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  • Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, Volume 16, Issue 2
  • March 2010, pp. 262-267

Neuropsychological performance following a history of multiple self-reported concussions: A meta-analysis

  • HEATHER G. BELANGER (a1) (a2) (a3), ERIC SPIEGEL (a1) and RODNEY D. VANDERPLOEG (a1) (a2) (a4) (a3)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 11 December 2009

Debate continues about the long-term neuropsychological impact of multiple mild traumatic brain injuries (MTBI). A meta-analysis of the relevant literature was conducted to determine the impact of having a history of more than one self-reported MTBI (versus just one MTBI) across seven cognitive domains, as well as symptom complaints. The analysis was based on 8 studies, all conducted with athletes, involving 614 cases of multiple MTBI and 926 control cases of a single MTBI. The overall effect of multiple MTBI on neuropsychological functioning was minimal and not significant (d = 0.06). However, follow-up analyses revealed that multiple self-reported MTBI was associated with poorer performance on measures of delayed memory and executive functioning. The implications and limitations of these findings are discussed. (JINS, 2010, 16, 262–267.)

Corresponding author
*Correspondence and reprint requests to: Heather Belanger, James A. Haley Veterans’ Hospital, Mental Health & Behavioral Sciences – 116B, 13000 Bruce B. Downs Blvd., Tampa, FL 33612. E-mail:
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