Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 43
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Faris, Gregory Byczkowski, Terri Ho, Mona and Babcock, Lynn 2016. Prediction of Persistent Postconcussion Symptoms in Youth Using a Neuroimaging Decision Rule. Academic Pediatrics, Vol. 16, Issue. 4, p. 336.

    Grubenhoff, Joseph A. Currie, Dustin Comstock, R. Dawn Juarez-Colunga, Elizabeth Bajaj, Lalit and Kirkwood, Michael W. 2016. Psychological Factors Associated with Delayed Symptom Resolution in Children with Concussion. The Journal of Pediatrics, Vol. 174, p. 27.

    Kirkwood, Michael W. Peterson, Robin L. Connery, Amy K. Baker, David A. and Forster, Jeri 2016. A Pilot Study Investigating Neuropsychological Consultation as an Intervention for Persistent Postconcussive Symptoms in a Pediatric Sample. The Journal of Pediatrics, Vol. 169, p. 244.

    Martins, Sónia Paiva, José Artur Simões, Mário R. and Fernandes, Lia 2016. Delirium in elderly patients: association with educational attainment. Acta Neuropsychiatrica, p. 1.

    Ojo, Joseph O. Mouzon, Benoit C. and Crawford, Fiona 2016. Repetitive head trauma, chronic traumatic encephalopathy and tau: Challenges in translating from mice to men. Experimental Neurology, Vol. 275, p. 389.

    Oldenburg, Christian Lundin, Anders Edman, Gunnar Nygren-de Boussard, Catharina and Bartfai, Aniko 2016. Cognitive reserve and persistent post-concussion symptoms—A prospective mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) cohort study. Brain Injury, Vol. 30, Issue. 2, p. 146.

    Bigler, Erin D. and Stern, Yaakov 2015. Traumatic Brain Injury, Part II.

    Donders, Jacobus Oh, Ye In and Gable, Jessica 2015. Self- and Informant Ratings of Executive Functioning After Mild Traumatic Brain Injury. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, Vol. 30, Issue. 6, p. E30.

    Donlon, Katharine and Jones, Russell T. 2015. Applying a traumatic stress approach to understanding PCS following pediatric mild TBI. Child Neuropsychology, Vol. 21, Issue. 6, p. 803.

    Lloyd, Jennifer Wilson, Michael L. Tenovuo, Olli and Saarijärvi, Simo 2015. Outcomes from mild and moderate traumatic brain injuries among children and adolescents: A systematic review of studies from 2008–2013. Brain Injury, Vol. 29, Issue. 5, p. 539.

    Mckee, Ann C. and Daneshvar, Daniel H. 2015. Traumatic Brain Injury, Part I.

    Rabinowitz, Amanda R. Li, Xiaoqi McCauley, Stephen R. Wilde, Elisabeth A. Barnes, Amanda Hanten, Gerri Mendez, Donna McCarthy, James J. and Levin, Harvey S. 2015. Prevalence and Predictors of Poor Recovery from Mild Traumatic Brain Injury. Journal of Neurotrauma, Vol. 32, Issue. 19, p. 1488.

    Silverberg, Noah D. Gardner, Andrew J. Brubacher, Jeffrey R. Panenka, William J. Li, Jun Jian and Iverson, Grant L. 2015. Systematic Review of Multivariable Prognostic Models for Mild Traumatic Brain Injury. Journal of Neurotrauma, Vol. 32, Issue. 8, p. 517.

    Speer, Megan E. and Soldan, Anja 2015. Cognitive reserve modulates ERPs associated with verbal working memory in healthy younger and older adults. Neurobiology of Aging, Vol. 36, Issue. 3, p. 1424.

    Elder, Gregory A. Stone, James R. and Ahlers, Stephen T. 2014. Effects of Low-Level Blast Exposure on the Nervous System: Is There Really a Controversy?. Frontiers in Neurology, Vol. 5,

    Godbolt, Alison K. Cancelliere, Carol Hincapié, Cesar A. Marras, Connie Boyle, Eleanor Kristman, Vicki L. Coronado, Victor G. and Cassidy, J. David 2014. Systematic Review of the Risk of Dementia and Chronic Cognitive Impairment After Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: Results of the International Collaboration on Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Prognosis. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Vol. 95, Issue. 3, p. S245.

    Hosseini, Banafsheh Flora, David B. Banwell, Brenda L. and Till, Christine 2014. Age of Onset as a Moderator of Cognitive Decline in Pediatric-Onset Multiple Sclerosis. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, Vol. 20, Issue. 08, p. 796.

    Hung, Ryan Carroll, Linda J. Cancelliere, Carol Côté, Pierre Rumney, Peter Keightley, Michelle Donovan, James Stålnacke, Britt-Marie and Cassidy, J. David 2014. Systematic Review of the Clinical Course, Natural History, and Prognosis for Pediatric Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: Results of the International Collaboration on Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Prognosis. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Vol. 95, Issue. 3, p. S174.

    Karver, Christine L. Wade, Shari L. Cassedy, Amy Taylor, H. Gerry Brown, Tanya M. Kirkwood, Michael W. and Stancin, Terry 2014. Cognitive reserve as a moderator of responsiveness to an online problem-solving intervention for adolescents with complicated mild-to-severe traumatic brain injury. Child Neuropsychology, Vol. 20, Issue. 3, p. 343.

    Merritt, Victoria C. and Arnett, Peter A. 2014. Premorbid predictors of postconcussion symptoms in collegiate athletes. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, Vol. 36, Issue. 10, p. 1098.

  • Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, Volume 16, Issue 1
  • January 2010, pp. 94-105

Cognitive reserve as a moderator of postconcussive symptoms in children with complicated and uncomplicated mild traumatic brain injury

  • TARYN B. FAY (a1) (a2), KEITH OWEN YEATES (a2) (a3), H. GERRY TAYLOR (a4) (a5), BARBARA BANGERT (a6), ANN DIETRICH (a2) (a7), KATHRYN E. NUSS (a2) (a7), JEROME RUSIN (a8) and MARTHA WRIGHT (a4) (a5)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 19 October 2009

The occurrence of postconcussive symptoms (PCS) following mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) in children may depend on cognitive reserve capacity. This prospective, longitudinal study examined whether the relationship between mild TBI and PCS is moderated by cognitive ability, which served as a proxy for cognitive reserve. Participants included 182 children with mild TBI and 99 children with orthopedic injuries (OI), ranging from 8 to 15 years of age when injured. Mild TBI were classified as complicated (n = 32) or uncomplicated (n = 150) depending on whether they were associated with trauma-related intracranial abnormalities on magnetic resonance imaging. PCS were assessed initially within 3 weeks of injury, and again at 1, 3, and 12 months post injury. The initial assessment also included standardized tests of children’s cognitive skills and retrospective parent ratings of pre-injury symptoms. Hierarchical linear modeling indicated that ratings of PCS were moderated jointly by cognitive ability and injury severity. Children of lower cognitive ability with a complicated mild TBI were especially prone to cognitive symptoms across time according to parents and to high acute levels of PCS according to children’s self-ratings. Cognitive reserve is an important moderator of the outcomes of mild TBI in children and adolescents. (JINS, 2010, 16, 94–105.)

Corresponding author
*Correspondence and reprint requests to: Keith Owen Yeates, Ph.D., Department of Psychology, Nationwide Children’s Hospital, 700 Children’s Dr., Columbus, OH 43205. E-mail:
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

M.P. Alexander (1997). Minor traumatic brain injury: A review of physiogenesis and psychogenesis. Seminars in Clinical Neuropsychiatry, 2, 177187.

American Academy of Pediatrics. (1999). The management of minor closed head injury in children. Pediatrics, 104, 14071415.

R.F. Asarnow , P. Satz , R. Light , K. Zaucha , R. Lewis , & C. McCleary (1995). The UCLA study of mild head injury in children and adolescents. In M.E. Michel & S. Broman (Eds.), Traumatic head injury in children (pp.117146). New York: Oxford University Press.

J.J. Bazarian , J. McClung , M.N. Shah , Y.T. Cheng , W. Flesher , & J. Kraus (2005). Mild traumatic brain injury in the United States, 1998–2000. Brain Injury, 19, 8591.

M.R. Burchinal , D.B. Bailey , & P. Snyder (1994). Using growth curve analysis to evaluate child change in longitudinal investigations. Journal of Early Intervention, 18, 422442.

Y.Y. Choi , N.A. Shamosh , S.H. Cho , C.G. DeYoung , M.J. Lee , J.-M. Lee , (2008). Multiple bases of human intelligence revealed by cortical thickness and neural activation. Journal of Neuroscience, 28, 1032310329.

J.E. Farmer , S.M. Kanne , J.S. Haut , J. Williams , B. Johnstone , & K. Kirk (2002). Memory functioning following traumatic brain injury in children with premorbid learning problems. Developmental Neuropsychology, 22(2), 455469.

R.I. Jennrich , & M.D. Schluchter (1986). Unbalanced repeated measures models with structured covariance matrices. Biometrics, 42, 805820.

R. Katzman (1993). Education and the prevalence of dementia and Alzheimer’s disease. Neurology, 43, 1320.

K.C. Koenen , T.E. Moffitt , A.L. Roberts , L.T. Martin , L. Kubzansky , H. Harrington , (2009). Childhood IQ and adult mental disorders: A test of the cognitive reserve hypothesis. American Journal of Psychiatry, 166, 5057.

H.S. Levin , G. Hanten , G. Roberson , L. Xiaoqi , L. Ewing-Cobbs , M. Dennis , (2008). Prediction of cognitive sequelae based on abnormal computed tomography findings in children following mild traumatic brain injury. Journal of Neurosurgery in Pediatrics, 1, 461470.

W.A. Lishman (1998). Physiogenesis and psychogenesis in the postconcussional syndrome. British Journal of Psychiatry, 153, 460469.

C.A. Luis , R.D. Vanderploeg , & G. Curtiss (2003). Predictors of postconcussive symptom complex in community dwelling male veterans. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 9, 10011015.

T. Mayer , M. Matlak , D. Johnson , & M. Walker (1980). The Modified Injury Severity Scale in pediatric multiple trauma patients. Journal of Pediatric Surgery, 15, 719726.

A.S. Masten (2001). Ordinary magic: Resilience processes in development. American Psychologist, 56(3), 227238.

G.H. McClelland , & C.M. Judd (1993). Statistical difficulties of detecting interactions and moderator effects. Psychological Bulletin, 114, 376390.

M.A. McDaniel (2005). Big-brained people are smarter: A meta-analysis of the relationship between in vivo brain volume and intelligence. Intelligence, 33, 337346.

W. Mittenberg , M.S. Wittner , & L.J. Miller (1997). Postconcussion syndrome occurs in children. Neuropsychology, 11(3), 447452.

J. Ponsford , C. Wilmott , A. Rothwell , P. Cameron , G. Ayton , R. Nelms , (1999). Cognitive and behavioral outcome following mild traumatic head injury in children. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 14(4), 360372.

J.B. Rivara , J.M. Jaffe , N.L. Polissar , G.C. Fay , K.M. Martin , H.A. Shurtleff , & S. Liao (1994). Family functioning and children’s academic performance and behavior problems in the year following traumatic brain injury. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 75, 369379.

B.J. Sahakian , & A.M. Owen (1992). Computerised assessment in neuropsychiatry using CANTAB: Discussion paper. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, 85, 399402.

P. Satz (1993). Brain reserve capacity on symptom onset after brain injury: A formulation and review of evidence for threshold theory. Neuropsychology, 7, 273295.

P. Satz (2001). Mild head injury in children and adolescents. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 10(3), 106109.

P. Satz , K. Zaucha , C. McCleary , R. Light , & R.F. Asarnow (1997). Mild head injury in children and adolescents: A review of studies (1970–1995). Psychological Bulletin, 122(2), 107131.

H.G. Taylor , A. Dietrich , K. Nuss , M. Wright , J. Rusin , B. Bangert , N. Minich , & K.O. Yeates (in press). Post-concussive symptoms in children with mild traumatic brain injury. Neuropsychology.

D. Thurman , & J. Guerrero (1999). Trends in hospitalization associated with traumatic brain injury. Journal of the American Medical Association, 282(10), 954957.

D. Wechsler (1999). Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence. San Antonio, TX: The Psychological Corporation.

D.H. Williams , H.S. Levin , & H.M. Eisenberg (1990). Mild head injury classification. Neurosurgery, 27, 422428.

World Health Organization. (1993). The ICD-10 classification of mental and behavioural disorders: Clinical descriptions and diagnostic guidelines. Geneva: World Health Organization.

K.O. Yeates , K. Armstrong , J. Janusz , H.G. Taylor , S. Wade , T. Stancin , & D. Drotar (2005). Long-term attention problems in children with traumatic brain injury. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 44, 574584.

K.O. Yeates , J. Luria , H. Bartkowski , J. Rusin , L. Martin , & E.D. Bigler (1999). Postconcussive symptoms in children with mild closed head injuries. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 14(4), 337350.

K.O. Yeates , H.G. Taylor , J. Rusin , B. Bangert , A. Dietrich , K. Nuss , (2009). Longitudinal trajectories of post-concussive symptoms in children with mild traumatic brain injuries and their relationship to acute medical status. Pediatrics, 123, 735743.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society
  • ISSN: 1355-6177
  • EISSN: 1469-7661
  • URL: /core/journals/journal-of-the-international-neuropsychological-society
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *