Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-55597f9d44-fnprw Total loading time: 0.356 Render date: 2022-08-17T11:02:52.613Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "useRatesEcommerce": false, "useNewApi": true } hasContentIssue true

Is Having Your Computer Compromised a Personal Assault? The Ethics of Extended Cognition

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  21 December 2016

J. ADAM CARTER
Affiliation:
UNIVERSITY OF EDINBURGHj.adam.carter@ed.ac.uk
S. ORESTIS PALERMOS
Affiliation:
UNIVERSITY OF EDINBURGHs.o.palermos@ed.ac.uk

Abstract:

Philosophy of mind and cognitive science (e.g., Clark and Chalmers 1998; Clark 2010; Palermos 2014) have recently become increasingly receptive to the hypothesis of extended cognition, according to which external artifacts such as our laptops and smartphones can—under appropriate circumstances—feature as material realizers of a person's cognitive processes. We argue that, to the extent that the hypothesis of extended cognition is correct, our legal and ethical theorizing and practice must be updated by broadening our conception of personal assault so as to include intentional harm toward gadgets that have been appropriately integrated. We next situate the theoretical case for extended personal assault within the context of some recent ethical and legal cases and close with critical discussion.

Type
Articles
Copyright
Copyright © American Philosophical Association 2016 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Adams, F., and Aizawa, K.. (2001) ‘The Bounds of Cognition’. Philosophical Psychology, 14, 4364.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Adams, F., and Aizawa, K.. (2008) The Bounds of Cognition. New York: John Wiley.Google Scholar
Adams, F., and Aizawa, K.. (2010) ‘The Value of Cognitivism in Thinking about Extended Cognition’. In Zalta, Edward N. (ed.), The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Available at: http://plato.stanford.edu/.Google Scholar
Baker, L. R. (2000) Persons and Bodies. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Block, N. (1980) ‘Troubles with Functionalism’. In Block, Ned (ed.), Readings in the Philosophy of Psychology, vol. 1 and 2 (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press), 63102.Google Scholar
Bostrom, N., and Sandberg, A.. (2009) ‘Cognitive Enhancement: Methods, Ethics, Regulatory Challenges’. Science and Engineering Ethics, 15, 311–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bostrom, N., and Savulescu, J.. (2009) ‘Human Enhancement Ethics: The State of the Debate’. In Bostrom, N. and Savulescu, J. (eds.), Human Enhancement (Oxford: Oxford University Press), 122.Google Scholar
Brooks, R. (1991a) ‘Intelligence without Representation’. Artificial Intelligence, 47, 139–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brooks, R. (1991b) ‘Intelligence without Reason’. Proceedings of 12th International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence, 569–95.Google Scholar
Buller, D. J. (2005) Adapting Minds. Evolutionary Psychology and the Persistent Quest for Human Nature. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
Chemero, A. (2009) Radical Embodied Cognitive Science. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
Christman, J. (2015) ‘Autonomy in Moral and Political Philosophy’. In Zalta, Edward N. (ed.), The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Available at: http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/spr2015/entries/autonomy-moral/.Google Scholar
Clark, A., and Chalmers, D.. (1998) ‘The Extended Mind’. Analysis, 58, 719.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Clark, A. (1997) Being There: Putting Mind, Body, and World Together Again. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
Clark, A. (2008) Supersizing the Mind: Embodiment, Action, and Cognitive Extension. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Clark, A. (2009) ‘Spreading the Joy? Why the Machinery of Consciousness is (Probably) Still in the Head’. Mind, 118, 963–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Clark, A. (2010) ‘Memento's Revenge: The Extended Mind Extended’. In Menary, Richard (ed.), The Extended Mind (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press), 4366.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Clark, A., and Chalmers, D.. (1998) ‘The Extended Mind’. Analysis, 58, 719.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Clowes, R. W. (2012) ‘Hybrid Memory, Cognitive Technology and Self’. Proceedings of the 5th AISB Symposium on Computing and Philosophy, 4–13.Google Scholar
Cohen, G.A. (1995) Self-Ownership, Freedom and Equality. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fagan v. Metropolitan Police Commissioner . (1969) Q.B.1 439.Google Scholar
Froese, T., Gershenson, C., and Rosenblueth, D. A.. (2013) ‘The Dynamically Extended Mind’. Available at: http://arxiv.org/abs/1305.1958.Google Scholar
Gray, C. H., ed. (1995) The Cyborg Handbook. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
Heersmink, R. (2015) ‘Extended Mind and Cognitive Enhancement: Moral Aspects of Cognitive Artifacts’. Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences, doi:10.1007/s11097-015-9448-5.Google Scholar
Heersmink, R. (2016a) ‘Distributed Selves: Personal Identity and Extended Memory Systems. Synthese, doi:10.1007/s11229-016-1102-4.Google Scholar
Heersmink, R. (2016b) ‘Distributed Cognition and Distributed Morality: Agency, Artifacts and Systems’. Science and Engineering Ethics, doi:10.1007/s11948-016-9802-1.Google Scholar
Hoven, E., Cas, C., and Whittaker, S.. (2012) ‘Introduction to this Special Issue on Designing for Personal Memories: Past, Present, and Future’. Human-Computer Interaction, 27, 112.Google Scholar
