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  • Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, Volume 17, Issue 6
  • November 2011, pp. 1039-1046

Education Does Not Slow Cognitive Decline with Aging: 12-Year Evidence from the Victoria Longitudinal Study

  • Laura B. Zahodne (a1), M. Maria Glymour (a2), Catharine Sparks (a3), Daniel Bontempo (a4), Roger A. Dixon (a5), Stuart W.S. MacDonald (a3) and Jennifer J. Manly (a6)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 19 September 2011

Although the relationship between education and cognitive status is well-known, evidence regarding whether education moderates the trajectory of cognitive change in late life is conflicting. Early studies suggested that higher levels of education attenuate cognitive decline. More recent studies using improved longitudinal methods have not found that education moderates decline. Fewer studies have explored whether education exerts different effects on longitudinal changes within different cognitive domains. In the present study, we analyzed data from 1014 participants in the Victoria Longitudinal Study to examine the effects of education on composite scores reflecting verbal processing speed, working memory, verbal fluency, and verbal episodic memory. Using linear growth models adjusted for age at enrollment (range, 54–95 years) and gender, we found that years of education (range, 6–20 years) was strongly related to cognitive level in all domains, particularly verbal fluency. However, education was not related to rates of change over time for any cognitive domain. Results were similar in individuals older or younger than 70 at baseline, and when education was dichotomized to reflect high or low attainment. In this large longitudinal cohort, education was related to cognitive performance but unrelated to cognitive decline, supporting the hypothesis of passive cognitive reserve with aging. (JINS, 2011, 17, 1039–1046)

Corresponding author
Correspondence and reprint requests to: Laura B. Zahodne, Department of Clinical & Health Psychology, University of Florida, PO Box 100165, Gainesville, Florida 32610. E-mail:
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