation of Smallholder Fanning Enterprises (1965–1974)”, A Report on a Project to investigate four smallholder fanning enterprises in Brunei, Brunei Shell Petroleum Co. Ltd., 1975; Groome, J. St. J. and Ann, S. Soo Boon, “The Improving Pattern of Rice Production in Brunei”, BMJ 4, 1 (1977): 226–43.

144 BRB 13, 1:54; 15, 1:56–57.

145 Johannes Franz, Das Sultanate Brunei; J. Groome, “Smallholder Farming Enterprises”; Maxwell, Allen, “Urang Darat, An Ethnographic Study of the Kadayan of Labu Valley, Brunei” (Ph.D. dissertation, Yale University, 1980); and passing references in Loh Chee Yin, The Sarawak Museum Journal: An Index.

146 Jones, L. W., The Population of Borneo (London: Athlone, 1966).

147 Brown, D. E., Brunei: The Structure and History of a Bornean Malay Sultanate, Monograph of the BMJ 2, No. 2 (1970): 333, 39–62.

148 Kimball, Linda Amy, “A Note on the Loss of Intervocalic–H–in Brunei Malay”, BRB 11, 2 (1976): 4042; The Initial–Syllable–Loss Affectionate Vocative in Brunei Malay”, BRB 14, 2 (1982): 5356; Brunei Malay Collective Referent Kinship Terms”, BRB 9, 1 (1977): 815; On Nya as Direction Quotation Marker in Brunei Malay”, BRB 13, 2 (1981): 104106.

149 Jamil, Al-Sufri P.O.K. Amar Diraja Dato Haji Mohd, “Islam in Brunei”, BMJ 4, 1 (1977): 3542.

150 D.E. Brown, Brunei: The Structure and History, p. 5.

151 Linda Amy Kimball, “The Enculturation of Aggression”, 1975; “Borneo Medicine: The Healing Art of Indigenous Brunei Malay Medicine”.

152 G. N. Appell, “The Status of Social Research in-Sarawak”.

153 Vinson H. Sutlive, Jr., “Anthropology”.

154 Brown, D.E., “Brunei Revisited”, BRB 12, 1 (1980): 2425.

155 Solheim, Wilhelm G. II, “An Earlier Agricultural Revolution”, Scientific American 226, 4 (1972): 3441.

156 King, Victor T., “Anthropology and Rural Development in Sarawak”, SMJ XXXVI, No. 57 (1986): 1342.

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Journal of Southeast Asian Studies
  • ISSN: 0022-4634
  • EISSN: 1474-0680
  • URL: /core/journals/journal-of-southeast-asian-studies
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