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Philippine Archaeology: Status and Prospects

  • Karl L. Hutterer
Extract

The purpose of the present essay is not to present a history of Philippine archaeology; several preliminary attempts have been made in this regard which may be consulted. Rather, the aim of this paper is to pause for a moment and look across the landscape of Philippine archaeology to assess what has been accomplished to date, to ponder strength and weaknesses of the field at this time, and to consider future directions. Nevertheless, the shape of any landscape is the result of historical events and processes that need to be taken into account if we want to understand its present form and assess its future potential and development. Thus, it will be necessary to include in the following thoughts historical perspectives which will help to explain how and why certain concepts, methods and research practices arose in the context of Philippine archaeology and came to determine our picture of Philippine prehistory.

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36 Hutterer, K.L., “Reinterpreting the Southeast Asian Palaeolithic”, in Sunda and Sahul, ed. Allen, J., Golson, J. and Jones, R. (New York: Academic Press, 1976), pp. 3171.

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38 Coutts, P.J.F. and Wesson, J.P., “Models in Philippine Prehistory: A Review of the Flaked Stone Industries”, Philippine Quarterly of Culture and Society 8 (1980): 203259; Fox, R.B., The Tabon Caves, “The Philippines During the First Millennium B.C.”, in Early South East Asia, ed. Smith, R.B. and Watson, W. (New York: Oxford University Press 1979), pp. 227–41; Peterson, W., Anomalous Archaeological Sites of Northern Luzon and Models of Southeast Asian Prehistory, Ph.D. dissertation, Anthropology, University of Hawaii, 1974; Solheim, W.G. II, Legaspi, A.M. and Neri, J.S., Archaeological Survey in Southeastern Mindanao (Manila: National Museum, Monograph No. 8, 1979); Spoehr, A., Zamboanga and Sulu: An Archaeological Approach to Ethnic Diversity, Ethnology Monograph No. 1 (Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh, 1973);Tuggle, H.D. and Hutterer, K. L., Archaeology of the Sohoton Area, Southwestern Samar, Philippines, Leyte-Samar Studies 6 (2), 1972.

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46 Peterson, W., “Summary Report of Two Archaeological Sites from North-eastern Luzon”, Archaeology and Physical Anthropology in Oceania 9 (1974): 2635.

47 Scheans, D.J., Hutterer, K.L. and Cherry, R.L., “A Newly Discovered Blade Tool Industry from the Central Philippines”, Asian Perspectives 13 (1970): 179–81.

48 Hutterer, K. L., “An Evolutionary Approach to the Southeast Asian Cultural Sequence”, Current Anthropology 17 (1976): 221–42.

49 W.G. Solheim II, The Archaeology of Central Philippines and “Philippine Prehistory”.

50 W.G. Solheim II, The Archaeology of Central Philippines, pp. 192–213.

51 Solheim, W. G. II, “Introduction to Sa-huynh”, Asian Perspectives 3 (1959): 97108; Sa-huynh Related Pottery in Southeast Asia”, Asian Perspectives 3(1959): 177–88; Further Relationship of the Sa-Huynh Kalanay Pottery Tradition”, Asian Perspectives 8(1964): 196210; “Two Pottery Traditions of Late Prehistoric Times in Southeast Asia”, in Historical, Archaeological, and Linguistic Studies on Southern China, South East Asia and the Hong Kong Region, ed. Drake, F.S. (Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press, 1967), pp. 1522; “The Sa-Huynh-Kalanay Pottery Tradition: Past and Future Research”, Studies in Philippine Anthropology, ed. Zamora, M.D. (Quezon City: Alemar-Phoenix, 1967), pp. 151–74; “Prehistoric Pottery of Southeast Asia”, in Early Chinese Art and Its Possible Influence in the Pacific Basin, ed. Barnard, N., Vol. 1 (1972): 507532 (New York: Intercultural Arts Press, 1972).

52 W.G. Solheim II, “Philippine Prehistory”, p. 150.

53 Solheim, W.G. II, “Reflections on the New Data of Southeast Asian Prehistory: Austronesian Origin and Consequence”, Asian Perspectives 18 (1975): 146–60.

54 Solheim, W. G. II, “Coastal Irian Jaya and the Origin of the Nusantao” (“Austronesian Speaking People” in Le Peuplement d'Archipel Nippon Et Des Isles Du Pacific: Chronologie, Paleogeographie, Industries), ed. Serizawa, C., Coloque XVIII, IXe Congres, Union Internationale des Sciences Prehistoriques et Protohistoriques (Paris: Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 1976), pp. 3242; Solheim, W.G. II, “Prehistory of Southeast Asia with Reference to Oceania”, in La Prehistoric Oceanienne, ed. Caranger, J., Coloque XXII, IXe Congress, Union Internationale des Sciences Prehistoriques at Protohistoriques (Paris: Centre National de la Recherche of Scientifique, 1976), pp. 135–51; W. G. Solheim II, “Philippine Prehistory”.

55 Hutterer, K.L., “Some Comments on ‘Models of Philippine Prehistory’ by P.J.F. Coutts and J.P. Wesson”, Philippine Quarterly of Culture and Society 9 (1981): 333–41.

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57 Hutterer, K.L., “The Natural and Cultural History of Southeast Asian Agriculture: Ecological and Evolutionary Considerations”, Anthropos 78 (1983): 169212.

58 Bay-Peterson, J., “Shifting Cultivation in Prehistory: Economic Change in Masbate, Central Philippines”, in Adaptive Strategies and Change in Philippine Swidden-based Societies, ed. Olofson, H. (College, Laguna, Philippines: Forest Research Institute), pp. 117–30; Kress, J.H., “Contemporary and Prehistoric Subsistence Patterns on Palawan, in Cultural-Ecological Perspectives on Southeast Asia, ed. Wood, W. (Athens, Ohio: Ohio University, Center for International Studies, 1977), pp. 2947; Maher, R.F., “Archaeological Investigations in Central Ifugao”, Asian Perspectives 16 (1973): 3970; W. Peterson, Anomalous Archaeological Sites; “The Evolution of Agriculture in Southeast Asia”, in Cultural-Ecological Perspectives on Southeast Asia.

59 Hutterer, K.L., “The Evolution of Philippine Lowland Societies”, Mankind 9 (1974): 287–99; Hutterer, , “An Evolutionary Approach to the Southeast Asian Cultural Sequence”, Current Anthropology 17 (1976): 221–42; Hutterer, K.L. and Macdonald, W.K., “The Bais Anthropological Survey: A First Preliminary Report”, Philippine Quarterly of Culture and Society 7 (1979): 115–40; Houses Built on Scattered Poles: Prehistory and Ecology in Negros Oriental, Philippines (Cebu City: University of San Carlos, 1982); Spoehr, A., Zamboanga and Sulu: An Archaeological Approach to Ethnic Diversity, Ethnology Monograph No. 1 (Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh, 1973).

60 Hutterer, K.L., “The Evolution of Philippine Lowland Societies”, Mankind 9 (1974): 287–99.

61 Hutterer, K.L., “Prehistoric Trade and the Evolution of Philippines Societies: A Reconsideration”, in Economic Exchange and Social Interaction in Southeast Asia, ed. Hutterer, K.L., Michigan Papers in South and Southeast Asia, No. 13 (Ann Arbor, 1977), pp. 177–96; K. L. Hutterer and W. K. Macdonald, Houses Built on Scattered Poles.

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