Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 22
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Boutros, Nathalie Der-Avakian, Andre Semenova, Svetlana Lee, Soon and Markou, Athina 2016. Risky choice and brain CRF after adolescent ethanol vapor exposure and social stress in adulthood. Behavioural Brain Research, Vol. 311, p. 160.

    Shek, Daniel T. L. Yu, Lu Leung, Hildie Wu, Florence K. Y. and Law, Moon Y. M. 2016. Development, implementation, and evaluation of a multi-addiction prevention program for primary school students in Hong Kong: the B.E.S.T. Teen Program. Asian Journal of Gambling Issues and Public Health, Vol. 6, Issue. 1,

    Van der Sluis, A. Brink, M. S. Pluim, B. Verhagen, E. A. Elferink-Gemser, M. T. and Visscher, C. 2016. Is risk-taking in talented junior tennis players related to overuse injuries?. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports,

    Billieux, Joël Thorens, Gabriel Khazaal, Yasser Zullino, Daniele Achab, Sophia and Van der Linden, Martial 2015. Problematic involvement in online games: A cluster analytic approach. Computers in Human Behavior, Vol. 43, p. 242.

    Boutros, N. Semenova, S. Liu, W. Crews, F. T. and Markou, A. 2015. Adolescent Intermittent Ethanol Exposure Is Associated with Increased Risky Choice and Decreased Dopaminergic and Cholinergic Neuron Markers in Adult Rats. International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology, Vol. 18, Issue. 2, p. pyu003.

    Broche-Pérez, Yunier Cortés-González, Lindianay and Omar-Martínez, Erislandy 2015. Toma de decisiones en jóvenes con conductas antisociales: Evidencias desde el Iowa Gambling Task. Neurología Argentina, Vol. 7, Issue. 3, p. 140.

    Wise, Richard J. Phung, Alissa L. Labuschagne, Izelle and Stout, Julie C. 2015. Differential effects of social stress on laboratory-based decision-making are related to both impulsive personality traits and gender. Cognition and Emotion, Vol. 29, Issue. 8, p. 1475.

    He, Qinghua Xiao, Lin Xue, Gui Wong, Savio Ames, Susan L. Xie, Bin and Bechara, Antoine 2014. Altered dynamics between neural systems sub-serving decisions for unhealthy food. Frontiers in Neuroscience, Vol. 8,

    Kräplin, Anja Dshemuchadse, Maja Behrendt, Silke Scherbaum, Stefan Goschke, Thomas and Bühringer, Gerhard 2014. Dysfunctional decision-making in pathological gambling: Pattern specificity and the role of impulsivity. Psychiatry Research, Vol. 215, Issue. 3, p. 675.

    Malone, Stephen M. Luciana, Monica Wilson, Sylia Sparks, Jordan C. Hunt, Ruskin H. Thomas, Kathleen M. and Iacono, William G. 2014. Adolescent Drinking and Motivated Decision-Making: A Cotwin-Control Investigation with Monozygotic Twins. Behavior Genetics, Vol. 44, Issue. 4, p. 407.

    Mitchell, Marci R. and Potenza, Marc N. 2014. Addictions and Personality Traits: Impulsivity and Related Constructs. Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports, Vol. 1, Issue. 1, p. 1.

    Noel, X. 2014. Why Adolescents Are at Risk of Misusing Alcohol and Gambling. Alcohol and Alcoholism, Vol. 49, Issue. 2, p. 165.

    Danner, Unna N. Evers, Catharine Sternheim, Lot van Meer, Floor van Elburg, Annemarie A. Geerets, Tiny A.M. Breteler, Leonie M.T. and T.D. de Ridder, Denise 2013. Influence of negative affect on choice behavior in individuals with binge eating pathology. Psychiatry Research, Vol. 207, Issue. 1-2, p. 100.

    Ersche, Karen D. Jones, P. Simon Williams, Guy B. Smith, Dana G. Bullmore, Edward T. and Robbins, Trevor W. 2013. Distinctive Personality Traits and Neural Correlates Associated with Stimulant Drug Use Versus Familial Risk of Stimulant Dependence. Biological Psychiatry, Vol. 74, Issue. 2, p. 137.

    Noël, Xavier Brevers, Damien and Bechara, Antoine 2013. A neurocognitive approach to understanding the neurobiology of addiction. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, Vol. 23, Issue. 4, p. 632.

    Romer Thomsen, K. Joensson, M. Lou, H. C. Moller, A. Gross, J. Kringelbach, M. L. and Changeux, J.-P. 2013. Altered paralimbic interaction in behavioral addiction. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 110, Issue. 12, p. 4744.

    Yen, Cheng-Fang and Wu, Harry Yi-Jui 2013. Gambling in Taiwan: problems, research and policy. Addiction, Vol. 108, Issue. 3, p. 463.

    Billieux, Joël Lagrange, Guillaume Van der Linden, Martial Lançon, Christophe Adida, Marc and Jeanningros, Régine 2012. Investigation of impulsivity in a sample of treatment-seeking pathological gamblers: A multidimensional perspective. Psychiatry Research, Vol. 198, Issue. 2, p. 291.

    Gullo, Matthew J. and Stieger, Adam A. 2011. Anticipatory stress restores decision-making deficits in heavy drinkers by increasing sensitivity to losses. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, Vol. 117, Issue. 2-3, p. 204.

    Palmer, Paula H Xie, Bin Lee, Liming Chou, Chih-Ping Sun, Ping Hemingway, Bree and Johnson, C. Anderson 2011. The China Seven Cities Study (CSCS) consortium: adapting evidence-based prevention science from west to east. Translational Behavioral Medicine, Vol. 1, Issue. 2, p. 283.

  • Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, Volume 15, Issue 4
  • July 2009, pp. 547-557

Affective decision-making predictive of Chinese adolescent drinking behaviors

  • LIN XIAO (a1), ANTOINE BECHARA (a1), L. JERRY GRENARD (a2), W. ALAN STACY (a3) (a4), PAULA PALMER (a3) (a4), YONGLAN WEI (a5), YONG JIA (a5), XIAOLU FU (a5) and C. ANDERSON JOHNSON (a3) (a4)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 01 July 2009

The goal of the current investigation was to address whether affective decision making would serve as a unique neuropsychological marker to predict drinking behaviors among adolescents. We conducted a longitudinal study of 181 Chinese adolescents in Chengdu city, China. In their 10th grade (ages 15–16), these adolescents were tested for their affective decision-making ability using the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) and working memory capacity using the Self-Ordered Pointing Test. Self-report questionnaires were used to assess academic performance and drinking behaviors. At 1-year follow-up, questionnaires were completed to assess drinking behaviors, and the UPPS Impulsive Behavior Scale was used to examine four dimensions of impulsivity: urgency, lack of premeditation, lack of perseverance, and sensation seeking. Results indicated that those adolescents who progressed to binge drinking or exhibited consistent binge drinking not only performed poorly on the IGT but also scored significantly higher in urgency compared to those who never or occasionally drank. Moreover, better IGT scores predicted fewer drinking problems and fewer drinks 1 year later after controlling for demographic variables, the previous drinking behaviors, working memory, and impulsivity. These findings suggest that deficits in affective decision making may be important independent determinants of compulsive drinking and potentially addictive behavior in adolescents. (JINS, 2009, 15, 547–557.)

Corresponding author
*Correspondence and reprint requests to: C. Anderson Johnson, School of Community and Global Health, Claremont Graduate University, 180 E. Via Verde, Suite 100, San Dimas, California 91773. E-mail:
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

M.D. Anestis , E.A. Selby , & T.E. Joiner (2007). The role of urgency in maladaptive behaviors. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 45(12), 30183029.

S. Aytaclar , R.E. Tarter , L. Kirisci , & S. Lu (1999). Association between hyperactivity and executive cognitive functioning in childhood and substance use in early adolescence. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 38(2), 172178.

R. Bar-On , D. Tranel , N.L. Denburg , & A. Bechara (2003). Exploring the neurological substrate of emotional and social intelligence. Brain, 126(Pt 8), 17901800.

A. Bechara (2004). The role of emotion in decision-making: Evidence from neurological patients with orbitofrontal damage. Brain Cognition, 55(1), 3040.

A. Bechara , A.R. Damasio , H. Damasio , & S.W. Anderson (1994). Insensitivity to future consequences following damage to human prefrontal cortex. Cognition, 50(1–3), 715.

A. Bechara & H. Damasio (2002). Decision-making and addiction (part I): Impaired activation of somatic states in substance dependent individuals when pondering decisions with negative future consequences. Neuropsychologia, 40(10), 16751689.

A. Bechara , D. Tranel , H. Damasio , & A.R. Damasio (1996). Failure to respond autonomically to anticipated future outcomes following damage to prefrontal cortex. Cerebral Cortex, 6(2), 215225.

S.A. Brown , M. McGue , J. Maggs , J. Schulenberg , R. Hingson , S. Swartzwelder , C. Martin , T. Chung , S.F. Tapert , K. Sher , K.C. Winters , C. Lowman , & S. Murphy (2008). A developmental perspective on alcohol and youths 16 to 20 years of age. Pediatrics, 121, S290S310.

R. Colom , I. Rebello , A. Palacios , M. Juan-Espinosa , & P.C. Kyllonen (2004). Working memory is (almost) perfectly predicted by g. Intelligence, 32, 277296.

E.A. Crone & M.W. van der Molen (2004). Developmental changes in real life decision making: Performance on a gambling task previously shown to depend on the ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Developmental Neuropsychology, 25(3), 251279.

L. Feldman , B. Harvey , P. Holowaty , & L. Shortt (1999). Alcohol use beliefs and behaviors among high school students. The Journal of Adolescent Health, 24(1), 4858.

S. Funahashi (2006). Prefrontal cortex and working memory processes. Neuroscience, 139(1), 251261.

J.N. Giedd (2004). Structural magnetic resonance imaging of the adolescent brain. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1021, 7785.

N. Gogtay , J.N. Giedd , L. Lusk , K.M. Hayashi , D. Greenstein , A.C. Vaituzis , T.F. Nugent III, D.H. Herman , L.S. Clasen , A.W. Toga , J.L. Rapoport , & P.M. Thompson (2004). Dynamic mapping of human cortical development during childhood through early adulthood. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 101(21), 81748179.

A.E. Goudriaan , E.R. Grekin , & K.J. Sher (2007). Decision-making and binge-drinking: A longitudinal study. Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research, 31(6), 928938.

J.L. Grenard , S.L. Ames , R.W. Wiers , C. Thush , S. Sussman , & A.W. Stacy (2008). Working memory capacity moderates the predictive effects of drug-related associations on substance use. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 22(3), 426432.

C.J. Hooper , M. Luciana , H.M. Conklin , & R.S. Yarger (2004). Adolescents’ performance on the Iowa Gambling Task: Implications for the development of decision making and ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Developmental Psychology, 40(6), 11481158.

W.G. Iacono , S.R. Carlson , J. Taylor , I.J. Elkins , & M. McGue (1999). Behavioral disinhibition and the development of substance-use disorders: Findings from the Minnesota Twin Family Study. Development and Psychopathology, 11(4), 869900.

C. Jarrold & J.N. Towse (2006). Individual differences in working memory. Neuroscience, 139(1), 3950.

A.C. Johnson , P.H. Palmer , C.P. Chou , Z. Pang , D. Zhou , L. Dong , H. Xiang , P. Yang , H. Xu , J. Wang , X. Fu , Q. Guo , P. Sun , H. Ma , P.E. Gallaher , B. Xie , L. Lee , T. Fang , & J.B. Unger (2006). Tobacco use among youth and adults in Mainland China: The China Seven Cities Study. Public Health, 120(12), 11561169.

C.A. Johnson , L. Xiao , P. Palmer , P. Sun , Q. Wang , Y. Wei , Y. Jia , J.L. Grenard , A.W. Stacy , & A. Bechara (2008). Affective decision-making deficits, linked to a dysfunctional ventromedial prefrontal cortex, revealed in 10th grade Chinese adolescent binge drinkers. Neuropsychologia, 46(2), 714726.

P. Johnson , S. Boles , & H. Kleber (2000). The relationship between adolescent smoking and drinking and likelihood estimates of illicit drug use. Journal of Addictive Diseases, 19(2), 7581.

A. Kerr & P.D. Zelazo (2004). Development of “hot” executive function: The children’s gambling task. Brain Cognition, 55(1), 148157.

W.D. Killgore & D.A. Yurgelun-Todd (2007). Neural correlates of emotional intelligence in adolescent children. Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience, 7(2), 140151.

J.T. Nigg , M.M. Wong , M.M. Martel , J.M. Jester , L.I. Puttler , J.M. Glass , K.M. Adams , H.E. Fitzgerald , & R.A. Zucker (2006). Poor response inhibition as a predictor of problem drinking and illicit drug use in adolescents at risk for alcoholism and other substance use disorders. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 45(4), 468475.

W.H. Overman , K. Frassrand , S. Ansel , S. Trawalter , B. Bies , & A. Redmond (2004). Performance on the IOWA card task by adolescents and adults. Neuropsychologia, 42(13), 18381851.

H. Oya , R. Adolphs , H. Kawasaki , A. Bechara , A. Damasio , & M.A. Howard III. (2005). Electrophysiological correlates of reward prediction error recorded in the human prefrontal cortex. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 102(23), 83518356.

W. Perry , R.K. Heaton , E. Potterat , T. Roebuck , A. Minassian , & D.L. Braff (2001). Working memory in schizophrenia: Transient “online” storage versus executive functioning. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 27(1), 157176.

M. Petrides , B. Alivisatos , E. Meyer , & A.C. Evans (1993). Functional activation of the human frontal cortex during the performance of verbal working memory tasks. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 90(3), 878882.

M. Petrides & B. Milner (1982). Deficits on subject-ordered tasks after frontal- and temporal-lobe lesions in man. Neuropsychologia, 20(3), 249262.

A. Stocco & D. Fum (2008). Implicit emotional biases in decision making: The case of the Iowa Gambling Task. Brain and Cognition, 66(3), 253259.

C. Thush , R.W. Wiers , S.L. Ames , J.L. Grenard , S. Sussman , & A.W. Stacy (2008). The interactions between implicit and explicit cognition and working memory capacity in the prediction of alcohol use in at-risk adolescents. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 94(1–3), 116124.

B.M. Wagar & M. Dixon (2006). Affective guidance in the Iowa gambling task. Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience, 6(4), 277290.

H.R. White & E.W. Labouvie (1989). Towards the assessment of adolescent problem drinking. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 50(1), 3037.

S.P. Whiteside & D.R. Lynam (2001). The five factor model and impulsivity: Using a structural model of personality to understand impulsivity. Personality and Individual Differences, 30, 669689.

M.M. Wonga , R.S. Klingleb , & R.K. Price (2004). Alcohol, tobacco, and other drug use among Asian American and Pacific Islander adolescents in California and Hawaii. Addictive Behavior, 29, 127141.

Y. Xing , C. Ji , & L. Zhang (2006). Relationship of binge drinking and other health-compromising behaviors among urban adolescents in China. Journal of Adolescent Health, 39(4), 495500.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society
  • ISSN: 1355-6177
  • EISSN: 1469-7661
  • URL: /core/journals/journal-of-the-international-neuropsychological-society
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *