Skip to main content
×
×
Home

Comprehensive Examination of Frontal Regions in Boys and Girls with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

  • E. Mark Mahone (a1) (a2), Marin E. Ranta (a3), Deana Crocetti (a3), Jessica O'Brien (a3), Walter E. Kaufmann (a2) (a4) (a5) (a6) (a7) (a8), Martha B. Denckla (a2) (a5) (a6) (a9) and Stewart H. Mostofsky (a2) (a3) (a5)...
Abstract

The current study examined regional frontal lobe volumes based on functionally relevant subdivisions in contemporaneously recruited samples of boys and girls with and without attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Forty-four boys (21 ADHD, 23 control) and 42 girls (21 ADHD, 21 control), ages 8–13 years, participated. Sulcal–gyral landmarks were used to manually delimit functionally relevant regions within the frontal lobe: primary motor cortex, anterior cingulate, deep white matter, premotor regions [supplementary motor complex (SMC), frontal eye field, lateral premotor cortex (LPM)], and prefrontal cortex (PFC) regions [medial PFC, dorsolateral PFC (DLPFC), inferior PFC, lateral orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), and medial OFC]. Compared to sex-matched controls, boys and girls with ADHD showed reduced volumes (gray and white matter) in the left SMC. Conversely, girls (but not boys) with ADHD showed reduced gray matter volume in left LPM; while boys (but not girls) with ADHD showed reduced white matter volume in left medial PFC. Reduced left SMC gray matter volumes predicted increased go/no–go commission rate in children with ADHD. Reduced left LPM gray matter volumes predicted increased go/no–go variability, but only among girls with ADHD. Results highlight different patterns of anomalous frontal lobe development among boys and girls with ADHD beyond that detected by measuring whole lobar volumes. (JINS, 2011, 17, 1047–1057)

Copyright
Corresponding author
Correspondence and reprint requests to: E. Mark Mahone, Ph.D., Department of Neuropsychology, Kennedy Krieger Institute, 1750 East Fairmount Avenue, Baltimore, MD 21231. E-mail: mahone@kennedykrieger.org
References
Hide All
Akkal, D., Dum, R.P., Strick, P.L. (2007). Supplementary motor area and presupplementary motor area: Targets of basal ganglia and cerebellar output. Journal of Neuroscience, 27, 1065910673.
Alexander, G.E., Crutcher, M.D. (1990). Functional architecture of basal ganglia circuits: Neural substrates of parallel processing. Trends in Neuroscience, 13, 266271.
Anderson, S.W., Bechara, A., Damasio, H., Tranel, D., Damasio, A.R. (1999). Impairment of social and moral behavior related to early damage in human prefrontal cortex. Nature Neuroscience, 2, 10321037.
Basser, P.J., Pierpaoli, C. (1996). Microstructural and physiological features of tissues elucidated by quantitative-diffusion-tensor MRI. Journal of Magnetic Resonance B, 111, 209219.
Biederman, J., Mick, E., Faraone, S.V. (2000). Age-dependent decline of symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: Impact of remission definition and symptom type. American Journal of Psychiatry, 157, 816818.
Cahill, L. (2006). Why sex matters for neuroscience. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 7, 477484.
Carmona, S., Proal, E., Haekzema, E.A., Gispert, J.D., Picado, M., Moreno, I., Vilarroya, O. (2009). Ventro-striatal reductions underpin symptoms of hyperactivity and impulsivity in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Biological Psychiatry, 66, 972977.
Castellanos, F.X., Giedd, J.N., Berquin, P.C., Walter, J.M., Sharp, W., Tran, T., Rapoport, J.L. (2001). Quantitative brain magnetic resonance imaging in girls with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry, 58, 289295.
Castellanos, F.X., Geidd, J.N., Marsh, W.L., Hamburger, S.D., Vaituzis, A.C., Dickstein, D.P., Rapoport, J.L. (1996). Quantitative brain magnetic resonance imaging in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry, 53, 607616.
Cole, W., Mostofsky, S., Larson, J., Denckla, M., Mahone, E.M. (2008). Age-related changes in motor subtle signs among girls and boys with ADHD. Neurology, 71, 15141520.
Conners, C.K. (1997). Conners’ Rating Scales – Revised. North Tonawanda, New York: Multi-Health Systems Inc.
Desikan, R.S., Segonne, F., Fischl, B., Quin, B.T., Dickerson, B.C., Blacker, D., Killiany, R.J. (2007). An automated labeling system for subdividing the human cerebral cortex on MRI scans into gyral based regions of interest. Neuroimage, 31, 968980.
Ellison-Wright, I., Ellison-Wright, Z., Bullmore, E. (2008). Structural brain change in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder identified by meta-analysis. BMC Psychiatry, 8, 51.
Filipek, P.A., Semrud-Clikeman, M., Steingard, R.J., Renshaw, P.F., Kennedy, D.N., Biederman, J. (1997). Volumetric MRI analysis comparing subjects having attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder with normal controls. Neurology, 48, 589601.
Fischl, B., Liu, A., Dale, A.M. (2001). Automated manifold surgery: Constructing geometrically accurate and topologically correct models of the human cerebral cortex. IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging, 20, 7080.
Fischl, B., van der Kouwe, A., Destrieux, C., Halgren, E., Segonne, F., Salat, D.H., Dale, A.M. (2004). Automatically parcellating the human cerebral cortex. Cerebral Cortex, 14, 1122.
Fredericksen, K.A., Cutting, L.E., Kates, W.R., Mostofsky, S.H., Cooper, K.L., Lanham, D.C., Kaufman, W.E. (2002). Disproportionate increases of white matter in right frontal lobe in Tourette syndrome. Neurology, 58, 8589.
Gogtay, N., Gied, J.N., Lusk, L., Hayashi, K.M., Greenstein, D., Vaituzis, A.C., Thompson, P.M. (2004). Dynamic mapping of human cortical development during childhood through early adulthood. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 101, 81748179.
Halperin, J.M., Schulz, K.P. (2006). Revisiting the role of the prefrontal cortex in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Psychological Bulletin, 132, 560581.
Hill, D., Yeo, R., Campbell, R., Hart, B., Vigil, J., Brooks, W. (2003). Magnetic resonance imaging correlates of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children. Neuropsychology, 17, 496506.
Hollingshead, A.B. (1975). Four factor index of social status. New Haven, CT: Yale University, Department of Sociology.
Hynd, G.W., Semrud-Clikeman, M., Lorys, A., Novey, E.S., Eliopulos, D. (1990). Brain morphology in developmental dyslexia and attention deficit disorder/hyperactivity. Archives of Neurology, 47, 919926.
Kates, W.R., Frederikse, M., Mostofsky, S.H., Folley, B.S., Cooper, K., Mazur-Hopkins, P., Kaufman, W.E. (2002). MRI parcellation of the frontal lobe in boys with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder or Tourette syndrome. Psychiatry Research, 116, 6381.
Kelly, A.M., Margulies, D.S., Castellanos, F.X. (2007). Recent advances in structural and functional brain imaging studies of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Current Psychiatry Reports, 9, 401407.
Kramer, J.H., Quitania, L., Dean, D., Neuhaus, J., Rosen, H.J., Halabi, C., Miller, B.L. (2007). Magnetic resonance imaging correlates of set shifting. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 13, 386392.
Lenroot, R.K., Gogtay, N., Greenstein, D.K., Wells, E.M., Wallace, G.L., Clasen, L.S., Gied, J.N. (2007). Sexual dimorphism of brain developmental trajectories during childhood and adolescence. Neuroimage, 36, 10651073.
Lijffijt, M., Kenemans, J.L., Verbaten, M.N., Van Engeland, H. (2005). A meta-analytic review of stopping performance in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: Deficient inhibitory motor control? Journal Abnormal Psychology, 114, 216222.
Mackie, S., Shaw, P., Lenroot, R., Pierson, R., Greenstein, D.K., Nugent, T.F., Rapoport, J.L. (2007). Cerebellar development and clinical outcome in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry, 164, 647655.
Macneil, L.K., Xavier, P., Garvey, M.A., Gilbert, D.L., Ranta, M.E., Denckla, M.B., Mostofksy, S.H. (2011). Quantifying excessive mirror overflow in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Neurology, 76, 622628.
Mahone, E.M., Wodka, E.L. (2008). The neurobiological profile of girls with ADHD. Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews, 14, 276284.
Makris, N., Meyer, J.W., Bates, J.F., Yeterian, E.H., Kennedy, D.N., Caviness, V.S. (1999). MRI based topographic parcellation of human cerebral white matter and nuclei II. Rationale and applications with systematics of cerebral connectivity. Neuroimage, 9, 1845.
Marsh, R., Gerber, A.J., Peterson, B.S. (2008). Neuroimaging studies of normal brain development and their relevance for understanding childhood neuropsychiatric disorders. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 47, 12331251.
McAuliffe, M., Lalonde, E., McGarry, D., Gandler, W., Csaky, K., & Trus, B. (2001). Medical image processing, analysis and visualization in clinical research. Paper presented at the IEEE Symposium on computer-based medical systems.
Miller, B.T., D'Esposito, M. (2005). Searching for “the top” in top-down control. Neuron, 48, 535538.
Mink, J.W. (1996). The basal ganglia: Focused selection and inhibition of competing motor programs. Progress in Neurobiology, 50, 381425.
Mostofsky, S., Cooper, K., Kates, W., Denckla, M., Kaufman, W. (2002). Smaller prefrontal and premotor volumes in boys with ADHD. Biological Psychiatry, 52, 785794.
Mostofsky, S.H., Reis, A.L., Lockhart, P., Denckla, M.B. (1998). Evaluation of cerebellar size in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Child Neurology, 13, 434439.
Mostofsky, S.H., Simmonds, D.J. (2008). Response inhibition and response selection: Two sides of the same coin. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 20, 751761.
Nachev, P., Kennard, C., Husain, M. (2008). Functional role of the supplementary and pre-supplementary motor areas. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 9, 856869.
Qiu, A., Crocetti, D., Adler, A., Mahone, E.M., Denckla, M.B., Miller, M.I., Mostofsky, S.H. (2009). Basal ganglia volume and shape in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry, 166, 7482.
Ranta, M.E., Crocetti, D., Claus, J.A., Kraut, M.A., Mostofsky, S.H., Kaufman, W.E. (2009). Manual MRI parcellation of the frontal lobe. Psychiatry Research, 172(2), 147154.
Reich, W., Welner, Z., Herjanic, B. (1997). The diagnostic interview for children and adolescents-IV. North Tonawanda: Multi-Health Systems.
Rubia, K., Overmeyer, S., Taylor, E., Brammer, M., Williams, S.C., Simmons, A., Bullmore, E.T. (2000). Functional frontalisation with age: Mapping neurodevelopmental trajectories with fMRI. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 24, 1319.
Ryan, M., Martin, R.B., Denckla, M.B., Mostofsky, S.H., Mahone, E.M. (2010). Interstimulus jitter facilitates response control in children with ADHD. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 16, 388393.
Segonne, F., Dale, A.M., Busa, E., Glessner, M., Salat, D., Hahn, H.K., et al. (2004). A hybrid approach to the skull stripping problem in MRI. Neuroimage, 22, 10601075.
Segonne, F., Grimson, E., Fischl, B. (2005). A genetic algorithm for the topology correction of cortical surfaces. Information Processing in Medical Imaging, 19, 393405.
Shaw, P., Eckstrand, K., Sharp, W., Blumenthal, J., Lerch, J.P., Greenstein, D., Rapoport, J.L. (2007). Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder is characterized by a delay in cortical maturation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 104, 1964919654.
Shaw, P., Lalonde, F., Lepage, C., Rabin, C., Eckstrand, K., Sharp, W., Raporport, J. (2009). Development of cortical asymmetry in typically developing children and its disruption in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry, 66, 888896.
Shaw, P., Sharp, W.S., Morrison, M., Eckstrand, K., Greenstein, D.K., Classen, L.S., Rapaport, J.L. (2009). Psychostimulant treatment and the developing cortex in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry, 166, 5863.
Tiemeier, H., Lenroot, R.K., Greenstein, D.K., Tran, L., Pierson, R., Gied, J.N. (2010). Cerebellum development during childhood and adolescence: A longitudinal morphometric MRI study. Neuroimage, 49, 6370.
Wechsler, D.L. (1991). Wechsler intelligence scale for children, third edition. San Antonio, TX: The Psychological Corporation.
Wechsler, D.L. (2003). Wechsler intelligence scale for children, fourth edition. San Antonio, TX: The Psychological Corporation.
Wellington, T.M., Semrud-Clikeman, M., Gregory, A.L., Murphy, J.M., Lancaster, J.L. (2006). Magnetic resonance imaging volumetric analysis of the putamen in children with ADHD: Combined type versus control. Journal of Attention Disorders, 10, 171180.
Wodka, E.L., Mahone, E.M., Blankner, J.G., Larson, J.C., Fotedar, S., Denckla, M.B., Mostofsky, S.H. (2007). Evidence that response inhibition is a primary deficit in ADHD. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 29, 345356.
Wolosin, S.M., Richardson, M.E., Hennessey, J.G., Denckla, M.B., Mostofsky, S.H. (2009). Abnormal cerebral cortex structure in children with ADHD. Human Brain Mapping, 30, 175184.
Yang, P., Wang, P.N., Chuang, K.H., Jong, Y.J., Chao, T.C., Wu, M.T. (2008). Absence of gender effect on children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder as assessed by optimized voxel-based morphometry. Psychiatry Research, 164, 245253.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society
  • ISSN: 1355-6177
  • EISSN: 1469-7661
  • URL: /core/journals/journal-of-the-international-neuropsychological-society
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Type Description Title
PDF
Supplementary Tables

Mahone Supplementary Tables
Mahone Supplementary Tables

 PDF (93 KB)
93 KB

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed