Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 78
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Archila-Suerte, Pilar Munson, Brandin A. and Hernandez, Arturo E. 2016. Cognitive Control and Consequences of Multilingualism.

    Blumenfeld, Henrike K. Schroeder, Scott R. Bobb, Susan C. Freeman, Max R. and Marian, Viorica 2016. Auditory word recognition across the lifespan: Links between linguistic and nonlinguistic inhibitory control in bilinguals and monolinguals. Linguistic Approaches to Bilingualism, Vol. 6, Issue. 1-2, p. 119.

    Branzi, Francesca M. Calabria, Marco Boscarino, Maria Lucrezia and Costa, Albert 2016. On the overlap between bilingual language control and domain-general executive control. Acta Psychologica, Vol. 166, p. 21.

    Costa, Albert Branzi, Francesca M. and Ávila, Cesar 2016. Neurobiology of Language.

    EMMOREY, KAREN GIEZEN, MARCEL R. and GOLLAN, TAMAR H. 2016. Psycholinguistic, cognitive, and neural implications of bimodal bilingualism. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, Vol. 19, Issue. 02, p. 223.

    Gollan, Tamar H. and Goldrick, Matthew 2016. Grammatical constraints on language switching: Language control is not just executive control. Journal of Memory and Language, Vol. 90, p. 177.

    Grohmann, Kleanthes K. and Kambanaros, Maria 2016. The Gradience of Multilingualism in Typical and Impaired Language Development: Positioning Bilectalism within Comparative Bilingualism. Frontiers in Psychology, Vol. 7,

    Hartanto, Andree and Yang, Hwajin 2016. Disparate bilingual experiences modulate task-switching advantages: A diffusion-model analysis of the effects of interactional context on switch costs. Cognition, Vol. 150, p. 10.

    Hofweber, Julia Treffers-Daller, Jeanine and Marinis, Theodoros 2016. Effects of dense code-switching on executive control. Linguistic Approaches to Bilingualism,

    Ihle, Andreas Oris, Michel Fagot, Delphine and Kliegel, Matthias 2016. The relation of the number of languages spoken to performance in different cognitive abilities in old age. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, p. 1.

    Ivanova, Iva Murillo, Mayra Montoya, Rosa I. and Gollan, Tamar H. 2016. Does bilingual language control decline in older age?. Linguistic Approaches to Bilingualism, Vol. 6, Issue. 1-2, p. 86.

    Klein, Raymond M. 2016. What cognitive processes are likely to be exercised by bilingualism and does this exercise lead to extra-linguistic cognitive benefits?. Linguistic Approaches to Bilingualism,

    Ma, Fengyang Li, Shengcao and Guo, Taomei 2016. Reactive and proactive control in bilingual word production: An investigation of influential factors. Journal of Memory and Language, Vol. 86, p. 35.

    Morales, Julia Gómez-Ariza, Carlos J. and Bajo, M. Teresa 2016. Cognitive Control and Consequences of Multilingualism.

    Narra, Manjunath Heathcote, Andrew and Finkbeiner, Matthew 2016. Cognitive Control and Consequences of Multilingualism.

    Prior, Anat Goldwasser, Noa Ravet-Hirsh, Rotem and Schwartz, Mila 2016. Cognitive Control and Consequences of Multilingualism.

    QU, LI LOW, JOEL JIA WEI ZHANG, TING LI, HONG and ZELAZO, PHILIP DAVID 2016. Bilingual advantage in executive control when task demands are considered. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, Vol. 19, Issue. 02, p. 277.

    Schwieter, John W. and Ferreira, Aline 2016. Cognitive Control and Consequences of Multilingualism.

    Teubner-Rhodes, Susan E. Mishler, Alan Corbett, Ryan Andreu, Llorenç Sanz-Torrent, Monica Trueswell, John C. and Novick, Jared M. 2016. The effects of bilingualism on conflict monitoring, cognitive control, and garden-path recovery. Cognition, Vol. 150, p. 213.

    Watson, Caitlin Wei-Ming Manly, Jennifer J. and Zahodne, Laura B. 2016. Does bilingualism protect against cognitive aging?. Linguistic Approaches to Bilingualism,

  • Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, Volume 17, Issue 4
  • May 2011, pp. 682-691

Good Language-Switchers are Good Task-Switchers: Evidence from Spanish–English and Mandarin–English Bilinguals

  • Anat Prior (a1) and Tamar H. Gollan (a2)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 13 May 2011

Bilingual advantages in executive control tasks are well documented, but it is not yet clear what degree or type of bilingualism leads to these advantages. To investigate this issue, we compared the performance of two bilingual groups and monolingual speakers in task-switching and language-switching paradigms. Spanish–English bilinguals, who reported switching between languages frequently in daily life, exhibited smaller task-switching costs than monolinguals after controlling for between-group differences in speed and parent education level. By contrast, Mandarin–English bilinguals, who reported switching languages less frequently than Spanish–English bilinguals, did not exhibit a task-switching advantage relative to monolinguals. Comparing the two bilingual groups in language-switching, Spanish–English bilinguals exhibited smaller costs than Mandarin–English bilinguals, even after matching for fluency in the non-dominant language. These results demonstrate an explicit link between language-switching and bilingual advantages in task-switching, while also illustrating some limitations on bilingual advantages. (JINS, 2011, 17, 682–691)

Corresponding author
Correspondence and reprint requests to: Anat Prior, Edmond J. Safra Brain Research Center, Faculty of Education, University of Haifa, Haifa, Israel. E-mail:
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

J. Abutalebi , D. Green (2007). Bilingual language production: The neurocognition of language representation and control. Journal of Neurolinguistics, 20, 242275.

E. Bialystok , F.I.M. Craik , M. Freedman (2007). Bilingualism as a protection against the onset of symptoms of dementia. Neuropsychologia, 45, 459464.

E. Bialystok , F.I.M. Craik , D.W. Green , T.H. Gollan (2009). Bilingual minds. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 10, 89129.

E. Bialystok , F.I.M. Craik , A.C. Ruocco (2006). Dual-modality monitoring in a classification task: The effects of bilingualism and ageing. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 59, 19681983.

S.M. Carlson , A.N. Meltzoff (2008). Bilingual experience and executive functioning in young children. Developmental Science, 11, 282298.

J. Cohen , B. MacWhinney , M. Flatt , J. Provost (1993). PsyScope: An interactive graphical system for designing and controlling experiments in the Psychology laboratory using Macintosh computers. Behavioral Research Methods, Instrumentation and Computation, 25, 257271.

A. Costa , M. Hernandez , N. Sebastian-Galles (2008). Bilingualism aids conflict resolution: Evidence from the ANT task. Cognition, 106, 5986.

A. Costa , M. Santesteban (2004). Lexical access in bilingual speech production: Evidence from language switching in highly proficient bilinguals and L2 learners. Journal of Memory and Language, 50, 491511.

H. Chertkow , V. Whitehead , N. Phillips , C. Wolfson , J. Atherton , H. Bergman (2010). Multilingualism (but not always bilingualism) delays the onset of Alzheimer's disease: Evidence from a bilingual community. Alzheimer's Disease and Associated Disorders, 24, 118125.

F.I.M. Craik , E. Bialystok , M. Freedman (2010). Delaying the onset of Alzheimer disease: Bilingualism as a form of cognitive reserve. Neurology, 75, 17261729.

A. Diamond , W.S. Barnett , J. Thomas , S. Munro (2007). Preschool program improves cognitive control. Science, 318, 13871388.

A. Dove , S. Pollmann , T. Schubert , C.J. Wiggins , D.Y. von Cramon (2000). Prefrontal cortex activation in task switching: An event-related fMRI study. Cognitive Brain Research, 9, 103109.

G. Garbin , A. Sanjuan , C. Forn , J.C. Bustamante , A. Rodriguez-Pujadas , V. Belloch , C. Avila (2010). Bridging language and attention: Brain basis of the impact of bilingualism on cognitive control. Neuroimage, 53, 12721278.

D.W. Green (1998). Mental control of the bilingual lexico-semantic system. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 1, 6781.

R.R. Heredia , J. Altarriba (2001). Bilingual language mixing: Why do bilinguals code-switch? Current Directions in Psychological Science, 10, 164168.

A.E. Hernandez , M. Dapretto , J. Mazziotta , S. Bookheimer (2001). Language switching and language representation in Spanish-English bilinguals: An fMRI study. Neuroimage, 14, 510520.

A.E. Hernandez , A. Martinez , K. Kohnert (2000). In search of the language switch: An fMRI study of picture naming in Spanish-English bilinguals. Brain and Language, 73, 421431.

G. Kave , N. Eyal , A. Shorek , J. Cohen-Mansfield (2008). Multilingualism and cognitive state in the oldest old. Psychology and Aging, 23, 7078.

V. Marian , H.K. Blumenfeld , M. Kaushanskaya (2007). The Language Experience and Proficiency Questionnaire (LEAP-Q): Assessing language profiles in bilinguals and multilinguals. Journal of Speech Language and Hearing Research, 50, 940967.

N. Meiran , Z. Chorev , A. Sapir (2000). Component processes in task switching. Cognitive Psychology, 41, 211253.

R. Meuter , A. Allport (1999). Bilingual language switching in naming: Asymmetrical costs of language selection. Journal of Memory and Language, 40, 2540.

S. Monsell (2003). Task Switching. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 7, 134140.

S. Myers-Scotton (1993). Common and uncommon ground: Social and structural factors in codeswitching. Language in Society, 22, 475503.

A. Prior , B. MacWhinney (2010). A bilingual advantage in task switching. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 13, 253262.

A. Rodriguez-Fornells , A. van der Lugt , M. Rotte , B. Britti , H.J. Heinze , T.F. Munte (2005). Second language interferes with word production in fluent bilinguals: Brain potential and functional imaging evidence. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 17, 422433.

K. Verhoef , A. Roelofs , D.J. Chwilla (2009). Role of inhibition in language switching: Evidence from event-related brain potentials in overt picture naming. Cognition, 110, 8499.

T.D. Wager , J. Jonides , E.E. Smith (2006). Individual differences in multiple types of shifting attention. Memory and Cognition, 34, 17301743.

T.D. Wager , J. Jonides , E.E. Smith , T.E. Nichols (2005). Toward a taxonomy of attention shifting: Individual differences in fMRI during multiple shift types. Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience, 5, 127143.

Y. Wang , P.K. Kuhl , C. Chen , Q. Dong (2009). Sustained and transient language control in the bilingual brain. Neuroimage, 47, 414422.

Y. Wang , G. Xue , C. Chen , F. Xue , Q. Dong (2007). Neural basis of asymmetric language switching in second-language learners: An ER-fMRI study. Neuroimage, 35, 862870.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society
  • ISSN: 1355-6177
  • EISSN: 1469-7661
  • URL: /core/journals/journal-of-the-international-neuropsychological-society
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *