Skip to main content Accesibility Help

Athletes’ Age, Sex, and Years of Education Moderate the Acute Neuropsychological Impact of Sports-Related Concussion: A Meta-analysis

  • Brooke K. Dougan (a1), Mark S. Horswill (a1) and Gina M. Geffen (a1)

The objective of this study is to determine which pre-existing athlete characteristics, if any, are associated with greater deficits in functioning following sports-related concussion, after controlling for factors previously shown to moderate this effect (e.g., time since injury). Ninety-one independent samples of concussion were included in a fixed+systematic effects meta-analysis (n = 3,801 concussed athletes; 5,631 controls). Moderating variables were assessed using analogue-to-ANOVA and meta-regression analyses. Post-injury assessments first conducted 1–10 days following sports-related concussion revealed significant neuropsychological dysfunction, postural instability and post-concussion symptom reporting (d = −0.54, −1.10, and −1.14, respectively). During this interval, females (d = −0.87), adolescent athletes competing in high school competitions (d = −0.60), and those with 10 years of education (d = −1.32) demonstrated larger post-concussion neuropsychological deficits than males (d = −0.42), adults (d = −0.25), athletes competing at other levels of competition (d = −0.43 to −0.41), or those with 16 years of education (d = −0.15), respectively. However, these sub-groups’ differential impairment/recovery beyond 10 days could not be reliably quantified from available literature. Pre-existing athlete characteristics, particularly age, sex and education, were demonstrated to be significant modifiers of neuropsychological outcomes within 10 days of a sports-related concussion. Implications for return-to-play decision-making and future research directions are discussed. (JINS, 2013, 19, 1–17).

Corresponding author
Correspondence and reprint requests to: Brooke Dougan, School of Psychology, University of Queensland, St Lucia, Brisbane, QLD 4072 Australia. E-mail:
Hide All
Alla, S., Sullivan, S.J., Hale, L., McCrory, P. (2009). Self-report scales/checklists for the measurement of concussion symptoms: A systematic review. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 43(Suppl. 1), i3i12.
Anderson, V., Moore, C. (1995). Age at injury as a predictor of outcome following pediatric head injury: A longitudinal perspective. Child Neuropsychology, 1, 187202.
Baillargeon, A., Lassonde, M., Leclerc, S., Ellemberg, D. (2012). Neuropsychological and neurophysiological assessment of sport concussion in children, adolescents and adults. Brain Injury, 26(3), 211220.
*Barr, W.B., McCrea, M. (2001). Sensitivity and specificity of standardized neurocognitive testing immediately following sports concussion. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 7(6), 693702.
Barr, W.B., Prichep, L.S., Chabot, R., Powell, M.R., McCrea, M. (2012). Measuring brain electrical activity to track recovery from sport-related concussion. Brain Injury, 26(1), 5866.
Bazarian, J.J., Wong, T., Harris, M., Leahy, N., Mookerjee, S., Dombovy, M. (1999). Epidemiology and predictors of post-concussion syndrome after minor head injury in an emergency population. Brain Injury, 13(3), 173189.
Belanger, H.G., Curtiss, G., Demery, J.A., Lebowitz, B.K., Vanderploeg, R.D. (2005). Factors moderating neuropsychological outcomes following mild traumatic brain injury: A meta-analysis. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 11(3), 215227.
Belanger, H.G., Vanderploeg, R.D. (2005). The neuropsychological impact of sports-related concussion: A meta-analysis. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 11(4), 345357.
Borenstein, M., Hedges, L., Higgins, J., Rothstein, H. (2005). Comprehensive Meta-Analysis (Version 2) [Computer software]. Englewood, NJ: Biostat.
*Broglio, S.P., Macciocchi, S.N., Ferrara, M.S. (2007a). Neurocognitive performance of concussed athletes when symptom free. Journal of Athletic Training, 42(4), 504508.
*Broglio, S.P., Macciocchi, S.N., Ferrara, M.S. (2007b). Sensitivity of the concussion assessment battery. Neurosurgery, 60(6), 10501058.
Broglio, S.P., Puetz, T.W. (2008). The effect of sport concussion on neurocognitive function, self-report symptoms and postural control: A meta-analysis. Sports Medicine, 38(1), 5367.
*Broshek, D.K., Kaushik, T., Freeman, J., Erlanger, D., Webbe, F., Barth, J.T. (2005). Sex differences in outcome following sports-related concussion. Journal of Neurosurgery, 102(5), 856863.
Bruce, D.A., Alavi, A., Bilaniuk, L., Dolinskas, C.A., Obrist, W.D., Uzzell, B. (1981). Diffuse cerebral swelling following head injuries in children: The syndrome of “malignant brain edema”. Journal of Neuorsurgery, 54(2), 170178.
*Bruce, J.M., Echemendia, R.J. (2003). Delayed-onset deficits in verbal encoding strategies among patients with mild traumatic brain injury. Neuropsychology, 17(4), 622629.
*Bruce, J.M., Echemendia, R.J. (2004). Concussion history predicts self-reported symptoms before and following a concussive event. Neurology, 63(8), 15161518.
*Cavanaugh, J.T., Guskiewicz, K.M., Giuliani, C., Marshall, S., Mercer, V., Stergiou, N. (2005). Detecting altered postural control after cerebral concussion in athletes with normal postural stability. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 39(11), 805811.
*Cavanaugh, J.T., Guskiewicz, K.M., Giuliani, C., Marshall, S., Mercer, V.S., Stergiou, N. (2006). Recovery of postural control after cerebral concussion: New insights using approximate entropy. Journal of Athletic Training, 41(3), 305313.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2007). Nonfatal traumatic brain injuries from sports and recreation activities – United States, 2001–2005. MMWR Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 56, 733737.
*Chen, J.K., Johnston, K.M., Collie, A., McCrory, P.R., Ptito, A. (2007). A validation of the post concussion symptom scale in the assessment of complex concussion using cognitive testing and functional MRI. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, & Psychiatry, 78(11), 12311238.
*Chen, J.K., Johnston, K.M., Petrides, M., Ptito, A. (2008a). Neural substrates of symptoms of depression following concussion in male athletes with persisting post-concussion symptoms. Archives of General Psychiatry, 65(1), 8189.
*Chen, J.K., Johnston, K.M., Petrides, M., Ptito, A. (2008b). Recovery from mild head injury in sports: Evidence from serial functional magnetic resonance imaging studies in male athletes. Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine, 18(3), 241247.
Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
*Collie, A., Makdissi, M., Maruff, P., Bennell, K., McCrory, P.R. (2006). Cognition in the days following concussion: Comparison of symptomatic versus asymptomatic athletes. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry, 77(2), 241245.
*Collins, M.W., Iverson, G.L., Lovell, M.R., McKeag, D.B., Norwig, J., Maroon, J. (2003). On-field predictors of neuropsychological and symptom deficit following sports-related concussion. Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine, 13(4), 222229.
*Collins, M.W., Lovell, M.R., Iverson, G.L., Ide, T., Maroon, J. (2006). Examining concussion rates and return to play in high school football players wearing newer helmet technology: A three-year prospective cohort study. Neurosurgery, 58(2), 275286.
*Covassin, T., Schatz, P., Swanik, C.B. (2007). Sex differences in neuropsychological function and post-concussion symptoms of concussed collegiate athletes. Neurosurgery, 61(2), 345351.
*Covassin, T., Stearne, D., Elbin, R. (2008). Concussion history and postconcussion neurocognitive performance and symptoms in collegiate athletes. Journal of Athletic Training, 43(2), 119124.
*Cremona-Meteyard, S.L., Geffen, G.M. (1994). Persistent visuospatial attention deficits following mild head injury in Australian rules football players. Neuropsychologia, 32(6), 649662.
*Daniel, C., Nassiri, J.D., Wilckens, J., Land, B.C. (2002). The implementation and use of the Standardized Assessment of Concussion at the U.S. Naval Academy. Military Medicine, 167(10), 873876.
Daniel, R.W., Rowson, S., Duma, S.M. (2012). Head impact exposure in youth football. Annals of Biomedical Engineering, 40, 976981. doi:10.1007/s10439-012-0530-7
Davis, G.A., Iverson, G.L., Guskiewicz, K.M., Ptito, A., Johnston, K. (2009). Contributions of neuroimaging, balance testing, electrophysiology and blood markers to the assessment of sport-related concussion. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 43(Suppl. 1), i36i45.
Dick, R.W. (2009). Is there a gender difference in concussion incidence and outcomes? British Journal of Sports Medicine, 43(Suppl. 1), i46i50.
*Dupuis, F., Johnston, K.M., Lavoie, M., Lepore, F., Lassonde, M. (2000). Concussions in athletes produce brain dysfunction as revealed by event-related potentials. Neuroreport: For Rapid Communication of Neuroscience Research, 11(18), 40874092.
*Echemendia, R.J., Putukian, M., Mackin, R.S., Julian, L., Shoss, N. (2001). Neuropsychological test performance prior to and following sports-related mild traumatic brain injury. Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine, 11(1), 2331.
*Ellemberg, D., Leclerc, S., Couture, S., Daigle, C. (2007). Prolonged neuropsychological impairments following a first concussion in female university soccer athletes. Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine, 17(5), 369374.
*Erlanger, D., Kaushik, T., Cantu, R.C., Barth, J.T., Broshek, D.K., Freeman, J.R., Webbe, F.M. (2003). Symptom-based assessment of the severity of a concussion. Journal of Neurosurgery, 98(3), 477484.
*Erlanger, D., Saliba, E., Barth, J., Almquist, J., Webright, W., Freeman, J. (2001). Monitoring resolution of postconcussion symptoms in athletes: Preliminary results of a web-based neuropsychological test protocol. Journal of Athletic Training, 36(3), 280287.
Farace, E., Alves, W.M. (2000). Do women fare worse: A metaanlysis of gender differences in traumatic brain injury outcome. Journal of Neurosurgery, 93(4), 539545.
*Fazio, V.C., Lovell, M.R., Pardini, J.E., Collins, M.W. (2007). The relation between post concussion symptoms and neurocognitive performance in concussed athletes. NeuroRehabilitation. Special Issue: Sports and Concussion, 22(3), 207216.
*Ferguson, R.J., Mittenberg, W., Barone, D.F., Schneider, B. (1999). Postconcussion syndrome following sports-related head injury: Expectation as etiology. Neuropsychology, 13(4), 582589.
*Field, M., Collins, M.W., Lovell, M.R., Maroon, J. (2003). Does age play a role in recovery from sports-related concussion? A comparison of high school and collegiate athletes. The Journal of Pediatrics, 142(5), 546553.
Frencham, K.A.R., Fox, A.M., Maybery, M.T. (2005). Neuropsychological studies of mild traumatic brain injury: A meta-analytic review of research since 1995. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 27(3), 334351.
Giza, C.C., Hovda, D.A. (2001). The neurometabolic cascade of concussion. Journal of Athletic Training, 36(3), 228235.
Giza, C.C., Hovda, D.A. (2004). Chapter 4: The pathophysiology of traumatic brain injury. In M. R. Lovell, R. J. Echemendia, J. T. Barth & M. W. Collins (Eds.), Traumatic brain injury in sports: An international neuropsychological perspective (pp. 4570). Lisse: Swets & Zeitlinger.
*Gosselin, N., Lassonde, M., Petit, D., Leclerc, S., Mongrain, V., Collie, A., Montplaisir, J. (2009). Sleep following sport-related concussions. Sleep Medicine, 10(1), 3546.
*Gosselin, N., Theriault, M., Leclerc, S., Montplaisir, J., Lassonde, M. (2006). Neurophysiological anomalies in symptomatic and asymptomatic concussed athletes. Neurosurgery, 58(6), 11511161.
*Guskiewicz, K.M., Perrin, D.H., Gansneder, B.M. (1996). Effect of mild head injury on postural stability in athletes. Journal of Athletic Training, 31(4), 300306.
*Guskiewicz, K.M., Riemann, B.L., Perrin, D.H., Nashner, L.M. (1997). Alternative approaches to the assessment of mild head injury in athletes. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 29(Suppl. 7), S213S221.
*Guskiewicz, K.M., Ross, S.E., Marshall, S.W. (2001). Postural stability and neuropsychological deficits following concussion in collegiate athletes. Journal of Athletic Training, 36(3), 263273.
Guskiewicz, K.M., Weaver, N., Padua, D.A., Garrett, W.E. Jr. (2000). Epidemiology of concussion in collegiate and high school football players. American Journal of Sports Medicine, 28(5), 643650.
Hedges, L.V., Olkin, I. (1985). Statistical methods for meta-analysis. Sydney: Academic Press.
*Hinton-Bayre, A.D., Geffen, G.M., Geffen, L.B., McFarland, K.A., Frijs, P. (1999). Concussion in contact sports: Reliable change indices of impairment and recovery. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 21(1), 7086.
*Hinton-Bayre, A.D., Geffen, G.M., McFarland, K.A. (1997). Mild head injury and speed of information processing: A prospective study of professional rugby league players. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 19(2), 275289.
Hoofien, D., Vakil, E., Gilboa, A., Donovick, P.J., Barak, O. (2002). Comparison of the predictive power of socio-economic variables, severity of injury and age on long-term outcome of traumatic brain injury: Sample-specific variables versus factors as predictors. Brain Injury, 16(1), 927.
Hovda, D.A., Prins, M., Becker, D.P., Lee, S., Bergsneider, M., Martin, N. (1999). Neurobiology of concussion. In J. E. Bailes, M. Lovell, J. C. Maroon (Eds.), Sports-related concussion (pp. 1251). St Louis, MO: Quality Medical Publishing.
Iverson, G.L. (2010). Mild traumatic brain injury meta-analyses can obscure individual differences. Brain Injury, 24(10), 12461255.
*Iverson, G.L., Brooks, B.L., Collins, M.W., Lovell, M.R. (2006). Tracking neuropsychological recovery following concussion in sport. Brain Injury, 20(3), 245252.
*Iverson, G.L., Gaetz, M., Lovell, M.R., Collins, M.W. (2004). Cumulative effects of concussion in amateur athletics. Brain Injury, 18(5), 433443.
*Iverson, G.L., Lovell, M.R., Collins, M.W. (2003). Interpreting change on ImPACT following sport concussion. The Clinical Neuropsychologist, 17(4), 460467.
*Jantzen, K.J., Anderson, B., Steinberg, F.L., Kelso, J.A.S. (2004). A prospective functional MR imaging study of mild traumatic brain injury in college football players. AJNR American Journal of Neuroradiology, 25(5), 738745.
*Johnson, P.D., Hertel, J., Olmsted, L.C., Denegar, C.R., Putukian, M. (2002). Effect of mild brain injury on an instrumented agility task. Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine, 12(1), 1217.
Kaplan, R.F., Cohen, R.A., Moscufo, N., Guttmann, C., Chasman, J., Buttaro, M., Wolfson, L. (2009). Demographic and biological influences on cognitive reserve. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 31(7), 868876.
*Killam, C., Cautin, R.L., Santucci, A.C. (2005). Assessing the enduring residual neuropsychological effects of head trauma in college athletes who participate in contact sports. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 20(5), 599611.
Kontos, A.P., Dolese, A., Elbin, R.J., Covassin, T., Warren, B.L. (2011). Relationship of soccer heading to computerized neurocognitive performance and symptoms among female and male youth soccer players. Brain Injury, 25(12), 12341241.
*Lavoie, M.E., Dupuis, F., Johnston, K.M., Leclerc, S., Lassonde, M. (2004). Visual P300 effects beyond symptoms in concussed college athletes. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 26(1), 5573.
Lipsey, M.W., Wilson, D.B. (2001). Practical meta-analysis. London: Sage.
*Lovell, M.R., Collins, M.W. (1998). Neuropsychological assessment of the college football player. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 13(2), 926.
*Lovell, M.R., Collins, M.W., Iverson, G.L., Field, M., Maroon, J.C., Cantu, R.C., Fu, F.H. (2003). Recovery from mild concussion in high school athletes. Journal of Neurosurgery, 98(2), 296301.
*Lovell, M.R., Collins, M.W., Iverson, G.L., Johnston, K.M., Bradley, J.P. (2004). Grade 1 or ‘ding’ concussions in high school athletes. The American Journal of Sports Medicine, 32(1), 4754.
Lovell, M.R., Fazio, V. (2008). Concussion management in the child and adolescent athlete. Current Sports Medicine Reports, 7(1), 1215.
*Lovell, M.R., Iverson, G.L., Collins, M.W., Podell, K., Johnston, K.M., Pardini, D., Maroon, J.C. (2006). Measurement of symptoms following sports-related concussion: Reliability and normative data for the post-concussion scale. Applied Neuropsychology, 13(3), 166174.
*Macciocchi, S.N., Barth, J.T., Alves, W., Rimel, R.W., Jane, J.A. (1996). Neuropsychological functioning and recovery after mild head injury in collegiate athletes. Neurosurgery, 39(3), 510514.
*Macciocchi, S.N., Barth, J., Littlefield, L., Cantu, R.C. (2001). Multiple concussions and neuropsychological functioning in collegiate football players. Journal of Athletic Training, 36(3), 303306.
*Maddocks, D.L., Dicker, G.D., Saling, M.M. (1995). The assessment of orientation following concussion in athletes. Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine, 5(1), 3235.
*Maddocks, D.L., Saling, M.M. (1996). Neuropsychological deficits following concussion. Brain Injury, 10(2), 99103.
Makdissi, M. (2009). Is the simple versus complex classification of concussion a valid and useful differentiation? British Journal of Sports Medicine, 43(Suppl. 1), i23i27.
*Makdissi, M., Collie, A., Maruff, P., Darby, D.G., Bush, A., McCrory, P.R., Bennell, K. (2001). Computerised cognitive assessment of concussed Australian Rules footballers. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 35(5), 354360.
*McClincy, M.P., Lovell, M.R., Pardini, J.E., Collins, M.W., Spore, M.K. (2006). Recovery from sports concussion in high school and collegiate athletes. Brain Injury, 20(1), 3339.
*McCrea, M. (2001). Standardized mental status testing on the sideline after sport-related concussion. Journal of Athletic Training, 36(3), 274279.
*McCrea, M., Guskiewicz, K.M., Marshall, S.W., Barr, W., Randolph, C., Cantu, R.C., Kelly, J.P. (2003). Acute effects and recovery time following concussion in collegiate football players: The NCAA Concussion Study. Journal of the American Medical Association, 290(19), 25562563.
*McCrea, M., Kelly, J.P., Randolph, C., Cisler, R., Berger, L. (2002). Immediate neurocognitive effects of concussion. Neurosurgery, 50(5), 10321040.
*McCrea, M., Kelly, J.P., Randolph, C., Kluge, J., Bartolic, E., Finn, G., Baxter, B. (1998). Standardized Assessment of Concussion (SAC): On-site mental status evaluation of the athlete. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 13(2), 2735.
*McCrory, P.R., Ariens, M., Berkovic, S.F. (2000). The nature and duration of acute concussive symptoms in Australian football. Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine, 10(4), 235238.
McCrory, P.R., Meeuwisse, W., Johnston, K., Dvorak, J., Aubry, M., Molloy, M., Cantu, R. (2009). Consensus statement on concussion in sport: The 3rd International Conference on Concussion in Sport held in Zurich, November 2008. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 43(Suppl. 1), i76i84.
McDonald, J.W., Johnston, M.V. (1990). Physiological and pathophysiological roles of excitatory amino acids during central nervous system development. Brain Research Reviews, 15, 4170.
*Mihalik, J.P., McCaffrey, M.A., Rivera, E.M., Pardini, J.E., Guskiewicz, K.M., Collins, M.W., Lovell, M.R. (2007). Effectiveness of mouthguards in reducing neurocognitive deficits following sports-related cerebral concussion. Dental Traumatology, 23(1), 1420.
Moser, R.S., Iverson, G.L., Echemendia, R.J., Lovell, M.R., Schatz, P., Webbe, F.M., … NAN Policy Planning Committee. (2007). NAN Position Paper: Neuropsychological evaluation in the diagnosis and management of sports-related concussion. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 22(8), 909916.