Howard-Snyder, F. (2011) ‘Doing vs. Allowing Harm’. In Zalta, Edward N. (ed.), The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Available at: http://plato.stanford.edu/.Google Scholar
Hutchins, E. (1995) Cognition in the Wild. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
Kiverstein, J., and Farina, M.. (2012) ‘Do Sensory Substitution Devices Extend the Conscious Mind?’ In Paglieri, F. (ed.), Consciousness in Interaction: The Role of the Natural and Social Context in Shaping Consciousness (Philadelphia, PA: John Benjamins Publishing), 1940.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Levin, Janet. (2013) ‘Functionalism’. In Zalta, Edward N. (ed.), The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Available at: http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/fall2013/entries/functionalism/.Google Scholar
Lynch, M. (2016) The Internet of Us. New York: Liveright Publishing.Google Scholar
Menary, R. (2006) ‘Attacking the Bounds of Cognition’. Philosophical Psychology, 19, 329–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Menary, R. (2007) Cognitive Integration: Mind and Cognition Unbound. Basingstoke: Palgrave McMillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Miah, A., and Rich, E.. (2008) The Medicalization of Cyberspace. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
O'Hara, K., Tufflied, M. M., and Shadbolt, N.. (2008) ‘Lifelogging: Privacy and Empowerment with Memories for Life’. Identity in the Information Society, 1, 155–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Olson, E. (2011) ‘The Extended Self’. Minds and Machines, 21, special issue: The Construction of Personal Identities Online, 481–95.Google Scholar
Palermos, S. O. (2014) ‘Loops, Constitution, and Cognitive Extension’. Cognitive Systems Research, 27, 2541.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Robb, K. (1994) Literacy and Paideia in Ancient Greece. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Rupert, D. R. (2004) ‘Challenges to the Hypothesis of Extended Cognition’. Journal of Philosophy, 101, 389428.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rupert, D. R. (2009) Cognitive Systems and the Extended Mind. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Serra, L. (2011) “No hi ha blancs ni negres, tots som taronges”. ara.cat. Available at: http://www.ara.cat/societat/No-blancs-negres-totstaronges_0_411558847.html.Google Scholar
Sprevak, M. (2009) ‘Extended Cognition and Functionalism’. Journal of Philosophy, 106, 503–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sutton, J. (2008) ‘Between Individual and Collective Memory: Coordination, Interaction, Distribution’. Social Research, 75, 2348.Google Scholar
Sutton, J., Barnier, A., Harris, C., and Wilson, R.. (2008) ‘A Conceptual and Empirical Framework for the Social Distribution of Cognition: The Case of Memory’. Cognitive Systems Research, 9, 3551.Google Scholar
Taylor, C. (1989) Sources of the Self: The Making of the Modern Identity. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
Taylor, C. (1991) The Ethics of Authenticity. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Theiner, G. (2011) Res Cogitans Extensa: A Philosophical Defense of the Extended Mind Thesis. Bern, Switzerland: Peter Lang, Europäischer Verlag der Wissenschaften.Google Scholar
Theiner, G., Allen, C., and Goldstone, R.. (2010) ‘Recognizing Group Cognition’. Cognitive Systems Research, 11, 378–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tollefsen, D., and Dale, R.. (2011) ‘Naturalizing Joint Action: A Process-Based Approach’. Philosophical Psychology, 25, 385407.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
United States v. Rabinowitz . (1950) 339 U.S. 56, 70 S. Ct. 430, 94 L. Ed. 653.Google Scholar
Varela, F., Thompson, E., and Rosch, E.. (1991) The Embodied Mind: Cognitive Science and Human Experience. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
Wegner, M., Giuliano, T., and Hertel, P.. (1985) ‘Cognitive Interdependence in Close Relationships’. In Ickes, W. J. (ed.), Compatible and Incompatible Relationships (New York: Springer Verlag), 253–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Weiskopf, D. (2008) ‘Patrolling the Mind's Boundaries’. Erkenntnis, 68, 265–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wheeler, M. (2005) Reconstructing the Cognitive World. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
Wheeler, M (2010) ‘In Defense of Extended Functionalism’. In Menary, R. (ed.), The Extended Mind. Life and Mind Series: Philosophical Issues in Biology and Psychology (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press), 245–70.Google Scholar
Wilson, R. A. (2000) ‘The Mind Beyond Itself’. In Sperber, D. (ed.), Metarepresentations: A Multidisciplinary Perspective (New York: Oxford University Press), 3152.Google Scholar
Wilson, R. (2004) Boundaries of the Mind: The Individual in the Fragile Sciences: Cognition. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
20
Cited by

Save article to Kindle

To save this article to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Is Having Your Computer Compromised a Personal Assault? The Ethics of Extended Cognition
Available formats
×

Save article to Dropbox

To save this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Is Having Your Computer Compromised a Personal Assault? The Ethics of Extended Cognition
Available formats
×

Save article to Google Drive

To save this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Is Having Your Computer Compromised a Personal Assault? The Ethics of Extended Cognition
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *