Skip to main content
×
Home
    • Aa
    • Aa

Inhibitory control and psychopathology: A meta-analysis of studies using the stop signal task

  • JONATHAN LIPSZYC (a1) (a2) and RUSSELL SCHACHAR (a1) (a2)
Abstract
Abstract

The Stop Signal Task (SST) is a measure that has been used widely to assess response inhibition. We conducted a meta-analysis of studies that examined SST performance in patients with various psychiatric disorders to determine the magnitude and generality of deficient inhibition. A five-item instrument was used to assess the methodological quality of studies. We found medium deficits in stop signal reaction time (SSRT), reflecting the speed of the inhibitory process, for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (g = 0.62), obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) (g = 0.77) and schizophrenia (SCZ) (g = 0.69). SSRT was less impaired or normal for anxiety disorder (ANX), autism, major depressive disorder (MDD), oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder (ODD/CD), pathological gambling, reading disability (RD), substance dependence, and Tourette syndrome. We observed a large SSRT deficit for comorbid ADHD + RD (g = 0.82). SSRT was less than moderately impaired for ADHD + ANX and ADHD + ODD/CD. Study quality did not significantly affect SSRT across ADHD studies. This confirms an inhibition deficit in ADHD, and suggests that comorbid ADHD has different effects on inhibition in patients with ANX, ODD/CD, and RD. Further studies are needed to firmly establish an inhibition deficit in OCD and SCZ. (JINS, 2010, 16, 1064–1076.)

Copyright
Corresponding author
*Correspondence and reprint requests to: Russell Schachar, Toronto Dominion Bank Financial Group Chair in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Neurosciences and Mental Health Program, The Hospital for Sick Children, 555 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, M5G 1X8. E-mail: russell.schachar@sickkids.ca
References
Hide All

*References marked with an asterisk indicate studies included in the meta-analysis.

*Albrecht B., Banaschewski T., Brandeis D., Heinrich H., & Rothenberger A. (2005). Response inhibition deficits in externalizing child psychiatric disorders: An ERP-study with the Stop-task. Behavioral and Brain Functions, 1, 22. doi: 10.1186/1744-9081-1-22
Alderson R.M., Rapport M.D., & Kofler M.J. (2007). Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and behavioral inhibition: A meta-analytic review of the stop-signal paradigm. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 35, 745758. doi: 10.1007/s10802-007-9131-6
*Alderson R.M., Rapport M.D., Sarver D.E., & Kofler M.J. (2008). ADHD and behavioral inhibition: A re-examination of the stop-signal task. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 36, 989998. doi: 10.1007/s10802-008-9230-z
American Psychiatric Association. (1987). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (3rd ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.
American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.
*Aron A.R., Dowson J.H., Sahakian B.J., & Robbins T.W. (2003). Methylphenidate improves response inhibition in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Biological Psychiatry, 54, 14651468. doi: 10.1016/S0006-3223(03)00609-7
Aron A.R., Fletcher P.C., Bullmore E.T., Sahakian B.J., & Robbins T.W. (2003). Stop-signal inhibition disrupted by damage to right inferior frontal gyrus in humans. Nature Neuroscience, 6, 115116. doi: 10.1038/nn1003
*Badcock J.C., Michie P.T., Johnson L., & Combrinck J. (2002). Acts of control in schizophrenia: Dissociating the components of inhibition. Psychological Medicine, 32, 287297. doi: 10.1017/S0033291701005128
Barkley R.A. (1997). Behavioral inhibition, sustained attention, and executive functions: Constructing a unifying theory of ADHD. Psychological Bulletin, 121, 6594. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.121.1.65
*Bekker E.M., Overtoom C.C., Kenemans J.L., Kooij J.J., De Noord I., Buitelaar J.K., et al. . (2005). Stopping and changing in adults with ADHD. Psychological Medicine, 35, 807816. doi: 10.1017/S0033291704003459
*Bellgrove M.A., Chambers C.D., Vance A., Hall N., Karamitsios M., & Bradshaw J.L. (2006). Lateralized deficit of response inhibition in early-onset schizophrenia. Psychological Medicine, 36, 495505. doi: 10.1017/S0033291705006409
*Bidwell L.C., Willcutt E.G., Defries J.C., & Pennington B.F. (2007). Testing for neuropsychological endophenotypes in siblings discordant for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Biological Psychiatry, 62, 991998. doi: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2007.04.003
Biederman J., Newcorn J., & Sprich S. (1991). Comorbidity of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder with conduct, depressive, anxiety, and other disorders. American Journal of Psychiatry, 148, 564577. Retrieved from http://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/
*Bitsakou P., Psychogiou L., Thompson M., & Sonuga-Barke E.J. (2008). Inhibitory deficits in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder are independent of basic processing efficiency and IQ. Journal of Neural Transmission, 115, 261268. doi: 10.1007/s00702-007-0828-z
*Blaskey L.G., Harris L.J., & Nigg J.T. (2008). Are sensation seeking and emotion processing related to or distinct from cognitive control in children with ADHD? Child Neuropsychology, 14, 353371. doi: 10.1080/09297040701660291
Borenstein M., Hedges L., Higgins J., & Rothstein H. (2005). Comprehensive meta-analysis. Version 2. Englewood NJ: Biostat.
*Brandeis D., van Leeuwen T.H., Rubia K., Vitacco D., Steger J., Pascual-Marqui R.D., et al. . (1998). Neuroelectric mapping reveals precursor of stop failures in children with attention deficits. Behavioural Brain Research, 94, 111125. doi: 10.1016/S0166-4328(97)00174-5
*Chamberlain S.R., Del Campo N., Dowson J., Muller U., Clark L., Robbins T.W., et al. . (2007). Atomoxetine improved response inhibition in adults with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Biological Psychiatry, 62, 977984. doi: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2007.03.003
*Chamberlain S.R., Fineberg N.A., Blackwell A.D., Robbins T.W., & Sahakian B.J. (2006). Motor inhibition and cognitive flexibility in obsessive-compulsive disorder and trichotillomania. American Journal of Psychiatry, 163, 12821284. doi: 10.1176/appi.ajp.163.7.1282
*Chamberlain S.R., Fineberg N.A., Menzies L.A., Blackwell A.D., Bullmore E.T., Robbins T.W., et al. . (2007). Impaired cognitive flexibility and motor inhibition in unaffected first-degree relatives of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry, 164, 335338. doi: 10.1176/appi.ajp.164.2.335
Chevrier A.D., Noseworthy M.D., & Schachar R. (2007). Dissociation of response inhibition and performance monitoring in the stop signal task using event-related fMRI. Human Brain Mapping, 28, 13471358. doi: 10.1002/hbm.20355
*Clark L., Blackwell A.D., Aron A.R., Turner D.C., Dowson J., Robbins T.W., et al. . (2007). Association between response inhibition and working memory in adult ADHD: A link to right frontal cortex pathology? Biological Psychiatry, 61, 13951401. doi: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2006.07.020
Cohen J. (1992). A power primer. Psychological Bulletin, 112, 155159. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.112.1.155
*Daugherty T.K., Quay H.C., & Ramos L. (1993). Response perseveration, inhibitory control, and central dopaminergic activity in childhood behavior disorders. Journal of Genetic Psychology, 154, 177188. Retrieved from http://www.heldref.org/pubs/gnt/about.html.
*de Zeeuw P., Aarnoudse-Moens C., Bijlhout J., Konig C., Post Uiterweer A., Papanikolau A., et al. . (2008). Inhibitory performance, response speed, intraindividual variability, and response accuracy in ADHD. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 47, 808816. doi: 10.1097/CHI.0b013e318172eee9
*DeVito E.E., Blackwell A.D., Clark L., Kent L., Dezsery A.M., Turner D.C., et al. . (2009). Methylphenidate improves response inhibition but not reflection-impulsivity in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Psychopharmacology, 202, 531539. doi: 10.1007/s00213-008-1337-y
*Dimoska A., Johnstone S.J., Barry R.J., & Clarke A.R. (2003). Inhibitory motor control in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: Event-related potentials in the stop-signal paradigm. Biological Psychiatry, 54, 13451354. doi: 10.1016/S0006-3223(03)00703-0
Duval S., & Tweedie R. (2000). A nonparametric ‘trim and fill’ method of accounting for publication bias in meta-analysis. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 95, 8998. doi: 10.2307/2669529
*Enticott P.G., Ogloff J.R., & Bradshaw J.L. (2008). Response inhibition and impulsivity in schizophrenia. Psychiatry Research, 157, 251254. doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2007.04.007
*Epstein J.N., Johnson D.E., Varia I.M., & Conners C.K. (2001). Neuropsychological assessment of response inhibition in adults with ADHD. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 23, 362371. doi: 10.1076/jcen.23.3.362.1186
*Fillmore M.T., & Rush C.R. (2002). Impaired inhibitory control of behavior in chronic cocaine users. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 66, 265273. doi: 10.1016/S0376-8716(01)00206-X
Gershon J. (2002). A meta-analytic review of gender differences in ADHD. Journal of Attention Disorders, 5, 143154. doi: 10.1177/108705470200500302
*Geurts H.M., Verte S., Oosterlaan J., Roeyers H., & Sergeant J.A. (2004). How specific are executive functioning deficits in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and autism? Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 45, 836854. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7610.2004.00276.x
Ghajar J., & Ivry R.B. (2008). The predictive brain state: Timing deficiency in traumatic brain injury? Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair, 22, 217227. doi: 10.1177/1545968308315600
*Goudriaan A.E., Oosterlaan J., de Beurs E., & van den Brink W. (2006). Neurocognitive functions in pathological gambling: A comparison with alcohol dependence, Tourette syndrome and normal controls. Addiction, 101, 534547. doi: 10.1111/j.1360-0443.2006.01380.x
*Gupta R., & Kar B.R. (2009). Development of attentional processes in ADHD and normal children. Progress in Brain Research, 176, 259276. doi: 10.1016/S0079-6123(09)17614-8
*Halari R., Simic M., Pariante C.M., Papadopoulos A., Cleare A., Brammer M., et al. . (2009). Reduced activation in lateral prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate during attention and cognitive control functions in medication-naive adolescents with depression compared to controls. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 50, 307316. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7610.2008.01972.x
Harnishfeger K.K., & Pope R.S. (1996). Intending to forget: The development of cognitive inhibition in directed forgetting. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 62, 292315. doi: 10.1006/jecp.1996.0032
Higgins J.P.T., & Green S. (Eds.). (2009). Cochrane handbook for systematic reviews of interventions. Version 5.0.2 [updated September 2009]. The Cochrane Collaboration, 2009. Available from www.cochrane-handbook.org.
*Huddy V.C., Aron A.R., Harrison M., Barnes T.R., Robbins T.W., & Joyce E.M. (2008). Impaired conscious and preserved unconscious inhibitory processing in recent onset schizophrenia. Psychological Medicine, 39, 907916. doi: 10.1017/S0033291708004340
*Johannes S., Wieringa B.M., Mantey M., Nager W., Rada D., Muller-Vahl K.R., et al. . (2001). Altered inhibition of motor responses in Tourette Syndrome and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder. Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, 104, 3643. doi: 10.1034/j.1600-0404.2001.00308.x
*Johnstone S.J., Barry R.J., & Clarke A.R. (2007). Behavioural and ERP indices of response inhibition during a Stop-signal task in children with two subtypes of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 66, 3747. doi: 10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2007.05.011
Johnstone S.J., Dimoska A., Smith J.L., Barry R.J., Pleffer C.B., Chiswick D., et al. . (2007). The development of stop-signal and Go/Nogo response inhibition in children aged 7-12 years: Performance and event-related potential indices. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 63, 2538. doi: 10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2006.07.001
*Klein C., Wendling K., Huettner P., Ruder H., & Peper M. (2006). Intra-subject variability in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Biological Psychiatry, 60, 10881097. doi: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2006.04.003
*Konrad K., Gauggel S., Manz A., & Scholl M. (2000). Inhibitory control in children with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Brain Injury, 14, 859875. doi: 10.1080/026990500445691
*Korenblum C.B., Chen S.X., Manassis K., & Schachar R.J. (2007). Performance monitoring and response inhibition in anxiety disorders with and without comorbid ADHD. Depression and Anxiety, 24, 227232. doi: 10.1002/da.20237
*Krikorian R., Zimmerman M.E., & Fleck D.E. (2004). Inhibitory control in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder. Brain and Cognition, 54, 257259. doi: 10.1016/j.bandc.2004.02.038
*Kuntsi J., Oosterlaan J., & Stevenson J. (2001). Psychological mechanisms in hyperactivity: I. Response inhibition deficit, working memory impairment, delay aversion, or something else? Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 42, 199210. doi: 10.1111/1469-7610.00711
*Lampe K., Konrad K., Kroener S., Fast K., Kunert H.J., & Herpertz S.C. (2007). Neuropsychological and behavioural disinhibition in adult ADHD compared to borderline personality disorder. Psychological Medicine, 37, 17171729. doi: 10.1017/S0033291707000517
*Lau M.A., Christensen B.K., Hawley L.L., Gemar M.S., & Segal Z.V. (2007). Inhibitory deficits for negative information in persons with major depressive disorder. Psychological Medicine, 37, 12491259. doi: 10.1017/S0033291707000530
*Li C.S., Huang C., Yan P., Bhagwagar Z., Milivojevic V., & Sinha R. (2008). Neural correlates of impulse control during stop signal inhibition in cocaine-dependent men. Neuropsychopharmacology, 33, 17981806. doi: 10.1038/sj.npp.1301568
*Li C.S., Luo X., Yan P., Bergquist K., & Sinha R. (2009). Altered impulse control in alcohol dependence: Neural measures of stop signal performance. Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research, 33, 740750. doi: 10.1111/j.1530-0277.2008.00891.x
*Li C.S., Milivojevic V., Kemp K., Hong K., & Sinha R. (2006). Performance monitoring and stop signal inhibition in abstinent patients with cocaine dependence. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 85, 205212. doi: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2006.04.008
Lijffijt M., Kenemans J.L., Verbaten M.N., & van Engeland H. (2005). A meta-analytic review of stopping performance in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: Deficient inhibitory motor control? Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 114, 216222. doi: 10.1037/0021-843X.114.2.216
Light R.J., Singer J.D., & Willett J.B. (1994). The visual presentation and interpretation of meta-analyses. In Cooper H. & Hedges L.V., (Eds.), The handbook of research synthesis (pp. 439454). New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
*Liotti M., Pliszka S.R., Perez R. III, Luus B., Glahn D., & Semrud-Clikeman M. (2007). Electrophysiological correlates of response inhibition in children and adolescents with ADHD: Influence of gender, age, and previous treatment history. Psychophysiology, 44, 936948. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-8986.2007.00568.x
Lipsey M.W., & Wilson D.B. (2001). Practical meta-analysis. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Logan G.D., & Burkell J. (1986). Dependence and independence in responding to double stimulation: A comparison of stop, change, and dual-task paradigms. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 12, 549563. doi: 10.1037/0096-1523.12.4.549
Luciano M., Wright M., Smith G.A., Geffen G.M., Geffen L.B., & Martin N.G. (2001). Genetic covariance among measures of information processing speed, working memory, and IQ. Behavior Genetics, 31, 581592. doi: 10.1023/A:1013397428612
*Manassis K., Tannock R., & Barbosa J. (2000). Dichotic listening and response inhibition in children with comorbid anxiety disorders and ADHD. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 39, 11521159. doi: 10.1097/00004583-200009000-00015
*Martel M., Nikolas M., & Nigg J.T. (2007). Executive function in adolescents with ADHD. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 46, 14371444. doi: 10.1097/chi.0b013e31814cf953
*Marzocchi G.M., Oosterlaan J., Zuddas A., Cavolina P., Geurts H., Redigolo D., et al. . (2008). Contrasting deficits on executive functions between ADHD and reading disabled children. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 49, 543552. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7610.2007.01859.x
*Matthews S., Simmons A., Strigo I., Gianaros P., Yang T., & Paulus M. (2009). Inhibition-related activity in subgenual cingulate is associated with symptom severity in major depression. Psychiatry Research, 172, 16. doi: 10.1016/j.pscychresns.2008.08.006
*McAlonan G.M., Cheung V., Chua S.E., Oosterlaan J., Hung S.F., Tang C.P., et al. . (2009). Age-related grey matter volume correlates of response inhibition and shifting in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. British Journal of Psychiatry, 194, 123129. doi: 10.1192/bjp.bp.108.051359
*McInerney R.J., & Kerns K.A. (2003). Time reproduction in children with ADHD: Motivation matters. Child Neuropsychology, 9, 91108. doi: 10.1076/chin.9.2.91.14506
*Michel J.A., Kerns K.A., & Mateer C.A. (2005). The effect of reinforcement variables on inhibition in children with ADHD. Child Neuropsychology, 11, 295302. doi: 10.1080/092970490911270
*Morein-Zamir S., Hommersen P., Johnston C., & Kingstone A. (2008). Novel measures of response performance and inhibition in children with ADHD. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 36, 11991210. doi: 10.1007/s10802-008-9243-7
*Mullane J.C., & Corkurn P.V. (2007). The relationship between working memory, inhibition, and performance on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test in children with and without ADHD. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 25, 211221. doi: 10.1177/0734282906297627
*Murphy P. (2002). Inhibitory control in adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. Journal of Attention Disorders, 6, 14. doi: 10.1177/108705470200600101
*Nigg J., Nikolas M., Friderici K., Park L., & Zucker R.A. (2007). Genotype and neuropsychological response inhibition as resilience promoters for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, and conduct disorder under conditions of psychosocial adversity. Development and Psychopathology, 19, 767786. doi: 10.1017/S0954579407000387
*Nigg J.T. (1999). The ADHD response-inhibition deficit as measured by the stop task: Replication with DSM-IV combined type, extension, and qualification. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 27, 393402. doi: 10.1023/A:1021980002473
*Nigg J.T., Stavro G., Ettenhofer M., Hambrick D.Z., Miller T., & Henderson J.M. (2005). Executive functions and ADHD in adults: Evidence for selective effects on ADHD symptom domains. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 114, 706717. doi: 10.1037/0021-843X.114.3.706
Oosterlaan J., Logan G.D., & Sergeant J.A. (1998). Response inhibition in AD/HD, CD, comorbid AD/HD + CD, anxious, and control children: A meta-analysis of studies with the stop task. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 39, 411425. doi: 10.1017/S0021963097002072
*Oosterlaan J., & Sergeant J.A. (1996). Inhibition in ADHD, aggressive, and anxious children: A biologically based model of child psychopathology. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 24, 1936. doi: 10.1007/BF01448371
*Oosterlaan J., & Sergeant J.A. (1998). Response inhibition and response re-engagement in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, disruptive, anxious and normal children. Behavioural Brain Research, 94, 3343. doi: 10.1016/S0166-4328(97)00167-8
*Ossmann J.M., & Mulligan N.W. (2003). Inhibition and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in adults. American Journal of Psychology, 116, 3550. doi: 10.2307/1423334
*Overtoom C.C., Kenemans J.L., Verbaten M.N., Kemner C., van der Molen M.W., van Engeland H., et al. . (2002). Inhibition in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A psychophysiological study of the stop task. Biological Psychiatry, 51, 668676. doi: 10.1016/S0006-3223(01)01290-2
*Ozonoff S., & Strayer D.L. (1997). Inhibitory function in nonretarded children with autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 27, 5977. doi: 10.1023/A:1025821222046
Paule M.G., Rowland A.S., Ferguson S.A., Chelonis J.J., Tannock R., Swanson J.M., et al. . (2000). Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: Characteristics, interventions and models. Neurotoxicology and Teratology, 22, 631651. doi: 10.1016/S0892-0362(00)00095-7
*Penades R., Catalan R., Rubia K., Andres S., Salamero M., & Gasto C. (2007). Impaired response inhibition in obsessive compulsive disorder. European Psychiatry, 22, 404410. doi: 10.1016/j.eurpsy.2006.05.001
*Pliszka S.R., Borcherding S.H., Spratley K., Leon S., & Irick S. (1997). Measuring inhibitory control in children. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 18, 254259. doi: 10.1097/00004703-199708000-00005
*Pliszka S.R., Glahn D.C., Semrud-Clikeman M., Franklin C., Perez R. III, Xiong J., et al. . (2006). Neuroimaging of inhibitory control areas in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder who were treatment naive or in long-term treatment. American Journal of Psychiatry, 163, 10521060. doi: 10.1176/appi.ajp.163.6.1052
*Pliszka S.R., Liotti M., & Woldorff M.G. (2000). Inhibitory control in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: Event-related potentials identify the processing component and timing of an impaired right-frontal response-inhibition mechanism. Biological Psychiatry, 48, 238246. doi: 10.1016/S0006-3223(00)00890-8
*Purvis K.L., & Tannock R. (2000). Phonological processing, not inhibitory control, differentiates ADHD and reading disability. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 39, 485494. doi: 10.1097/00004583-200004000-00018
Quay H.C. (1997). Inhibition and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 25, 713. doi: 10.1023/A:1025799122529
*Ray Li C.S., Chang H.L., Hsu Y.P., Wang H.S., & Ko N.C. (2006). Motor response inhibition in children with Tourette’s disorder. Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 18, 417419. doi: 10.1176/appi.neuropsych.18.3.417
*Rodriguez-Jimenez R., Avila C., Jimenez-Arriero M.A., Ponce G., Monasor R., Jimenez M., et al. . (2006). Impulsivity and sustained attention in pathological gamblers: Influence of childhood ADHD history. Journal of Gambling Studies, 22, 451461. doi: 10.1007/s10899-006-9028-2
*Rommelse N.N., Altink M.E., Oosterlaan J., Buschgens C.J., Buitelaar J., & Sergeant J.A. (2008). Support for an independent familial segregation of executive and intelligence endophenotypes in ADHD families. Psychological Medicine, 112. doi: 10.1017/S0033291708002869
Rosenthal R. (1991). Meta-analytic procedures for social research. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
Rosenthal R. (1995). Writing meta-analytic reviews. Psychological Bulletin, 118, 183192. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.118.2.183
*Rubia K., Halari R., Smith A.B., Mohammed M., Scott S., Giampietro V., et al. . (2008). Dissociated functional brain abnormalities of inhibition in boys with pure conduct disorder and in boys with pure attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry, 165, 889897. doi: 10.1176/appi.ajp.2008.07071084
*Rubia K., Oosterlaan J., Sergeant J.A., Brandeis D., & v Leeuwen T. (1998). Inhibitory dysfunction in hyperactive boys. Behavioural Brain Research, 94, 2532. doi: 10.1016/S0166-4328(97)00166-6
*Rubia K., Russell T., Bullmore E.T., Soni W., Brammer M.J., Simmons A., et al. . (2001). An fMRI study of reduced left prefrontal activation in schizophrenia during normal inhibitory function. Schizophrenia Research, 52, 4755. doi: 10.1016/S0920-9964(00)00173-0
*Rubia K., Smith A., & Taylor E. (2007). Performance of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) on a test battery of impulsiveness. Child Neuropsychology, 13, 276304. doi: 10.1080/09297040600770761
*Rubia K., Smith A.B., Brammer M.J., Toone B., & Taylor E. (2005). Abnormal brain activation during inhibition and error detection in medication-naive adolescents with ADHD. American Journal of Psychiatry, 162, 10671075. doi: 10.1176/appi.ajp.162.6.1067
*Rubia K., Taylor E., Smith A.B., Oksanen H., Overmeyer S., & Newman S. (2001). Neuropsychological analyses of impulsiveness in childhood hyperactivity. British Journal of Psychiatry, 179, 138143. doi: 10.1192/bjp.179.2.138
*Rubio G., Jimenez M., Rodriguez-Jimenez R., Martinez I., Iribarren M.M., Jimenez-Arriero M.A., et al. . (2007). Varieties of impulsivity in males with alcohol dependence: The role of Cluster-B personality disorder. Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research, 31, 18261832. doi: 10.1111/j.1530-0277.2007.00506.x
*Rucklidge J.J., & Tannock R. (2002). Neuropsychological profiles of adolescents with ADHD: Effects of reading difficulties and gender. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 43, 9881003. doi: 10.1111/1469-7610.00227
*Schachar R., Chen S., Crosbie J., Goos L., Ickowicz A., & Charach A. (2007). Comparison of the predictive validity of hyperkinetic disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Journal of the Canadian Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 16, 90100. Retrieved from http://www.cacap-acpea.org/publications_the_journal.aspx.
*Schachar R., & Logan G.D. (1990). Impulsivity and inhibitory control in normal development and childhood psychopathology. Developmental Psychology, 26, 710720. doi: 10.1037/0012-1649.26.5.710.
*Schachar R., Logan G.D., Robaey P., Chen S., Ickowicz A., & Barr C. (2007). Restraint and cancellation: Multiple inhibition deficits in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 35, 229238. doi: 10.1007/s10802-006-9075-2
*Schachar R., Mota V.L., Logan G.D., Tannock R., & Klim P. (2000). Confirmation of an inhibitory control deficit in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 28, 227235. doi: 10.1023/A:1005140103162
Schachar R., Sandberg S., & Rutter M. (1986). Agreement between teachers’ ratings and observations of hyperactivity, inattentiveness, and defiance. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 14, 331345. doi: 10.1007/BF00915450
*Schachar R., & Tannock R. (1995). Test of four hypotheses for the comorbidity of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and conduct disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 34, 639648. doi: 10.1097/00004583-199505000-00016
*Schachar R., Tannock R., Marriott M., & Logan G. (1995). Deficient inhibitory control in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 23, 411437. doi: 10.1007/BF01447206
*Schachar R.J., Chen S., Logan G.D., Ornstein T.J., Crosbie J., Ickowicz A., et al. . (2004). Evidence for an error monitoring deficit in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 32, 285293. doi: 10.1023/B: JACP.0000026142.11217.f2
*Schachar R.J., Crosbie J., Barr C.L., Ornstein T.J., Kennedy J., Malone M., et al. . (2005). Inhibition of motor responses in siblings concordant and discordant for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry, 162, 10761082. doi: 10.1176/appi.ajp.162.6.1076
*Scheres A., Oosterlaan J., Geurts H., Morein-Zamir S., Meiran N., Schut H., et al. . (2004). Executive functioning in boys with ADHD: Primarily an inhibition deficit? Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 19, 569594. doi: 10.1016/j.acn.2003.08.005
*Scheres A., Oosterlaan J., & Sergeant J.A. (2001). Response execution and inhibition in children with AD/HD and other disruptive disorders: The role of behavioural activation. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 42, 347357. doi: 10.1017/S0021963001006898
*Shanahan M.A., Pennington B.F., & Willcutt E.W. (2008). Do motivational incentives reduce the inhibition deficit in ADHD? Developmental Neuropsychology, 33, 137159. doi: 10.1080/87565640701884238
*Siklos S., & Kerns K.A. (2004). Assessing multitasking in children with ADHD using a modified Six Elements Test. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 19, 347361. doi: 10.1016/S0887-6177(03)00071-4
Slusarek M., Velling S., Bunk D., & Eggers C. (2001). Motivational effects on inhibitory control in children with ADHD. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 40, 355363. doi: 10.1097/00004583-200103000-00016
*Solanto M.V., Abikoff H., Sonuga-Barke E., Schachar R., Logan G.D., Wigal T., et al. . (2001). The ecological validity of delay aversion and response inhibition as measures of impulsivity in AD/HD: A supplement to the NIMH multimodal treatment study of AD/HD. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 29, 215228. doi: 10.1023/A:1010329714819
Solanto M.V., Gilbert S.N., Raj A., Zhu J., Pope-Boyd S., Stepak B., et al. . (2007). Neurocognitive functioning in AD/HD, predominantly inattentive and combined subtypes. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 35, 729744. doi: 10.1007/s10802-007-9123-6
Suzuki M., Zhou S.Y., Takahashi T., Hagino H., Kawasaki Y., Niu L., et al. . (2005). Differential contributions of prefrontal and temporolimbic pathology to mechanisms of psychosis. Brain, 128(Pt 9), 21092122. doi: 10.1093/brain/awh554
*Toplak M.E., Bucciarelli S.M., Jain U., & Tannock R. (2009). Executive functions: Performance-based measures and the behavior rating inventory of executive function (BRIEF) in adolescents with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Child Neuropsychology, 15, 5372. doi: 10.1080/09297040802070929
*Turner D.C., Clark L., Dowson J., Robbins T.W., & Sahakian B.J. (2004). Modafinil improves cognition and response inhibition in adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Biological Psychiatry, 55, 10311040. doi: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2004.02.008
*Turner D.C., Clark L., Pomarol-Clotet E., McKenna P., Robbins T.W., & Sahakian B.J. (2004). Modafinil improves cognition and attentional set shifting in patients with chronic schizophrenia. Neuropsychopharmacology, 29, 13631373. doi: 10.1038/sj.npp.1300457
*van der Schoot M., Licht R., Horsley T.M., & Sergeant J.A. (2000). Inhibitory deficits in reading disability depend on subtype: Guessers but not spellers. Child Neuropsychology, 6, 297312. doi: 10.1076/chin.6.4.297.3139
Verbruggen F., & Logan G.D. (2009). Models of response inhibition in the stop-signal and stop-change paradigms. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 33, 647661. doi: 10.1016/j.neubiorev.2008.08.014
*Verte S., Geurts H.M., Roeyers H., Oosterlaan J., & Sergeant J.A. (2005). Executive functioning in children with autism and Tourette syndrome. Development and Psychopathology, 17, 415445. doi: 10.1017/S0954579405050200
*Vink M., Ramsey N.F., Raemaekers M., & Kahn R.S. (2006). Striatal dysfunction in schizophrenia and unaffected relatives. Biological Psychiatry, 60, 3239. doi: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2005.11.026
*Walcott C.M., & Landau S. (2004). The relation between disinhibition and emotion regulation in boys with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 33, 772782. doi: 10.1207/s15374424jccp3304_12
*Willcutt E.G., Pennington B.F., Boada R., Ogline J.S., Tunick R.A., Chhabildas N.A., et al. . (2001). A comparison of the cognitive deficits in reading disability and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 110, 157172. doi: 10.1037/0021-843X.110.1.157
*Willcutt E.G., Pennington B.F., Olson R.K., Chhabildas N., & Hulslander J. (2005). Neuropsychological analyses of comorbidity between reading disability and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: In search of the common deficit. Developmental Neuropsychology, 27, 3578. doi: 10.1207/s15326942dn2701_3
Williams B.R., Ponesse J.S., Schachar R.J., Logan G.D., & Tannock R. (1999). Development of inhibitory control across the life span. Developmental Psychology, 35, 205213. doi: 10.1037/0012-1649.35.1.205
*Wodushek T.R., & Neumann C.S. (2003). Inhibitory capacity in adults with symptoms of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 18, 317330. doi: 10.1093/arclin/18.3.317
*Woolley J., Heyman I., Brammer M., Frampton I., McGuire P.K., & Rubia K. (2008). Brain activation in paediatric obsessive compulsive disorder during tasks of inhibitory control. British Journal of Psychiatry, 192, 2531. doi: 10.1192/bjp.bp.107.036558
*Yang T.T., Simmons A.N., Matthews S.C., Tapert S.F., Frank G.K., Bischoff-Grethe A., et al. . (2009). Depressed adolescents demonstrate greater subgenual anterior cingulate activity. Neuroreport, 20, 440444. doi: 10.1097/WNR.0b013e3283262e10
Yoo S.Y., Roh M.S., Choi J.S., Kang D.H., Ha T.H., Lee J.M., et al. . (2008). Voxel-based morphometry study of gray matter abnormalities in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Journal of Korean Medical Science, 23, 2430. doi: 10.3346/jkms.2008.23.1.24
Zakzanis K.K. (2001). Statistics to tell the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth: Formulae, illustrative numerical examples, and heuristic interpretation of effect size analyses for neuropsychological researchers. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 16, 653667. doi: 10.1093/arclin/16.7.653
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society
  • ISSN: 1355-6177
  • EISSN: 1469-7661
  • URL: /core/journals/journal-of-the-international-neuropsychological-society
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords:

Type Description Title
WORD
Supplementary Materials

Lipszyc supplementary material
Lipszyc supplementary material

 Word (684 KB)
684 KB

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 61
Total number of PDF views: 458 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 1586 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 21st October 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.