Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-7ccbd9845f-vmftn Total loading time: 0.329 Render date: 2023-01-29T10:21:16.366Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "useRatesEcommerce": false } hasContentIssue true

Increased Capacity to Delay Reward in Anorexia Nervosa

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  16 May 2012

Joanna E. Steinglass*
Affiliation:
Department of Psychiatry, Columbia University Medical Center/New York State Psychiatric Institute, New York, New York
Bernd Figner
Affiliation:
Center for Decision Sciences, Columbia University, New York, New York Department of Psychology, University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Staci Berkowitz
Affiliation:
Department of Psychology, Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
H. Blair Simpson
Affiliation:
Department of Psychiatry, Columbia University Medical Center/New York State Psychiatric Institute, New York, New York
Elke U. Weber
Affiliation:
Center for Decision Sciences, Columbia University, New York, New York Graduate School of Business, Columbia University, New York, New York
B. Timothy Walsh
Affiliation:
Department of Psychiatry, Columbia University Medical Center/New York State Psychiatric Institute, New York, New York
*
Correspondence and reprint requests to: Joanna Steinglass,1051 Riverside Drive, Unit 98, New York, NY 10032. E-mail: js1124@columbia.edu

Abstract

Individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN) are often characterized as possessing excessive self-control and are unusual in their ability to reduce or avoid the consumption of palatable foods. This behavior promotes potentially life-threatening weight loss and suggests disturbances in reward processing. We studied whether individuals with AN showed evidence of increased self-control by examining the tendency to delay receipt of a monetary, non-food related, reward. Underweight AN (n = 36) and healthy controls (HC, n = 28) completed a monetary intertemporal choice task measuring delay discounting factor. Individuals with AN reduced the value of a monetary reward over time significantly less than HC (F[1,61] = 5.03; p = 0.029). Secondary analyses indicated that the restricting subtype of AN, in particular, showed significantly less discounting than HC (F[1,46] = 8.3; p = 0.006). These findings indicate that some individuals with AN show less temporal discounting than HC, suggestive of enhanced self-control that is not limited to food consumption. This is in contrast to other psychiatric disorders, for example, substance abuse, which are characterized by greater discounting. Though preliminary, these findings suggest that excessive self-control may contribute to pathological processes and individuals with AN may have neuropsychological characteristics that enhance their ability to delay reward and thereby may help to maintain persistent food restriction. (JINS, 2012, 18, 1–8)

Type
Research Articles
Copyright
Copyright © The International Neuropsychological Society 2012

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

APA. (2000). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed, text revision. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association Press.Google Scholar
Arcelus, J., Mitchell, A.J., Wales, J., Nielsen, S. (2011). Mortality rates in patients with anorexia nervosa and other eating disorders: A meta-analysis of 36 studies. Archives of General Psychiatry, 68(7), 724731.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Attia, E., Roberto, C.A. (2009). Should amenorrhea be a diagnostic criterion for anorexia nervosa? International Journal of Eating Disorders, 42(7), 581589.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ayduk, O., Mendoza-Denton, R., Mischel, W., Downey, G., Peake, P.K., Rodriguez, M. (2000). Regulating the interpersonal self: Strategic self-regulation for coping with rejection sensitivity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 79(5), 776792.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ballard, K., Knutson, B. (2009). Dissociable neural representations of future reward magnitude and delay during temporal discounting. Neuroimage, 45(1), 143150.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bell, R.B. (1985). Holy anorexia. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
Berns, G.S., Laibson, D., Loewenstein, G. (2007). Intertemporal choice--toward an integrative framework. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 11(11), 482488.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bickel, W.K., Miller, M.L., Yi, R., Kowal, B.P., Lindquist, D.M., Pitcock, J.A. (2007). Behavioral and neuroeconomics of drug addiction: Competing neural systems and temporal discounting processes. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 90(Suppl 1), S85S91.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bickel, W.K., Odum, A.L., Madden, G.J. (1999). Impulsivity and cigarette smoking: Delay discounting in current, never, and ex-smokers. Psychopharmacology (Berl), 146(4), 447454.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bruch, H. (1978). The golden cage: The enigma of anorexia nervosa. New York: Vintage Books.Google Scholar
Cardinal, R.N. (2006). Neural systems implicated in delayed and probabilistic reinforcement. Neural Networks, 19(8), 12771301.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Carter, R.M., Meyer, J.R., Huettel, S.A. (2010). Functional neuroimaging of intertemporal choice models: A review. Journal of Neuroscience, Psychology, and Economics, 3, 2745.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Casey, B.J., Getz, S., Galvan, A. (2008). The adolescent brain. Developmental Review, 28(1), 6277.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Chabris, C.F., Laibson, D., Morris, C.L., Schuldt, J.P., Taubinsky, D. (2008). Individual laboratory-measured discount rates predict field behavior. Journal of Risk and Uncertainty, 37(2-3), 237269.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Channon, S., DeSilva, W.P., Hemsley, D., Perkins, R. (1989). A controlled trial of cognitive-behavioral and behavioral treatment of anorexia nervosa. Behavioral Research and Therapy, 27, 529535.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Davis, C., Patte, K., Curtis, C., Reid, C. (2010). Immediate pleasures and future consequences. A neuropsychological study of binge eating and obesity. Appetite, 54(1), 208213.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Deep, A.L., Nagy, L.M., Weltzin, T.E., Rao, R., Kaye, W.H. (1995). Premorbid onset of psychopathology in long-term recovered anorexia nervosa. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 17(3), 291297.Google ScholarPubMed
Eckert, E., Halmi, K.A., Marchi, P., Grove, W., Crosby, R. (1995). Ten-year follow-up of anorexia nervosa: Clinical course and outcome. Psychological Medicine, 25, 143156.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Figner, B., Knoch, D., Johnson, E.J., Krosch, A.R., Lisanby, S.H., Fehr, E., Weber, E.U. (2010). Lateral prefrontal cortex and self-control in intertemporal choice. Nature Neuroscience, 13(5), 538539.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Frank, G.K., Bailer, U.F., Henry, S.E., Drevets, W., Meltzer, C.C., Price, J.C., Kaye, W.H. (2005). Increased dopamine D2/D3 receptor binding after recovery from anorexia nervosa measured by positron emission tomography and [(11)C]Raclopride. Biological Psychiatry, 58(11), 908912.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Garfinkel, P.E., Moldofsky, H., Garner, D.M. (1979). The stability of perceptual disturbances in anorexia nervosa. Psychological Medicine, 9(4), 703708.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gladwin, T.E., Figner, B., Crone, E.A., Wiers, R.W. (2011). Addiction, adolescence, and the integration of control and motivation. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, 1, 364376.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Green, M.W., Elliman, N.A., Wakeling, A., Rogers, P.J. (1996). Cognitive functioning, weight change and therapy in anorexia nervosa. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 30(5), 401410.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hardisty, D.J., Weber, E.U. (2009). Discounting future green: Money versus the environment. Journal of Experimental Psychology. General, 138(3), 329340.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hare, T.A., Camerer, C.F., Rangel, A. (2009). Self-control in decision-making involves modulation of the vmPFC valuation system. Science, 324(5927), 646648.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hudson, J.I., Hiripi, E., Pope, H.G. Jr., Kessler, R.C. (2007). The prevalence and correlates of eating disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Biological Psychiatry, 61(3), 348358.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ikeda, S., Kang, M.I., Ohtake, F. (2010). Hyperbolic discounting, the sign effect, and the body mass index. Journal of Health Economics, 29(2), 268284.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kable, J.W., Glimcher, P.W. (2007). The neural correlates of subjective value during intertemporal choice. Nature Neuroscience, 10(12), 16251633.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kahneman, D., Tversky, A. (1979). Prospect theory: An analysis of decision under risk. Econometrica, 47, 263291.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kaye, W.H., Fudge, J.L., Paulus, M. (2009). New insights into symptoms and neurocircuit function of anorexia nervosa. Nature Reviews. Neuroscience, 10(8), 573584.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Keel, P.K., Klump, K.L. (2003). Are eating disorders culture-bound syndromes? Implications for conceptualizing their etiology. Psychological Bulletin, 129(5), 747769.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kirby, K.N. (2009). One-year temporal stability of delay-discount rates. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 16(3), 457462.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kirby, K.N., Petry, N.M. (2004). Heroin and cocaine abusers have higher discount rates for delayed rewards than alcoholics or non-drug-using controls. Addiction, 99(4), 461471.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lowenstein, G. (1988). Frames of mind in intertemporal choice. Management Science, 34, 200214.Google Scholar
Mackillop, J., Amlung, M.T., Few, L.R., Ray, L.A., Sweet, L.H., Munafo, M.R. (2011). Delayed reward discounting and addictive behavior: A meta-analysis. Psychopharmacology (Berlin), 216(3), 305321.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Madden, G.J., Francisco, M.T., Brewer, A.T., Stein, J.S. (2011). Delay discounting and gambling. Behavioural Processes, 87(1), 4349.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mazur, J.E. (1987). An adjusting procedure for studying delayed reinforcement. In M. L. Commons, J. E. Mazur, J. A. Nevin, & H. Rachlin (Eds.), Quantitative analyses of behavior: The effect of delay and intervening events on reinforcement value (Vol. 5, pp. 5573). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
McClure, S.M., Ericson, K.M., Laibson, D.I., Loewenstein, G., Cohen, J.D. (2007). Time discounting for primary rewards. The Journal of Neuroscience, 27(21), 57965804.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McClure, S.M., Laibson, D.I., Loewenstein, G., Cohen, J.D. (2004). Separate neural systems value immediate and delayed monetary rewards. Science, 306(5695), 503507.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mischel, W., Shoda, Y., Rodriguez, M.I. (1989). Delay of gratification in children. Science, 244(4907), 933938.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Odum, A.L. (2011). Delay discounting: Trait variable? Behavioural Processes, 87(1), 19.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Odum, A.L., Baumann, A.A., Rimington, D.D. (2006). Discounting of delayed hypothetical money and food: Effects of amount. Behavioural Processes, 73(3), 278284.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Peters, J., Buchel, C. (2011). The neural mechanisms of inter-temporal decision-making: Understanding variability. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 15, 227239.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rasmussen, E.B., Lawyer, S.R., Reilly, W. (2010). Percent body fat is related to delay and probability discounting for food in humans. Behavioural Processes, 83, 2330.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Read, D. (2001). Is time-discounting hyperbolic or sub-additive? Journal of Risk and Uncertainty, 23, 532.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Santel, S., Baving, L., Krauel, K., Munte, T.F., Rotte, M. (2006). Hunger and satiety in anorexia nervosa: fMRI during cognitive processing of food pictures. Brain Research, 1114(1), 138148.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Steinberg, L., Graham, S., O'Brien, L., Woolard, J., Cauffman, E., Banich, M. (2009). Age differences in future orientation and delay discounting. Child Development, 80(1), 2844.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Steinglass, J., Walsh, B.T. (2006). Habit learning and anorexia nervosa: A cognitive neuroscience hypothesis. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 39(4), 267275.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Strober, M. (1980). Personality and symptomatological features in young, nonchronic anorexia nervosa patients. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 24, 353359.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sullivan, P.F. (1995). Mortality in anorexia nervosa. American Journal of Psychiatry, 152(7), 10731075.Google ScholarPubMed
Wagner, A., Aizenstein, H., Venkatraman, V.K., Fudge, J., May, J.C., Mazurkewicz, L., Kaye, W.H. (2007). Altered reward processing in women recovered from anorexia nervosa. American Journal of Psychiatry, 164(12), 18421849.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wang, X.T., Dvorak, R.D. (2010). Sweet future: Fluctuating blood glucose levels affect future discounting. Psychological Science, 21(2), 183188.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Waxman, S.E. (2009). A systematic review of impulsivity in eating disorders. European Eating Disorders Review, 17(6), 408425.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Weber, E.U., Johnson, E.J., Milch, K.F., Chang, H., Brodscholl, J.C., Goldstein, D.G. (2007). Asymmetric discounting in intertemporal choice: A query-theory account. Psychological Science, 18(6), 516523.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wechsler, D. (2001). Wechsler Test of Adult Reading. San Antonio, TX: The Psychological Corporation.Google Scholar
Weller, R.E., CookE.W., III E.W., III, Avsar, K.B., Cox, J.E. (2008). Obese women show greater delay discounting than healthy-weight women. Appetite, 51(3), 563569.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
106
Cited by

Save article to Kindle

To save this article to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Increased Capacity to Delay Reward in Anorexia Nervosa
Available formats
×

Save article to Dropbox

To save this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Increased Capacity to Delay Reward in Anorexia Nervosa
Available formats
×

Save article to Google Drive

To save this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Increased Capacity to Delay Reward in Anorexia Nervosa
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *