MacPherson, Sarah E. Healy, Colm Allerhand, Michael Spanò, Barbara Tudor-Sfetea, Carina White, Mark Smirni, Daniela Shallice, Tim Chan, Edgar Bozzali, Marco and Cipolotti, Lisa 2017. Cognitive reserve and cognitive performance of patients with focal frontal lesions. Neuropsychologia, Vol. 96, p. 19.
Alvarez-Tostado, Pablo Inozemtseva, Olga Aguiñiga, Miguel A. López, Enrique and Matute, Esmeralda 2016. The relationship between cognitive reserve and the clinical stage of HIV infection. AIDS Care, Vol. 28, Issue. 5, p. 633.
Anaya, C. Torrent, C. Caballero, F. F. Vieta, E. Bonnin, C. del Mar and Ayuso-Mateos, J. L. 2016. Cognitive reserve in bipolar disorder: relation to cognition, psychosocial functioning and quality of life. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, Vol. 133, Issue. 5, p. 386.
Hanna, Joshua Feinstein, Anthony and Morrow, Sarah A. 2016. The association of pathological laughing and crying and cognitive impairment in multiple sclerosis. Journal of the Neurological Sciences, Vol. 361, p. 200.
Jacques, Francois H Harel, Brian T Schembri, Adrian J Paquette, Chantal Bilodeau, Brigitte Kalinowski, Pawel and Roy, Reshmi 2016. Cognitive evolution in natalizumab-treated multiple sclerosis patients. Multiple Sclerosis Journal – Experimental, Translational and Clinical, Vol. 2, p. 205521731665711.
Luerding, Ralf Gebel, Sophie Gebel, Eva-Maria Schwab-Malek, Susanne and Weissert, Robert 2016. Influence of Formal Education on Cognitive Reserve in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis. Frontiers in Neurology, Vol. 7,
Modica, Claire M Bergsland, Niels Dwyer, Michael G Ramasamy, Deepa P Carl, Ellen Zivadinov, Robert and Benedict, Ralph HB 2016. Cognitive reserve moderates the impact of subcortical gray matter atrophy on neuropsychological status in multiple sclerosis. Multiple Sclerosis Journal, Vol. 22, Issue. 1, p. 36.
Nunnari, Domenica De Cola, Maria Cristina Costa, Antonio Rifici, Carmela Bramanti, Placido and Marino, Silvia 2016. Exploring cognitive reserve in multiple sclerosis: New findings from a cross-sectional study. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, Vol. 38, Issue. 10, p. 1158.
Penner, I.-K. 2016. Evaluation of cognition and fatigue in multiple sclerosis: daily practice and future directions. Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, Vol. 134, p. 19.
Roy, Shumita Benedict, Ralph H. B. Drake, Allison S. and Weinstock-Guttman, Bianca 2016. Impact of Pharmacotherapy on Cognitive Dysfunction in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis. CNS Drugs, Vol. 30, Issue. 3, p. 209.
Sanai, Shaik Ahmed Saini, Vasu Benedict, Ralph HB Zivadinov, Robert Teter, Barbara E Ramanathan, Murali and Weinstock-Guttman, Bianca 2016. Aging and multiple sclerosis. Multiple Sclerosis Journal, Vol. 22, Issue. 6, p. 717.
Sandroff, Brian M. Schwartz, Carolyn E. and DeLuca, John 2016. Measurement and maintenance of reserve in multiple sclerosis. Journal of Neurology, Vol. 263, Issue. 11, p. 2158.
Schwartz, Carolyn E. Rapkin, Bruce D. and Healy, Brian C. 2016. Reserve and Reserve-building activities research: key challenges and future directions. BMC Neuroscience, Vol. 17, Issue. 1,
Scott, J. E. Mathias, J. L. Kneebone, A. C. and Krishnan, J. 2016. Postoperative cognitive dysfunction and its relationship to cognitive reserve in elderly total joint replacement patients. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, p. 1.
Steding, Julius and Holthoff-Detto, Vjera 2016. Kognitive Reserve und Potenzial im Alter. DNP - Der Neurologe und Psychiater, Vol. 17, Issue. 6, p. 50.
Trenova, Anastasiya G. Slavov, Georgi S. Manova, Maria G. Aksentieva, Jana B. Miteva, Lyuba D. and Stanilova, Spaska A. 2016. Cognitive Impairment in Multiple Sclerosis. Folia Medica, Vol. 58, Issue. 3,
Zhang, Xiaofei Zhang, Fangfang Huang, Dehui Wu, Lei Ma, Lin Liu, Hua Zhao, Yujun Yu, Shengyuan and Shi, Jiong 2016. Contribution of Gray and White Matter Abnormalities to Cognitive Impairment in Multiple Sclerosis. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, Vol. 18, Issue. 1, p. 46.
DeLuca, Gabriele C. Yates, Richard L. Beale, Harry and Morrow, Sarah A. 2015. Cognitive Impairment in Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical, Radiologic and Pathologic Insights. Brain Pathology, Vol. 25, Issue. 1, p. 79.
Martins Da Silva, Ana Cavaco, Sara Moreira, Inês Bettencourt, Andreia Santos, Ernestina Pinto, Cláudia Gonçalves, Alexandra Coutinho, Ester Samões, Raquel Dias, Cláudia C Teixeira-Pinto, Armando Da Silva, Berta Martins and Montalban, Xavier 2015. Cognitive reserve in multiple sclerosis: Protective effects of education. Multiple Sclerosis Journal, Vol. 21, Issue. 10, p. 1312.
Opdebeeck, Carol Quinn, Catherine Nelis, Sharon M and Clare, Linda 2015. Does cognitive reserve moderate the association between mood and cognition? A systematic review. Reviews in Clinical Gerontology, Vol. 25, Issue. 03, p. 181.
Cognitive reserve is widely recognized as a moderator of cognitive decline in patients with senile dementias such as Alzheimer’s disease. The same effect may occur in multiple sclerosis (MS), an immunologic disorder affecting the central nervous system. While MS is traditionally considered an inflammatory, white matter disease, degeneration of gray matter is increasingly recognized as the primary contributor to progressive cognitive decline. Our aim was to determine if individual differences in estimated cognitive reserve protect against the progression of cognitive dysfunction in MS. Ninety-one patients assessed twice roughly 5 years apart were identified retrospectively. Cognitive testing emphasized mental processing speed. Cognitive reserve was estimated by years of education and by performance on the North American Adult Reading Test (NAART). After controlling for baseline characteristics, both years of education (p = .013) and NAART scores (p = .049) significantly improved regression models predicting cognitive decline. Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT) performance showed no significant change in patients with > 14 years of education, whereas it declined significantly in patients with ≤ 14 years of education. We conclude that greater cognitive reserve as indexed by either higher premorbid intelligence or more years of education protects against the progression of cognitive dysfunction in MS. (JINS, 2010, 16, 829–835.)
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