*Moser, R.S., Schatz, P. (2002). Enduring effects of concussion in youth athletes. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 17(1), 91100.
*Moser, R.S., Schatz, P., Jordan, B.D. (2005). Prolonged effects of concussion in high school athletes. Neurosurgery, 57(2), 300306.
Panayiotou, A., Jackson, M., Crowe, S.F. (2010). A meta-analytic review of the emotional symptoms associated with mild traumatic brain injury. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 32(5), 463473.
*Parker, T.M., Osternig, L.R., Lee, H.J., Donkelaar, P., Chou, L.S. (2005). The effect of divided attention on gait stability following concussion. Clinical Biomechanics, 20(4), 389395.
*Parker, T.M., Osternig, L.R., Van Donkelaar, P., Chou, L.-S. (2006). Gait stability following concussion. Medicine and Science in Sport and Exercise, 38(6), 10321040.
*Parker, T.M., Osternig, L.R., van Donkelaar, P., Chou, L.S. (2008). Balance control during gait in athletes and non-athletes following concussion. Medical Engineering & Physics, 30(8), 959967.
*Pellman, E.J., Lovell, M.R., Viano, D.C., Casson, I.R. (2006). Concussion in professional football: Recovery of NFL and high school athletes assessed by computerized neuropsychological testing – Part 12. Neurosurgery, 58(2), 263274.
*Pellman, E.J., Lovell, M.R., Viano, D.C., Casson, I.R., Tucker, A.M. (2004). Concussion in professional football: Neuropyschological testing – Part 6. Neurosurgery, 55(6), 12901303.
*Peterson, C.L., Ferrara, M.S., Mrazik, M., Piland, S., Elliott, R. (2003). Evaluation of neuropsychological domain scores and postural stability following cerebral concussion in sports. Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine, 13(4), 230237.
*Piland, S.G., Motl, R.W., Ferrara, M.S., Peterson, C.L. (2003). Evidence for the factorial and construct validity of a self-report concussion symptoms scale. Journal of Athletic Training, 38(2), 104112.
Prins, M.L., Lee, S.M., Cheng, C.L.Y., Becker, D.P., Hovda, D.A. (1996). Fluid percussion brain injury in the developing and adult rat: A comparative study of mortality, morphology, intracranial pressure and mean arterial blood pressure. Developmental Brain Research, 95(2), 272282.
Putukian, M., Aubry, M., McCrory, P.R. (2009). Return to play after sports concussion in elite and non-elite athletes? British Journal of Sports Medicine, 43(Suppl. 1), i28i31.
Quality Standards Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology. (1997). Practice Parameter. The management of concussion in sports (summary statement). Report of the Quality Standards Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology. Neurology, 48(3), 581585.
Ratcliff, J.J., Greenspan, A.I., Goldstein, F.C., Stringer, A.Y., Bushnik, T., Hammond, F.M., Wright, D.W. (2007). Gender and traumatic brain injury: Do the sexes fare differently? Brain Injury, 21(10), 10231030.
Reddy, C.C., Collins, M.W., Gioia, G.A. (2008). Adolescent sports concussion. Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America, 19(2), 247269.
*Register-Mihalik, J., Guskiewicz, K.M., Mann, J.D., Shields, E.W. (2007). The effects of headache on clinical measures of neurocognitive function. Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine, 17(4), 282288.
*Riemann, B.L., Guskiewicz, K.M. (2000). Effects of mild head injury on postural stability as measured through clinical balance testing. Journal of Athletic Training, 35(1), 1925.
Rohling, M.L., Beverly, B., Faust, M.E., Demakis, G.J. (2009). Effectiveness of cognitive rehabilitation following acquired brain injury: A meta-analytic re-examination of Cicerone et al.'s (2000, 2005) systematic reviews. Neuropsychology, 23(1), 2039.
Rohling, M.L., Binder, L.M., Demakis, G.J., Larrabee, G.J., Ploetz, D.M., Langhinrichsen-Rohling, J. (2011). A meta-analysis of neuropsychological outcome after mild traumatic brian injury: Re-analysis and reconsiderations of Binder et al. (1997), Frencham et al. (2005), and Pertab et al. (2009). The Clinical Neuropsychologist, 25(4), 608623.
Satz, P. (1993). Brain reserve capacity on symptom onset after brain injury: A formulation and review of evidence for threshold theory. Neuropsychology, 7(3), 273295.
*Schatz, P., Pardini, J.E., Lovell, M.R., Collins, M.W., Podell, K. (2006). Sensitivity and specificity of the ImPACT Test Battery for concussion in athletes. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 21(1), 9199.
Schretlen, D.J., Shapiro, A.M. (2003). A quantitative review of the effects of traumatic brain injury on cognitive functioning. International Review of Psychiatry, 15(4), 341349.
*Sim, A., Terryberry-Spohr, L., Wilson, K.R. (2008). Prolonged recovery of memory functioning after mild traumatic brain injury in adolescent athletes. Journal of Neurosurgery, 108(3), 511516.
*Slobounov, S., Cao, C., Sebastianelli, W., Slobounov, E., Newell, K. (2008). Residual deficits from concussion as revealed by virtual time-to-contact measures of postural stability. Clinical Neurophysiology, 119(2), 281289.
*Slobounov, S., Slobounov, E., Newell, K. (2006). Application of virtual reality graphics in assessment of concussion. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 9(2), 188191.
*Slobounov, S., Slobounov, E., Sebastianelli, W., Cao, C., Newell, K. (2007). Differential rate of recovery in athletes after first and second concussion episodes. Neurosurgery, 61(2), 338344.
*Slobounov, S., Tutwiler, R., Sebastianelli, W., Slobounov, E. (2006). Alteration of postural responses to visual field motion in mild traumatic brain injury. Neurosurgery, 59(1), 134139.
Solomon, G.S., Haase, R.F. (2008). Biopsychosocial characteristics and neurocognitive test performance in National Football League players: An initial assessment. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 23(5), 563577.
*Sosnoff, J.J., Broglio, S.P., Ferrara, M.S. (2008). Cognitive and motor function are associated following mild traumatic brain injury. Experimental Brain Research, 187(4), 563571.
*Sosnoff, J.J., Broglio, S.P., Hillman, C.H., Ferrara, M.S. (2007). Concussion does not impact intraindividual response time variability. Neuropsychology, 21(6), 796802.
Stern, Y. (2009). Cognitive reserve. Neuropsychologia, 47, 20152028.
Tate, R., McDonald, S., Lulham, J.M. (1998). Incidence of hospital-treated traumatic brain injury in an Australian community. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health, 22(4), 419425.
*Thompson, J., Sebastianelli, W., Slobounov, S. (2005). EEG and postural correlates of mild traumatic brain injury in athletes. Neuroscience Letters, 377(3), 158163.
Tsushima, W.T., Lum, M., Geling, O. (2009). Sex differences in the long-term neuropsychological outcome of mild traumatic brain injury. Brain Injury, 23(10), 809814.
*Van Kampen, D.A., Lovell, M.R., Pardini, J.E., Collins, M.W., Fu, F.H. (2006). The ‘value added’ of neurocognitive testing after sports-related concussion. The American Journal of Sports Medicine, 34(10), 16301635.
Viano, D.C., Casson, I.R., Pellman, E.J. (2007). Concussion in professional football: Biomechanics of the struck player – Part 14. Neurosurgery, 61, 313327.
*Warden, D.L., Bleiberg, J., Cameron, K.L., Ecklund, J., Walter, J., Sparling, M.B., Arciero, R. (2001). Persistent prolongation of simple reaction time in sports concussion. Neurology, 57(3), 524526.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society
  • ISSN: 1355-6177
  • EISSN: 1469-7661
  • URL: /core/journals/journal-of-the-international-neuropsychological-society
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *


Type Description Title
Supplementary materials

Brooke Dougan Supplementary Material

 Word (2.0 MB)
2.0 MB
Supplementary materials

Brooke Dougan Supplementary Material

 PDF (509 KB)
509 KB


Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed