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  • Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, Volume 17, Issue 6
  • November 2011, pp. 1006-1013

Association of Crossword Puzzle Participation with Memory Decline in Persons Who Develop Dementia

  • Jagan A. Pillai (a1) (a2), Charles B. Hall (a3) (a4) (a5), Dennis W. Dickson (a5) (a6), Herman Buschke (a3) (a5), Richard B. Lipton (a3) (a4) (a5) and Joe Verghese (a3) (a5)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 28 September 2011

Participation in cognitively stimulating leisure activities such as crossword puzzles may delay onset of the memory decline in the preclinical stages of dementia, possibly via its effect on improving cognitive reserve. We followed 488 initially cognitively intact community residing individuals with clinical and cognitive assessments every 12–18 months in the Bronx Aging Study. We assessed the influence of crossword puzzle participation on the onset of accelerated memory decline as measured by the Buschke Selective Reminding Test in 101 individuals who developed incident dementia using a change point model. Crossword puzzle participation at baseline delayed onset of accelerated memory decline by 2.54 years. Inclusion of education or participation in other cognitively stimulating activities did not significantly add to the fit of the model beyond the effect of puzzles. Our findings show that late life crossword puzzle participation, independent of education, was associated with delayed onset of memory decline in persons who developed dementia. Given the wide availability and accessibility of crossword puzzles, their role in preventing cognitive decline should be validated in future clinical trials. (JINS, 2011, 17, 1006–1013)

Corresponding author
Correspondence and reprint requests to: Joe Verghese, Division of Cognitive & Motor Aging, Department of Neurology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, 1165 Morris Park Avenue, Bronx, NY 10461. E-mail:
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