Skip to main content


  • Mark Charles Nolan (a1)

This paper agrees with Friedrich August Hayek’s assertion in his 1945 Dublin lecture that the importance of Dutch physician Bernard Mandeville’s role in the history of economics had been overlooked and with his 1966 London lecture’s assertion that Mandeville’s important contribution qualified him as a master mind. Paul Sakmann’s and Albert Schatz’s studies of Mandeville’s eighteenth-century allegorical Fable of the Bees satire were acknowledged by Hayek as having influenced his formulation and development of the theory of spontaneous order extended from Scottish Enlightenment thinkers. Each of these two writers’ contribution to Mandeville and spontaneous order theory is considered as well as proposing a new source for the term “spontaneous order”—Schatz’s 1907 ‘le principe d’ordre spontané.’

Hide All
Allix, Edgard. 1937. Notice sur la Vie et les Travaux de M. Auguste Deschamps (1863–1935). Paris: L’Institut de France.
Anderson, Paul Bunyan. 1936. “Splendor Out of Scandal: The Lucinda Artesia Papers in The Female Tatler.” Philological Quarterly 15: 286300.
Barry, Norman. 1982. “The Tradition of Spontaneous Order.” Literature of Liberty V (Summer): 758.
Binder, Hermann. 1937. In Memoriam Paul Sakmann. Stuttgart: Rotary-Klub.
Bladel, John P. 2005. “Against Polanyi-Centrism: Hayek and the Re-Emergence of ‘Spontaneous Order.’” The Quarterly Journal of Austrian Economics 8: 1530.
Breeze, John D. 2002. “Henri Fayol’s Centre for Administrative Studies.” In Wood, John C. and Wood, Michael C., eds., Henri Fayol: Critical Evaluations in Business and Management Volume 1. London: Routledge, pp. 93123.
Buxtorf, Anne-Elisabeth. 2010. “100 Years On: A Brief History of the Institute Français in London.” French Studies Library Group Annual Review 2009–10 6: 1012.
Caldwell, Bruce. 2006. “Popper and Hayek: Who Influenced Whom?” In Jarvie, Ian, Milford, Karl, and Miller, David, eds., Karl Popper: A Centenary Assessment. Volume I, Life and Times, and Values in a World of Facts. Aldershot: Ashgate, pp. 111124.
Cobban, Alfred. 1968. “Hippolyte Taine, Historian of the French Revolution.” History 53: 331334.
Curty, Pierre. 1995. Un économiste individualiste anti-conformiste: Albert Schatz (1879–1940). Edited by Potier, Jean-Pierre. Lyon: L’Université Lumière Lyon 2.
Curty, Pierre. 2000. “Albert Schatz (1879–1940).” In Économistes en Lyonnais, en Dauphiné et en Forez, sous le auspices du Centre Auguste et Léon Walras. Lyon: L’institut des Science de l’Homme et de l’Université Lumière Lyon 2, pp. 377388.
Davidson, Sinclair, et al. 2010. The Multi-Layered Hayek. CIS occasional papers 122, edited by Marc-Hartwich, Oliver. St Leonards, NSW: The Centre for Independent Studies.
Dekker, Rudolf. 1992. “‘Private Vices, Public Virtues’ Revisited: The Dutch Background of Bernard Mandeville.” History of European Ideas 14 (4): 481498.
Deschamps, Auguste. 1900. L’enseignement de l’histoire des doctrines economic à la faculté de droit de Paris, extrait de la Revue International de l’Enseignement, du 15 mars 1900. Paris: A. Chevalier-Marescq.
Ferguson, Adam. 1767. An Essay on the History of Civil Society. Dublin: Boutler Grierson.
Ferraton, Cyrille, and Prévost, Benoît. 2013. “Redécouvrir une histoire inaugurale de la pensée économique.” In Schatz, Albert, ed., L’Individualisme Économique et Social. Paris: Bibliothèque Classique de la Liberté, editors’ preface.
Gamble, Andrew. 1996. Hayek: The Iron Cage of Liberty. Cambridge: Polity Press.
Goldsmith, Maurice M. 1976. “Public Virtue and Private Vices: Bernard Mandeville and English Political Ideologies in the Early Eighteenth Century.” Eighteenth-Century Studies 9: 477510.
Gottmann, Felicia. 2013. “Du Châtlet, Voltaire, and the Transformation of Mandeville’s Fable.” History of European Ideas 38: 218232.
Gramm, Warren S. 1975. “Chicago Economics: From Individualism True to Individualism False.” Journal of Economic Issues 9 (4): 753775.
Gray, Peter. 1969. The Enlightenment an Interpretation: The Science of Freedom. London: Weidenfeld and Nicholson.
Groethuysen, Bernard. 1934. “Rationalism.” In Seligman, Edwin R. A., ed., Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences. Volume 13. New York: The Macmillan Company, p. 113.
Hamowy, Ronald. 1987. The Scottish Enlightenment and the Theory of Spontaneous Order. Published for The Journal of the History of Philosophy. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press.
Hamowy, Ronald. 2005. The Political Sociology of Freedom: Adam Ferguson and F. A. Hayek. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing Ltd.
Harrod, Roy F. 1946. “Professor Hayek on Individualism.” The Economic Journal 56 (September): 435442.
Hayek, Friedrich August. 1941a. “The Counter-Revolution of Science Part 1, The Source of the Scientific Hubris: L’Ecole Polytechnique.” Economica VIII , 29 (February): 923.
Hayek, Friedrich August. 1941b. “The Counter-Revolution of Science Part 111, Social Physics: Saint-Simon and Comte.” Economica VIII , 31 (August): 281320.
Hayek, Friedrich August. 1946. Individualism: True and False. Dublin: Hodges, Figgis & Co., Ltd.
Hayek, Friedrich August. [1960] 2011. The Collected Works of F. A. Hayek . Volume XVII, The Constitution of Liberty. The Definitive Edition. Edited by Hamowy, Ronald. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
Hayek, Friedrich August. 1967. Studies in Philosophy, Politics and Economics. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul Ltd.
Hayek, Friedrich August. [1973] 1988. Law, Legislation and Liberty. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
Hayek, Friedrich August. 1978. New Studies in Philosophy, Politics, Economics and the History of Ideas. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul Ltd.
Hayek, Friedrich August. 2010. The Collected Works of F. A. Hayek . Volume XIII, Studies on the Abuse & Decline of Reason. Edited by Caldwell, Bruce. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
Heath, Eugene. 1999. “J. Martin Stafford. Private Vices, Publick Benefits? The Contemporary Reception of Bernard Mandeville.” Hume Studies XXV (April/November): 225240.
Hobbes, Thomas. [1640] 1889. The Elements of Law, Natural and Politic. Edited with a preface and critical notes by Tönnies, Ferdinand. London: Simkin, Marshall.
Horgan, John J. 1922. “L’Entreprise gouvernementale et son Administration by Albert Schatz: L’Incapacite Industrielle de L’Etat: Les P.T.T. by Henri Fayol and Municipal Government in the United States by Everett Kimball, Report Review by: John J. Horgan.” Studies: An Irish Quarterly Review 11 (44): 652656.
Hundert, Edward J. [1994] 2005. The Enlightenment’s Fable: Bernard Mandeville and the Discovery of Society. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Hunt, Louis. 2007. “The Origin and Scope of Hayek’s Idea of Spontaneous Order.” In Hunt, Louis and McNamara, Peter, eds., Liberalism, Conservatism and Hayek’s Idea of Spontaneous Order. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 4364.
Jack, Malcolm. 1997. “A Note on Hutcheson and Mandeville.” In Stafford, Martin, ed., Private Vices, Publick Benefits? The Contemporary Reception of Bernard Mandeville. Solihull, West Midlands: Ismeron, pp. 408410.
Jacobs, Struan. 1997–98. “Michael Polanyi and Spontaneous Order, 1941–51. Tradition and Discovery.” The Polanyi Society Periodical 24: 1427.
Jacobs, Struan. 2013. “Michael Polanyi on the Order of a Free Society.” Unpublished ms.
Jacobs, Struan, and Mullins, Phil. 2008. “Faith Tradition and Dynamic Order: Michael Polanyi’s Liberal Thought from 1941–1951.” History of European Ideas 34: 120131.
Jones, H. Stuart. 2002. “The Era of Tyrannies: Elie Halevy and Friedrich von Hayek on Socialism.” European Journal of Political Theory 1: 5369.
Kaye, Frederick Benjamin. 1921. “The Writings of Bernard Mandeville: A Biographical Survey.” The Journal of English and Germanic Philology 20: 419467.
Kaye, Frederick Benjamin. 1922. “The Influence of Bernard Mandeville.” Studies in Philology 19 (January): 83108.
Klinck, David. 1996. The French Counter-revolutionary Theorist Louis de Boland (1754–1840). Volume 18 of Studies in Modern European History. Edited by Coppa, Frank J.. New York: Peter Laing Publishing Inc.
Laviosa, Giacômo. 1897. La filosofia scientifica del diritto in Inghliterra. Studio storico-critico del dott. Parte 1. Da Bacon a Hume. Turin: Carlo Clausen.
Le Jallé, Eléonore. 2003. “Hayek Lecteur des Philosophes de L’Ordre Spontane: Mandeville, Hume Ferguson.” Astérion, Revue de Philosophie, histoire des idées, pensée politique 1 (Juin): 88111.
Mandeville, Bernard. 1732. A Letter to Dion, occasioned by his book call’d Alciphron or The Minute Philosopher, by the author of the Fable of the Bees. London: J. Roberts in Warwick.
Mandeville, Bernard. [1924] 1988. The Fable of The Bees, or Private Vices, Publick Benefits, with a commentary Critical, Historical, and Explanatory, by Frederick Benjamin Kaye. Volumes I and II. Indianapolis: Liberty Fund Inc.
Marnix, Philip of Lord of St. Aldegonde. 1569 [2007]. The Beehive of the Romish Church. With revised text and notes by Martin B. Pigott. Milton Keynes, UK: Lightening Source UK Ltd.
Mirowski, Philip, and Plehwe, Dieter. 2009. The Road from Mont Pelerin: The Making of the Neoliberal Thought Collective. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Nolan, Mark C. 2013. “Hayek’s 1945 Finlay Memorial Lecture: Tracing the Origins and Evolution of His ‘True’ Individualism.” The Review of Austrian Economics 26 (January): 5371.
Patot, Simon Tyssot de. 1710. Voyages et avantures de Jacques Massé. La Haye (The Hague, Holland): Jacque L’Aveugle.
Patot, Simon Tyssot de. [1733] 2012. The Travels and Adventures of James Massey. Translated from the French. London: ECCO (Eighteenth Century Collections Online). Originally printed London: John Watts.
Petsoulas, Christina. 2001. Hayek’s Liberalism and its Origins: His Idea of Spontaneous Order and the Scottish Enlightenment. Book 25 of Routledge Studies in Social and Political Thought. London: Routledge.
Piozzi, Hester Lynch. 1942. Thraliana: The Diary of Mrs Hester Lynch Thrale (later Mrs Piozzi). Edited by Balderston, Katherine C.. Oxford: The Clarendon Press.
Prendergast, Renee. 2014. “Knowledge, Innovation and Emulation in the Thought of Bernard Mandeville.” Cambridge Journal of Economics 38 (1): 87107.
Rashid, Salim. 1985. “Mandeville’s Fable: Laissez-faire or Libertinism?” Eighteenth-Century Studies 18 (Spring): 313330.
Retz, Jean François Paul de Condi. [1896] 2010. Memoirs of the Cardinal De Retz: Containing all the Great Events During The Minority of Louis XIV. Translated from the French. London: H. S. Nichols. Reprinted USA: La Vergne.
Röpke, Wilhelm. 1937. Die Lehre von der Wirtschaft. Wien: Verlag von Julius Springer.
Röpke, Wilhelm. 1961. Die Lehre von der Wirtschaft. Erlenbach-Zürich: Eugen Rentsch Verlag.
Röpke, Wilhelm. [1937] 1963. Economics of the Free Society. Translated from the 9th German edition, published in Switzerland by Patrick M. Boarman. Chicago: Henry Regnery Company.
Sakmann, Paul. [1897] 2012. Bernard de Mandeville und die Bienenfable-Controverse eine Episode in der Geschichte der englische Aufklärung. Freiburg I. B: Leipsic and Tübingen. Reprinted 2012, Milton Keynes: Lightening Source UK Ltd.
Sakmann, Paul. 1910. Voltaires Geistesart und Gedankenwelt. Stuttgart: Frommanns Verlag.
Sakmann, Paul. 1913. Jean-Jacques Rousseau. Berlin: Reuther & Reichard.
Schatz, Albert. 1902. L’ouvre économique de David Hume. Paris: Linaire Nouvelle de Droit et de Jurisprudence, Arthur Rousseau.
Schatz, Albert. 1903a. De la location de coffres-fort. Paris: Arthur Rousseau.
Schatz, Albert. 1903b. “Bernard de Mandeville. (Contribution á l’étude des origins du libéralisme économique.” Vierteljahrschrift für Sozial-und Wirtschaftsgeschichte 1 (3/4): 434480.
Schatz, Albert. 1907. L’individualisme économique et social: ses origines-son evolution ses formés contemporaines. Paris: Libraire Armand Colin.
Schatz, Albert. 1922. L’enterprise Gouvernementale et son Administration. Preface by Henri Fayol. Paris: Bernard Grasset.
Smith, Adam. [1798] 1904. An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations. Edited, with a summary and an introduction, notes, marginal summary, and an enlarged index, by Edwin Cannan. London: Methuen.
Sombart, Werner. [1903] 1919. Sozialismus undsoziale Bewegung. Jena: Gustav Fischer.
Sowell, Thomas. 2002. A Conflict of Visions: Ideological Origins of Political Struggles. New York: Basic Books.
Spaemann, Robert. 1959. Der Ursprung der Soziologie aus dem Geist de Restauration. Studien über Louise-Gabriel de Bonald. München: Kösel Verlag.
Taine, Hippolyte. [1866] 2012. Histoire de la Littérature Anglaise. Volumes 1–5. Paris: Libraire de la L. Hachette. Gutenberg Ebook, #39328.
Tocqueville, Alexis de. 1878. Études Économiques Politiuques et Litteraires: IX. Twelfth edition. Edited by Lévy, Calmann. Paris: Ancienne Maison Michel Lévy Frères.
Veblen, Thorstein. 1910. “Review of L’individualisme économique et social: ses origins—son evolution—ses forms contemporaines.” Journal of Political Economy 17 (6): 378379.
Voltaire, François Marie Arouet. [1764] 1878. A Philosophical Dictionary; from the French of M. de Voltaire. Boston, MA: J. P. Mendum.
Wade, Ira O. [1947] 1967. Studies on Voltaire: With Some Unpublished Papers on Mme du Châtelet. New York: Russell and Russell. Originally published by Princeton University Press.
Wren, Daniel A., Bedelan, Arthur G., and Breeze, John D.. 2002. “The Foundations of Henri Fayol’s Administrative Theory.” Management Decision 40 (9): 906918.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Journal of the History of Economic Thought
  • ISSN: 1053-8372
  • EISSN: 1469-9656
  • URL: /core/journals/journal-of-the-history-of-economic-thought
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 6
Total number of PDF views: 47 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 275 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between 18th November 2016 - 18th June 2018. This data will be updated every 24 hours.