Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 26
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Davidson, Charlie A. Hoffman, Lesa and Spaulding, William D. 2016. Schizotypal personality questionnaire – brief revised (updated): An update of norms, factor structure, and item content in a large non-clinical young adult sample. Psychiatry Research, Vol. 238, p. 345.

    Giakoumaki, Stella G. 2016. Emotion processing deficits in the different dimensions of psychometric schizotypy. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, Vol. 57, Issue. 3, p. 256.

    Terrien, Sarah Gobin, Pamela Iakimova, Galina Coutté, Alexandre Thuaire, Flavien Baltazart, Véronique Mazzola-Pomietto, Pascale and Besche-Richard, Chrystel 2016. Electrophysiological correlates of emotional meaning in context in relation to facets of schizotypal personality traits: A dimensional study. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, Vol. 70, Issue. 3, p. 141.

    Walder, Deborah J. Yaffe, Beril and Ehrlich, Yosefa 2016. Sex Differences in the Central Nervous System.

    Zhang, Bingren Shen, Chanchan Zhu, Qisha Ma, Guorong and Wang, Wei 2016. Processing of facial expressions of emotions in Antisocial, Narcissistic, and Schizotypal personality disorders: An event-related potential study. Personality and Individual Differences, Vol. 99, p. 1.

    Bell, Vaughan and Halligan, Peter 2015. Schizotypy and impaired basic face recognition? Another non-confirmatory study. Early Intervention in Psychiatry, Vol. 9, Issue. 6, p. 512.

    Canli, Derya Ozdemir, Hatice and Kocak, Orhan Murat 2015. Magical ideation associated social cognition in adolescents: signs of a negative facial affect recognition deficit. Comprehensive Psychiatry, Vol. 61, p. 90.

    Cohen, A. S. Mohr, C. Ettinger, U. Chan, R. C. K. and Park, S. 2015. Schizotypy as An Organizing Framework for Social and Affective Sciences. Schizophrenia Bulletin, Vol. 41, Issue. suppl 2, p. S427.

    Yu, Junhong Zaroff, Charles M. and Bernardo, Allan B.I. 2015. The hypervigilant misperception of Duchenne smiles in schizotypy. Psychosis, Vol. 7, Issue. 4, p. 348.

    Cohen, Alex S. Auster, Tracey L. MacAulay, Rebecca K. and McGovern, Jessica E. 2014. The paradox of schizotypy: Resemblance to prolonged severe mental illness in subjective but not objective quality of life. Psychiatry Research, Vol. 217, Issue. 3, p. 185.

    Csukly, Gábor Polgár, Patrícia Tombor, László Benkovits, Judit and Réthelyi, János 2014. Theory of mind impairments in patients with deficit schizophrenia. Comprehensive Psychiatry, Vol. 55, Issue. 2, p. 349.

    Kohler, Christian G. Richard, Jan A. Brensinger, Colleen M. Borgmann-Winter, Karin E. Conroy, Catherine G. Moberg, Paul J. Gur, Ruben C. Gur, Raquel E. and Calkins, Monica E. 2014. Facial emotion perception differs in young persons at genetic and clinical high-risk for psychosis. Psychiatry Research, Vol. 216, Issue. 2, p. 206.

    Premkumar, Preethi Onwumere, Juliana Wilson, Daniel Sumich, Alexander Castro, Antonio Kumari, Veena and Kuipers, Elizabeth 2014. Greater positive schizotypy relates to reduced N100 activity during rejection scenes. Neuropsychologia, Vol. 61, p. 280.

    Abbott, Gavin and Byrne, Linda K. 2013. Schizotypal traits are associated with poorer identification of emotions from dynamic stimuli. Psychiatry Research, Vol. 207, Issue. 1-2, p. 40.

    Abbott, Gavin R. and Green, Melissa J. 2013. Facial affect recognition and schizotypal personality characteristics. Early Intervention in Psychiatry, Vol. 7, Issue. 1, p. 58.

    Collip, D. Wigman, J. T. W. Lin, A. Nelson, B. Oorschot, M. Vollebergh, W. A. M. Ryan, J. Baksheev, G. Wichers, M. van Os, J. Myin-Germeys, I. and Yung, A. R. 2013. Dynamic Association Between Interpersonal Functioning and Positive Symptom Dimensions of Psychosis Over Time: A Longitudinal Study of Healthy Adolescents. Schizophrenia Bulletin, Vol. 39, Issue. 1, p. 179.

    Morrison, Sean C. Brown, Laura A. and Cohen, Alex S. 2013. A multidimensional assessment of social cognition in psychometrically defined schizotypy. Psychiatry Research, Vol. 210, Issue. 3, p. 1014.

    Ripoll, Luis H. Zaki, Jamil Perez-Rodriguez, Maria Mercedes Snyder, Rebekah Strike, Kathryn Sloan Boussi, Ayelet Bartz, Jennifer A. Ochsner, Kevin N. Siever, Larry J. and New, Antonia S. 2013. Empathic accuracy and cognition in schizotypal personality disorder. Psychiatry Research, Vol. 210, Issue. 1, p. 232.

    Statucka, Marta and Walder, Deborah J. 2013. Efficacy of social cognition remediation programs targeting facial affect recognition deficits in schizophrenia: A review and consideration of high-risk samples and sex differences. Psychiatry Research, Vol. 206, Issue. 2-3, p. 125.

    Abbott, Gavin R. Do, Michael and Byrne, Linda K. 2012. Diminished subjective wellbeing in schizotypy is more than just negative affect. Personality and Individual Differences, Vol. 52, Issue. 8, p. 914.

  • Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, Volume 16, Issue 3
  • May 2010, pp. 474-483

Facial emotion recognition in schizotypy: The role of accuracy and social cognitive bias

  • LAURA A. BROWN (a1) and ALEX S. COHEN (a1)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 01 March 2010

Facial emotion recognition deficits have been widely investigated in individuals with schizophrenia; however, it remains unclear whether these deficits reflect a trait-like vulnerability to schizophrenia pathology present in individuals at risk for the disorder. Although some studies have investigated emotion recognition in this population, findings have been mixed. The current study uses a well-validated emotion recognition task, a relatively large sample, and examines the relationship between emotion recognition, symptoms, and overall life quality. Eighty-nine individuals with psychometrically defined schizotypy and 27 controls completed the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire, Penn Emotion Recognition Test, and a brief version of Lehman’s Quality of Life Interview. In addition to labeling facial emotions, participants rated the valence of faces using a Likert rating scale. Individuals with schizotypy were significantly less accurate than controls when labeling emotional faces, particularly neutral faces. Within the schizotypy sample, both disorganization symptoms and lower quality of life were associated with a bias toward perceiving facial expressions as more negative. Our results support previous research suggesting that poor emotion recognition is associated with vulnerability to psychosis. Although emotion recognition appears unrelated to symptoms, it probably operates by means of different processes in those with particular types of symptoms. (JINS, 2010, 16, 474–483.)

Corresponding author
*Correspondence and reprint requests to: Laura A. Brown, Department of Psychology, Louisiana State University, 236 Audubon Hall, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, 70803. E-mail:
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

J. Addington , & D. Addington (1998). Facial affect recognition and information processing in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Schizophrenia Research, 32, 171181.

J. Addington , D. Penn , S. Woods , D. Addington , & D. Perkins (2008). Facial affect recognition in individuals at clinical high risk for psychosis. British Journal of Psychiatry, 192, 6768.

J. Addington , H. Saeedi , & D. Addington (2006). Facial affect recognition: A mediator between cognitive and social functioning in psychosis? Schizophrenia Research, 85, 142150.

M. Angermeyer , A. Holzinger , H. Matschinger , & K. Stenger-Wenzke (2002). Depression and quality of life: Results of a follow-up study. International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 48, 189199.

N. Barrantes-Vidal , L. Fananas , A. Rosa , B. Caparros , M.D. Riba , & J.E. Obiols (2002). Neurocognitive, behavioral, and neurodevelopmental correlates of schizotypy clusters in adolescents from the general population. Schizophrenia Research, 61, 293302.

A. Bellack , M. Bennett , J. Gearon , C. Brown , & Y. Yang (2006). A randomized clinical trial of a new behavioral treatment for drug abuse in people with severe and persistent mental illness. Archives of General Psychiatry, 63, 426432.

H. Bergida , & M.F. Lenzenweger (2006). Schizotypy and sustained attention: Confirming evidence from an adult community sample. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 115, 545551.

J.S. Brekke , E. Nakagami , K.S. Kee , & M.F. Green (2005). Cross-ethnic differences in perception of emotion in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research, 77, 289298.

M. Buchsbaum , I. Nenadic , E. Hazlett , J. Spiegal-Cohen , M. Fleischman , A. Akhavan , . (2002). Differential metabolic rates in prefrontal and temporal Brodmann areas in schizophrenia and schizotypal personality disorder. Schizophrenia Research, 54, 141150.

M.E. Calkins , D.J. Dobie , K.S. Cadenhead , R. Freedman , T. A. Greenwood , R.C. Gur , . (2007). The consortium on the genetics of endophenotypes in schizophrenia: Model recruitment, assessment, and endophenotyping methods for a multisite collaboration. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 33, 3348.

W. Chen , C. Hsiao , & C. Lin (1997). Schizotypy in community samples: The three-factor structure and correlation with sustained attention. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 106, 649654.

A.S. Cohen , & T.E. Davis III. (2009). Quality of life across the schizotypy spectrum: Findings from a large healthy adult sample. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 50, 408414.

A.S. Cohen , B. Iglesias , & K.S. Minor (2009). The neurocognitive underpinnings of diminished expressivity in schizotypy: What the voice reveals. Schizophrenia Research, 109, 3845.

A.S. Cohen , T.M. Nienow , T.J. Dinzeo , & N.M. Docherty (2009). Attribution biases in schizophrenia: Relationship to clinical and functional impairments. Psychopathology, 42, 4046.

G. Csukly , P. Czobor , E. Szily , B. Takács , & L. Simon (2009). Facial expression recognition in depressed subjects: The impact of intensity level and arousal dimension. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 197, 98103.

A. da Silva Lima , & M. de Almeida Fleck (2007). Subsyndromal depression: An impact on quality of life? Journal of Affective Disorders, 100, 163169.

P. Davis , & M. Gibson (2000). Recognition of posed and genuine facial expressions of emotion in paranoid and nonparanoid schizophrenia. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 109, 445450.

B. Derntl , U. Habel , C. Windischberger , S. Robinson , I. Kryspin-Exner , R. Gur , . (2009). General and specific responsiveness of the amygdala during explicit emotion recognition in females and males. BMC Neuroscience, 10, 114.

F. Dougherty , E. Bartlett , & C. Izard (1974). Responses of schizophrenics to expressions of the fundamental emotions. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 30, 243246.

T. Feinberg , A. Rifkin , C. Schaffer , & E. Walker (1986). Facial discrimination and emotional recognition in schizophrenia and affective disorders. Archives of General Psychiatry, 43, 276279.

E. Fonseca-Pedrero , S. Lemos-Giráldez , J. Muñiz , E. García-Cueto , & Á Campillo-Álvarez . (2008). Schizotypy in adolescence: The role of gender and age. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 196, 161165.

R. Goldney , L. Fisher , E. Dal Grande , & A. Taylor (2004). Subsyndromal depression: Prevalence, use of health services and quality of life in an Australian population. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 39, 293298.

R. Goldney , L. Fisher , D. Wilson , & F. Cheok (2000). Major depression and its associated morbidity and quality of life in a random, representative Australian community sample. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 34, 10221029.

D. Gooding , T. Kwapil , & K. Tallent (1999). Wisconsin Card Sorting Test deficits in schizotypic individuals. Schizophrenia Research, 40, 201209.

D. Gooding , K. Luh , & K. Tallent (2001). Evidence of schizophrenia patients’ reduced perceptual biases in response to emotion chimera. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 27, 709716.

D. Gooding , M. Miller , & T. Kwapil (2000). Smooth pursuit eye tracking and visual fixation in psychosis-prone individuals. Psychiatry Research, 93, 4154.

D. Gooding , K. Tallent , & C. Matts (2005). Clinical status of at-risk individuals 5 years later: Further validation of the psychometric high-risk strategy. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 114, 170175.

J.H. Gruzelier (1994). Syndromes of schizophrenia and schizotypy, hemispheric imbalance and sex differences: Implications for developmental psychopathology. International Journal of Psychophysiology 18, 167178.

R.C. Gur , R. Sara , M. Hagendoorn , O. Marom , P. Hughett , L. Macy , . (2002). A method for obtaining 3-dimensional facial expressions and its standardization for use in neurocognitive studies. Journal of Neuroscience Methods, 115, 137143.

D. Heider , M. Angermeyer , I. Winkler , G. Schomerus , P. Bebbington , T. Brugha , . (2007). A prospective study of quality of life in schizophrenia in three European countries. Schizophrenia Research, 93, 194202.

E. Herbener , S. Hill , R. Marvin , & J. Sweeney (2005). Effects of antipsychotic treatment on emotion perception deficits in first-episode schizophrenia. American Journal of Psychiatry, 162, 17461748.

C. Hooker , & S. Park (2002). Emotion processing and its relationship to social functioning in schizophrenia patients. Psychiatry Research, 112, 4150.

W. Horan , S. Brown , & J. Blanchard (2007). Social anhedonia and schizotypy: The contribution of individual differences in affective traits, stress, and coping. Psychiatry Research, 149, 147156.

J. Huppert , K. Weiss , R. Lim , S. Pratt , & T. Smith (2001). Quality of life in schizophrenia: Contributions of anxiety and depression. Schizophrenia Research, 51, 171180.

C. Jahshan , & M. Sergi (2007). Theory of mind, neurocognition, and functional status in schizotypy. Schizophrenia Research, 89, 278286.

S. Kerr , & J. Neale (1993). Emotion perception in schizophrenia: Specific deficit or further evidence of generalized poor performance? Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 102, 312318.

M. Kimble , M. Lyons , B. O’Donnell , P. Nestor , M. Niznikiewicz , & R. Toomey (2000). The effect of family status and schizotypy on electrophysiologic measures of attention and semantic processing. Biological Psychiatry, 47, 402412.

C. Kohler , T. Turner , W. Bilker , C. Brensinger , S. Siegel , S. Kanes , . (2003). Facial emotion recognition in schizophrenia: Intensity effects and error pattern. American Journal of Psychiatry, 160, 17681774.

K. Kucharska-Pietura , A. David , M. Masiak , & M. Phillips (2005). Perception of facial and vocal affect by people with schizophrenia in early and late stages of illness. British Journal of Psychiatry, 187, 523528.

T. Kwapil , N. Barrantes-Vidal , & P. Silvia (2008). The dimensional structure of the Wisconsin Schizotypy Scales: Factor identification and construct validity. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 34, 444457.

S. Langenecker , L. Bieliauskas , L. Rapport , J. Zubieta , E. Wilde , & S. Berent (2005). Face emotion perception and executive functioning deficits in depression. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 27, 320333.

F. Larøi , A. D’Argembeau , S. Brédart , & M. van der Linden (2007). Face recognition failures in schizotypy. Cognitive Neuropsychiatry, 12, 554571.

A. Lehman (1996). Measures of quality of life among persons with severe and persistent mental disorders. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 31, 7888.

M. Lenzenweger (1994). Psychometric high-risk paradigm, perceptual aberrations, and schizotypy: An update. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 20, 121135.

M. Lenzenweger , & L. Korfine (1994). Perceptual aberrations, schizotypy, and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 20, 345357.

J. Leppänen , D. Niehaus , L. Koen , E. Du Toit , R. Schoeman , & R. Emsley (2008). Deficits in facial affect recognition in unaffected siblings of Xhosa schizophrenia patients: Evidence for a neurocognitive endophenotype. Schizophrenia Research, 99, 270273.

K. Lewandowski , N. Barrantes-Vidal , R. Nelson-Gray , C. Clancy , H. Kepley , & T. Kwapil (2006). Anxiety and depression symptoms in psychometrically identified schizotypy. Schizophrenia Research, 83, 225235.

L.S. Miller , & S.A. Burns (1995). Gender differences in schizotypic features in a large sample of young adults. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 183, 657661.

A. Mohanty , J.D. Herrington , N.S. Koven , J.E. Fisher , E.A. Wenzel , A.G. Webb , . (2005). Neural mechanisms of affective interference in schizotypy. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 114, 1627.

K. Mueser , R. Doonan , D. Penn , J. Blanchard , A. Bellack , P. Nishith , . (1996). Emotion recognition and social competence in chronic schizophrenia. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 105, 271275.

G. O’Driscoll , M. Lenzenweger , & P. Holzman (1998). Antisaccades and smooth pursuit eye tracking and schizotypy. Archives of General Psychiatry, 55, 837843.

S. Park , P. Holzman , & M. Lenzenweger (1995). Individual differences in spatial working memory in relation to schizotypy. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 104, 355363.

D. Penn , P. Corrigan , R. Bentall , J. Racenstein , & L. Newman (1997). Social cognition in schizophrenia. Psychological Bulletin, 121, 114132.

D. Penn , L. Sanna , & D. Roberts (2008). Social cognition in schizophrenia: An overview. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 34, 408411.

A. Pinkham , N. Sasson , M. Calkins , J. Richard , P. Hughett , R. Gur , . (2008). The other-race effect in face processing among African American and Caucasian individuals with schizophrenia. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 165, 639645.

A. Poreh , R. Whitman , M. Weber , & T. Ross (1994). Facial recognition in hypothetically schizotypic college students: The role of generalized poor performance. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 182, 503507.

A. Raine (1991). The SPQ: A scale for the assessment of schizotypal personality based on DSM-III-R criteria. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 17, 555564.

G. Reine , C. Lançon , S. Tucci , C. Sapin , & P. Auquier (2003). Depression and subjective quality of life in chronic phase schizophrenic patients. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 108, 297303.

J. Smári , S. Stefánsson , & H. Thorgilsson (1994). Paranoia, self-consciousness, and social cognition in schizophrenics. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 18, 387399.

S. Taylor , I. Liberzon , L. Decker , & R. Koeppe (2002). A functional anatomic study of emotion in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research, 58, 159172.

S. Taylor , K. Phan , J. Britton , & I. Liberzon (2005). Neural response to emotional salience in schizophrenia. Neuropsychopharmacology, 30, 984995.

R. Toomey , & D. Schuldberg (1995). Recognition and judgment of facial stimuli in schizotypal subjects. Journal of Communication Disorders, 28, 193203.

R. Toomey , L. Seidman , M. Lyons , S. Faraone , & M. Tsuang (1999). Poor perception of nonverbal social-emotional cues in relatives of schizophrenic patients. Schizophrenia Research, 40, 121130.

D. Tsoi , K. Lee , W. Khokhar , N. Mir , J. Swalli , K. Gee , . (2008). Is facial emotion recognition impairment in schizophrenia identical for different emotions? A signal detection analysis. Schizophrenia Research, 99, 263269.

P.H. Venables , & K. Bailes (1994). The structure of schizotypy, its relation to subdiagnoses of schizophrenia and to sex and age. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 33, 277294.

D. Wasserman , J. Sorensen , K. Delucchi , C. Masson , & S. Hall (2006). Psychometric evaluation of the quality of life interview, brief version, in injection drug users. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 20, 316321.

E. Weiss , C. Kohler , C. Brensinger , W. Bilker , J. Loughead , M. Delazer , . (2007). Gender differences in facial emotion recognition in persons with chronic schizophrenia. European Psychiatry, 22, 116122.

B. Williams , J. Henry , & M. Green (2007). Facial affect recognition and schizotypy. Early Intervention in Psychiatry, 1, 177182.

W. Wölwer , M. Streit , U. Polzer , & W. Gaebel (1996). Facial affect recognition in the course of schizophrenia. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, 246, 165170.

V. Wuthrich , & T. Bates (2005). Reliability and validity of two Likert versions of the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ). Personality and Individual Differences, 38, 15431548.

J. Archer , D. Hay , & A. Young (1994). Movement, face processing, and schizophrenia: Evidence of a differential deficit in expression analysis British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 33, 517528.

B. Bediou , N. Franck , M. Saoud , J. Baudouin , G. Tiberghien , J. Daléry , . (2005). Effects of emotion and identity on facial affect processing in schizophrenia. Psychiatry Research, 133, 149157.

R. Bentall , R. Corcoran , R. Howard , N. Blackwood , & P. Kinderman (2001). Persecutory delusions: A review and theoretical integration. Clinical Psychology Review, 21, 11431192.

D. Diforio , E. Walker , & L. Kestler (2000). Executive functions in adolescents with schizotypal personality disorder. Schizophrenia Research, 42, 125134.

E. Fakra , P. Salgado-Pineda , P. Delaveau , A. Hariri , & O. Blin (2008). Neural bases of different cognitive strategies for facial affect processing in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research, 100, 191205.

M. Green , L. Williams , & D. Davidson (2001). Processing of threat-related affect is delayed in delusion-prone individuals. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 40, 157165.

R. Gur , C. Kohler , J. Ragland , S. Siegel , W. Bilker , J. Loughead , . (2003). Neurocognitive performance and clinical changes in olanzapine-treated patients with schizophrenia. Neuropsychopharmacology, 28, 20292036.

P. Johnston , M. Katsikitis , & V. Carr (2001). A generalised deficit can account for problems in facial emotion recognition in schizophrenia. Biological Psychology, 58, 203227.

K. Kee , W. Horan , J. Mintz , & M. Green (2004). Do the siblings of schizophrenia patients demonstrate affect perception deficits? Schizophrenia Research, 67, 8794.

K. Kendler , A. Ochs , A. Gorman , & J. Hewitt (1991). The structure of schizotypy: A pilot multitrait twin study. Psychiatry Research, 36, 1936.

K. Kendler , L. Thacker , & D. Walsh (1996). Self-report measures of schizotypy as indices of familial vulnerability to schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 22, 511520.

L. Korfine , & M. Lenzenweger (1995). The taxonicity of schizotypy: A replication. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 104, 2631.

T. Kwapil (1998). Social anhedonia as a predictor of the development of schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 107, 558565.

M. Lenzenweger , B. Cornblatt , & M. Putnick (1991). Schizotypy and sustained attention. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 100, 8489.

M. Lenzenweger , & L. Korfine (1992). Identifying schizophrenia-related personality disorder features in a nonclinical population using a psychometric approach. Journal of Personality Disorders, 6, 256266.

P. Meehl (1990). Toward an integrated theory of schizotaxia, schizotypy, and schizophrenia. Journal of Personality Disorders, 4, 199.

K.S. Minor , & A.S. Cohen (2010). Affective reactivity of speech disturbances in schizotypy. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 44, 99105.

L. Muzekari , & M. Bates (1977). Judgment of emotion among chronic schizophrenics. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 33, 662666.

C. Neumann , & E. Walker (2003). Neuromotor functioning in adolescents with schizotypal personality disorder: Associations with symptoms and neurocognition. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 29, 285298.

M. Phillips , L. Williams , C. Senior , E. Bullmore , M. Brammer , C. Andrew , . (1999). A differential neural response to threatening and non-threatening negative facial expressions in paranoid and non-paranoid schizophrenics. Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging, 92, 1131.

A. Pinkham , D. Penn , D. Perkins , K. Graham , & M. Siegel (2007). Emotion perception and social skill over the course of psychosis: A comparison of individuals ‘at-risk’ for psychosis and individuals with early and chronic schizophrenia spectrum illness. Cognitive Neuropsychiatry, 12, 198212.

A. Pinkham , D. Penn , D. Perkins , & J. Lieberman (2003). Implications for the neural basis of social cognition for the study of schizophrenia. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 160, 815824.

P. Premkumar , M. Cooke , D. Fannon , E. Peters , T. Michel , I. Aasen , . (2008). Misattribution bias of threat-related facial expressions is related to a longer duration of illness and poor executive function in schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder. European Psychiatry, 23, 1419.

S. Quirk , L. Subramanian , & M. Hoerger (2007). Effects of situational demand upon social enjoyment and preference in schizotypy. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 116, 624631.

A. Tyrka , T. Cannon , N. Haslam , S. Mednick , F. Schulsinger , H. Schulsinger , . (1995). The latent structure of schizotypy: I. Premorbid indicators of a taxon of individuals at risk for schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 104, 173183.

P.E. Meehl (1962). Schizotaxia, Schizotypy, and Schizophrenia. American Psychologist, 17, 827838.

A. Raine , C. Reynolds , T. Lencz , & A. Scerbo (1994). Cognitive-perceptual, interpersonal, and disorganized features of schizotypal personality. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 20, 191201.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society
  • ISSN: 1355-6177
  • EISSN: 1469-7661
  • URL: /core/journals/journal-of-the-international-neuropsychological-society
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *