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  • Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, Volume 18, Issue 1
  • January 2012, pp. 79-88

Diagnosing Symptomatic HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorders: Self-Report Versus Performance-Based Assessment of Everyday Functioning

  • K. Blackstone (a1), D.J. Moore (a2), R.K. Heaton (a2), D.R. Franklin (a2), S.P. Woods (a2), D.B. Clifford (a3), A.C. Collier (a4), C.M. Marra (a4), B.B. Gelman (a5), J.C. McArthur (a6), S. Morgello (a7), D.M. Simpson (a7), M. Rivera-Mindt (a7), R. Deutsch (a2), R.J. Ellis (a8), J. Hampton Atkinson (a2) and I. Grant (a2)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 24 November 2011

Three types of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) exist that are distinguished by presence and severity of impairment in cognitive and everyday functioning. Although well-validated neurocognitive measures exist, determining impairment in everyday functioning remains a challenge. We aim to determine whether Self-Report measures of everyday functioning are as effective in characterizing HAND as Performance-Based measures. We assessed 674 HIV-infected participants with a comprehensive neurocognitive battery; 233 met criteria for a HAND diagnosis by having at least mild neurocognitive impairment. Functional decline was measured via Self-Report and Performance-Based measures. HAND diagnoses were determined according to published criteria using three approaches to assess functional decline: (1) Self-Report measures only, (2) Performance-Based measures only, and (3) Dual-method combining Self-Report and Performance-Based measures. The Dual-method classified the most symptomatic HAND, compared to either singular method. Singular method classifications were 76% concordant with each other. Participants classified as Performance-Based functionally impaired were more likely to be unemployed and more immunosuppressed, whereas those classified as Self-Report functionally impaired had more depressive symptoms. Multimodal methods of assessing everyday functioning facilitate detection of symptomatic HAND. Singular Performance-Based classifications were associated with objective functional and disease-related factors; reliance on Self-Report classifications may be biased by depressive symptoms. (JINS, 2012, 18, 79–88)

Corresponding author
Correspondence and reprint requests to: D.J. Moore, Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Diego; San Diego, CA. E-mail:
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