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    Zwijsen, Sandra A van der Ploeg, Eva and Hertogh, Cees M.P.M. 2016. Understanding the world of dementia. How do people with dementia experience the world?. International Psychogeriatrics, Vol. 28, Issue. 07, p. 1067.

    Roth, Heidi L. Bauer, Russell M. Crucian, Gregory P. and Heilman, Kenneth M. 2014. Frontal-executive constructional apraxia: When delayed recall is better than copying. Neurocase, Vol. 20, Issue. 3, p. 283.

    Sagliano, Laura D’Olimpio, Francesca Conson, Massimiliano Cappuccio, Angela Grossi, Dario and Trojano, Luigi 2013. Inducing closing-in phenomenon in healthy young adults: the effect of dual task and stimulus complexity on drawing performance. Experimental Brain Research, Vol. 225, Issue. 3, p. 409.

    Ambron, Elisabetta Della Sala, Sergio and McIntosh, Robert D. 2012. Closing-in behaviour and motor distractibility. Neuropsychologia, Vol. 50, Issue. 3, p. 419.

    Ambron, Elisabetta McIntosh, Robert D. Finotto, Sara Clerici, Francesca Mariani, Claudio and Della Sala, Sergio 2012. Closing-in Behavior in Mild Cognitive Impairment: An Executive Deficit. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, Vol. 18, Issue. 02, p. 269.

    2010. Current awareness in geriatric psychiatry. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, Vol. 25, Issue. 3, p. i.

  • Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, Volume 15, Issue 5
  • September 2009, pp. 787-792

A large-scale retrospective study of closing-in behavior in Alzheimer’s disease

  • DOI:
  • Published online: 01 September 2009

The frequency and characteristics of closing-in behavior (CIB) were examined in 797 patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD), 132 of whom were followed up longitudinally. The frequency of CIB increased with the complexity of the graphic copying task and with the severity of Alzheimer’s disease. Regression analyses suggested that attentional deficits are critical factors for the appearance of CIB, but that visuospatial impairments also play an important role in the emergence of severe forms of CIB. (JINS, 2009, 15, 787–792.)

Corresponding author
*Correspondence and reprint requests to: Robert D. McIntosh, Human Cognitive Neuroscience, Department of Psychology, University of Edinburgh, 7 George Square, Edinburgh, EH8 9JZ. E-mail:
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Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society
  • ISSN: 1355-6177
  • EISSN: 1469-7661
  • URL: /core/journals/journal-of-the-international-neuropsychological-society
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