To examine the hypothesis that abnormalities in those cognitive functions for which cerebellar components have been implicated contribute to the pathophysiology of autism, tests of judgment of explicit time intervals and procedural learning were administered to 11 participants with autism and 17 age-and-IQ-matched controls. Results indicated that the group with autism demonstrated significant impairments in procedural learning compared with the group of controls. No significant difference in judgment of explicit time intervals was found. The data suggest that deficits in procedural learning may contribute to the cognitive and behavioral phenotype of autism; these deficits may be secondary to abnormalities in cerebellar–frontal circuitry. (JINS, 2000, 6, 752–759.)
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