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Short- and long-term social outcomes following pediatric traumatic brain injury

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  01 May 2004

Department of Pediatrics, The Ohio State University, and Children's Research Institute, Columbus, Ohio
Department of Pediatrics, Case Western Reserve University, and Rainbow Babies & Children's Hospital, Cleveland, Ohio
Department of Pediatrics, Case Western Reserve University, and Rainbow Babies & Children's Hospital, Cleveland, Ohio
College of Medicine, University of Cincinnati, and Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio
Department of Pediatrics, Case Western Reserve University, and Rainbow Babies & Children's Hospital, Cleveland, Ohio
Department of Pediatrics, Case Western Reserve University, and MetroHealth Medical Center, Cleveland, Ohio
Department of Pediatrics, Case Western Reserve University, and Rainbow Babies & Children's Hospital, Cleveland, Ohio


The social outcomes of pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) were examined in a prospective, longitudinal study that included 53 children with severe TBI, 56 with moderate TBI, and 80 with orthopedic injuries, recruited between 6 and 12 years of age. Child and family functioning were assessed at baseline, at 6- and 12-month follow-ups, and at an extended follow-up a mean of 4 years post injury. Growth curve analyses revealed that pediatric TBI yields negative social outcomes that are exacerbated by family environments characterized by lower socioeconomic status, fewer family resources, and poorer family functioning. After controlling for group membership, age, race, socioeconomic status, and IQ, path analyses indicated that long-term social outcomes were accounted for in part by specific neurocognitive skills, including executive functions and pragmatic language, and by social problem-solving. Deficits in these domains among children with TBI are likely to reflect damage to a network of brain regions that have been implicated in social cognition. (JINS, 2004, 10, 412–426.)

Research Article
© 2004 The International Neuropsychological Society

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