Skip to main content
×
Home
    • Aa
    • Aa

Neuropsychological Performance in Mainland China: The Effect of Urban/Rural Residence and Self-Reported Daily Academic Skill Use

  • Saurabh Gupta (a1), Florin Vaida (a1), Katie Riggs (a1), Hua Jin (a1), Igor Grant (a1), Lucette Cysique (a2), Chuan Shi (a3), Xin Yu (a3), Zunyou Wu (a4) and Robert K. Heaton (a1)...
Abstract
Abstract

Age, education, and gender are the most common covariates used to define normative standards against which neuropsychological (NP) performance is interpreted, but influences of other demographic factors have begun to be appreciated. In developing nations, urban versus rural residence may differentially affect numerous factors that could influence cognitive test performances, including quality of both formal and informal educational experiences and employment opportunities. Such disparities may necessitate corrections for urban/rural (U/R) status in NP norms. Prior investigations of the U/R effect on NP performance typically have been confounded by differences in educational attainment. We addressed in this by comparing the NP performance of large, Chinese urban (Yunnan Province, n = 201) and rural (Anhui Province, n = 141) cohorts of healthy adults, while controlling for other demographic differences. Although the groups did not differ in global NP scores, a more complex pattern was observed within specific NP ability domains and tests. Urban participants showed better performance in select measures of processing speed and executive functions, verbal fluency, and verbal learning. Self-reported daily use of academic skills was predictive of many U/R differences. Controlling for academic skill use abrogated most U/R differences but revealed rural advantages in select measures of visual reasoning and motor dexterity. (JINS, 2011, 17, 000–000)

Copyright
Corresponding author
Correspondence and reprint requests to: Saurabh Gupta, HIV Neurobehavioral Research Center, 220 Dickinson, Suite B, San Diego, California 92103. E-mail: s8gupta@ucsd.edu
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

B.E. Alvarado , M.V. Zunzunegui , T. Del Ser , F. Beland (2002). Cognitive decline is related to education and occupation in a Spanish elderly cohort. Aging Clinical and Experimental Research, 14, 132142.

R.H. Benedict (1997). Brief visuospatial memory test-revised. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources, Inc.

J. Brandt (2007). 2005 INS Presidential Address: Neuropsychological crimes and misdemeanors. Clinical Neuropsychology, 21, 553568. doi:10.1080/13854040600770800

L.A. Cysique , H. Jin , D.R. Franklin Jr., E.E. Morgan , C. Shi , X. Yu , HNRC Group. (2007). Neurobehavioral effects of HIV-1 infection in China and the United States: A pilot study. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 13, 781790. doi:10.1017/S1355617707071007

L.A. Cysique , S.L. Letendre , C. Ake , H. Jin , D.R. Franklin , S. Gupta , … HNRC Group. (2010). Incidence and nature of cognitive decline over 1 year among HIV-infected former plasma donors in China. AIDS, 24, 983990. doi:10.1097/QAD.0b013e32833336c8

M.C. Diehr , M. Cherner , T.J. Wolfson , S.W. Miller , I. Grant , R.K. Heaton , & HNRC Group. (2003). The 50 and 100-item short forms of the Paced Autditory Serial Addition Task (PASAT): Demographically corrected norms and the comparisons with the full PASAT in normal and clinical samples. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 25, 571585. doi:10.1076/jcen.25.4.571.13876

V.M. Dotson , M. Kitner-Triolo , M.K. Evans , A.B. Zonderman (2008). Literacy-based normative data for low socioeconomic status African Americans. Clinical Neuropsychology, 22, 9891017. doi:10.1080/13854040701679017

M.A. Finlayson , K.A. Johnson , R.M. Reitan (1977). Relationship of level of education to neuropsychological measures in brain-damaged and non-brain-damaged adults. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 45, 536542.

J.A. Gladsjo , C.C. Schuman , J.D. Evans (1999). Norms for letter and category fluency: Demographic corrections for age, education, and ethnicity. Assessment, 6, 147178. doi:10.1177/107319119900600204

D.M. Gronwall (1977). Paced auditory serial-addition task: A measure of recovery from concussion. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 44, 367373.

R.K. Heaton , L.A. Cysique , H. Jin , C. Shi , X. Yu , S. Letendre , … HNRC Group. (2008). Neurobehavioral effects of human immunodeficiency virus infection among former plasma donors in rural China. Journal of Neurovirology, 14, 536549. doi:10.1080/13550280802378880

R.K. Heaton , C.G. Matthews , I. Grant , N. Avitable (1996). Demographic corrections with comprehensive norms: An overzealous attempt or a good start? Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 18, 449458. doi:10.1080/01688639608409001

H. Klove (1963). Clinical neuropsychology. In F.M. Forster (Ed.), The medical clinics of North America. New York: Saunders.

M. Maj , P. Satz , R. Janssen , R. Zaudig , F. Starace , L. D’Elia , N. Sartorius (1994). WHO neuropsychiatric AIDS study, cross-sectional phase II. Archives of General Psychiatry, 51, 5161. Retrieved from http://archpsyc.ama-assn.org/cgi/reprint/51/1/51

J.J. Manly (2005). Advantages and disadvantages of separate norms for African Americans. Clinical Neuropsychology, 19, 270275. doi:10.1080/13854040590945346

J.J. Manly , D.M. Jacobs , M. Sano , K. Bell , C.A. Merchant , S.A. Small , Y. Stern (1999). Effect of literacy on neuropsychological test performance in nondemented, education-matched elders. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 5, 191202. doi:10.1017/S135561779953302X


C.T. Nguyen , M.C. Couture , B.E. Alvarado , M.V. Zunzunegui (2008). Life course socioeconomic disadvantage and cognitive function among the elderly population of seven capitals in Latin America and the Caribbean. J Aging Health, 20, 347362. doi:20/3/347 [pii] 10.1177/0898264308315430

A.L. Piatt , J.A. Fields , A.M. Paolo , W.C. Koller , A.I. Tröster (1999). Lexical, semantic, and action verbal fluency in Parkinson’s disease with and without dementia. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 21, 435443. doi:10.1076/jcen.21.4.435.885

I. Shan , Y. Chen , Y. Lee , T. Su (2008). Adult data of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test in Taiwan. Journal of the Chinese Medical Association, 71, 517522. doi:10.1016/s1726-4901 (08) 70160-6

A. Singh-Manoux , M. Richards , M. Marmot (2005). Socioeconomic position across the lifecourse: How does it relate to cognitive function in mid-life? Annals of Epidemiology, 15, 572578. doi:10.1016/j.annepidem.2004.10.007

R.W. Snow , J.R. Schellenberg , D. Forster , V.O. Mung’ala , K. Marsh (1994). Factors influencing admission to hospital during terminal childhood illnesses in Kenya. International Journal of Epidemiology, 23, 10131019. doi:10.1093/ije/23.5.1013

A.L. Sosa , E. Albanese , M. Prince , D. Acosta , C.P. Ferri , M. Guerra , R. Stewart (2009). Population normative data for the 10/66 Dementia Research Group cognitive test battery from Latin America, India and China: A cross-sectional survey. BMC Neurology, 9, 48. doi:10.1186/1471-2377-9-48

S.A. Spector , K.K. Singh , S. Gupta , L.A. Cystique , H. Jin , S. Letendre , … HNRC Group. (2010). APOE epsilon4 and MBL-2 O/O genotypes are associated with neurocognitive impairment in HIV-infected plasma donors from Anhui province, China. AIDS, 24, 14711479. doi:10.1097/QAD.0b013e328339e25c

G. Turrell , J.W. Lynch , G.A. Kaplan , S.A. Everson , E.L. Helkala , J. Kauhanen , J.T. Salonen (2002). Socioeconomic position across the lifecourse and cognitive function in late middle age. The Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 57, S43S51. Retrieved from http://ucelinks.cdlib.org:8888/sfx_local?sid=Entrez:PubMed&id=pmid:11773232

W. Van der Elst , M.P. Van Boxtel , G.J. Van Breukelen , J. Jolles (2006). The Stroop color-word test: Influence of age, sex, and educatio; and normative data for a large sample across the adult age range. Assessment, 13, 6279. doi:10.1177/1073191105283427

E. Vegas (2007). Teacher labor markets in developing countries. Future Child, 17, 219232. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/4150027

W. Zeck , H.D. McIntyre (2008). Gestational diabetes in rural East Africa: A call to action. Journal of Womens Health (2002), 17, 403411. doi:10.1089/jwh.2007.0380

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society
  • ISSN: 1355-6177
  • EISSN: 1469-7661
  • URL: /core/journals/journal-of-the-international-neuropsychological-society
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords: