Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 127
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Furnish, Timothy and Wallace, Mark 2016. Controlled Substance Management in Chronic Pain.

    Ganzer, Florian Bröning, Sonja Kraft, Stefanie Sack, Peter-Michael and Thomasius, Rainer 2016. Weighing the Evidence: A Systematic Review on Long-Term Neurocognitive Effects of Cannabis Use in Abstinent Adolescents and Adults. Neuropsychology Review, Vol. 26, Issue. 2, p. 186.

    Schuster, Randi Melissa Mermelstein, Robin J. and Hedeker, Donald 2016. Ecological momentary assessment of working memory under conditions of simultaneous marijuana and tobacco use. Addiction, Vol. 111, Issue. 8, p. 1466.

    Stanslowsky, Nancy Jahn, Kirsten Venneri, Anna Naujock, Maximilian Haase, Alexandra Martin, Ulrich Frieling, Helge and Wegner, Florian 2016. Functional effects of cannabinoids during dopaminergic specification of human neural precursors derived from induced pluripotent stem cells. Addiction Biology, p. n/a.

    Thames, April D. Mahmood, Zanjbeel Burggren, Alison C. Karimian, Ahoo and Kuhn, Taylor P. 2016. Combined effects of HIV and marijuana use on neurocognitive functioning and immune status. AIDS Care, Vol. 28, Issue. 5, p. 628.

    Becker, Mary P. Collins, Paul F. Lim, Kelvin O. Muetzel, R.L. and Luciana, M. 2015. Longitudinal changes in white matter microstructure after heavy cannabis use. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, Vol. 16, p. 23.

    Braga, Raphael J. Abdelmessih, Sherif Tseng, Juliana and Malhotra, Anil 2015. Cannabinoids in Neurologic and Mental Disease.

    Cohen, Martin Johnston, Patrick Ehlkes, Tim Fulham, Ross Ward, Philip Thienel, Renate Rasser, Paul Carr, Vaughan Baker, Amanda and Schall, Ulrich 2015. Functional magnetic resonance brain imaging of executive cognitive performance in young first-episode schizophrenia patients and age-matched long-term cannabis users. Neurology, Psychiatry and Brain Research, Vol. 21, Issue. 1, p. 51.

    Gonzalez, Raul Schuster, Randi M. Mermelstein, Robin M. and Diviak, Kathleen R. 2015. The role of decision-making in cannabis-related problems among young adults. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, Vol. 154, p. 214.

    Higuera-Matas, Alejandro Ucha, Marcos and Ambrosio, Emilio 2015. Long-term consequences of perinatal and adolescent cannabinoid exposure on neural and psychological processes. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, Vol. 55, p. 119.

    Jensen, Bjorn Chen, Jeffrey Furnish, Tim and Wallace, Mark 2015. Medical Marijuana and Chronic Pain: a Review of Basic Science and Clinical Evidence. Current Pain and Headache Reports, Vol. 19, Issue. 10,

    Pardini, Dustin White, Helene R. Xiong, Shuangyan Bechtold, Jordan Chung, Tammy Loeber, Rolf and Hipwell, Alison 2015. Unfazed or Dazed and Confused: Does Early Adolescent Marijuana Use Cause Sustained Impairments in Attention and Academic Functioning?. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, Vol. 43, Issue. 7, p. 1203.

    Paruk, Saeeda and Burns, Jonathan K 2015. Cannabis and mental illness in adolescents: a review. South African Family Practice, p. 1.

    Sachs, Jane McGlade, Erin and Yurgelun-Todd, Deborah 2015. Safety and Toxicology of Cannabinoids. Neurotherapeutics, Vol. 12, Issue. 4, p. 735.

    Ware, Mark A. Wang, Tongtong Shapiro, Stan and Collet, Jean-Paul 2015. Cannabis for the Management of Pain: Assessment of Safety Study (COMPASS). The Journal of Pain, Vol. 16, Issue. 12, p. 1233.

    Casaletto, Kaitlin B. Cattie, Jordan Franklin, Donald R. Moore, David J. Woods, Steven Paul Grant, Igor and Heaton, Robert K. 2014. The Wide Range Achievement Test–4 Reading subtest “holds” in HIV-infected individuals. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, Vol. 36, Issue. 9, p. 992.

    Josephson, S.Andrew 2014. Aminoff's Neurology and General Medicine.

    Kennedy, Cheryl A. and Zerbo, Erin 2014. HIV-Related Neurocognitive Disorders and Drugs of Abuse: Mired in Confound, Surrounded by Risk. Current Addiction Reports, Vol. 1, Issue. 3, p. 229.

    Løberg, Else-Marie Helle, Siri Nygård, Merethe Berle, Jan Øystein Kroken, Rune A. and Johnsen, Erik 2014. The Cannabis Pathway to Non-Affective Psychosis may Reflect Less Neurobiological Vulnerability. Frontiers in Psychiatry, Vol. 5,

    Potvin, Stéphane Stavro, Katherine Rizkallah, Élie and Pelletier, Julie 2014. Cocaine and Cognition. Journal of Addiction Medicine, Vol. 8, Issue. 5, p. 368.

  • Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, Volume 9, Issue 5
  • July 2003, pp. 679-689

Non-acute (residual) neurocognitive effects of cannabis use: A meta-analytic study

  • IGOR GRANT (a1) (a2) (a3) (a4), RAUL GONZALEZ (a5) (a4), CATHERINE L. CAREY (a5) (a4), LOKI NATARAJAN (a4) (a6) and TANYA WOLFSON (a4)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 01 July 2003

The possible medicinal use of cannabinoids for chronic diseases emphasizes the need to understand the long-term effects of these compounds on the central nervous system. We provide a quantitative synthesis of empirical research pertaining to the non-acute (residual) effects of cannabis on the neurocognitive performance of adult human subjects. Out of 1,014 studies retrieved using a thorough search strategy, only 11 studies met essential a priori inclusion criteria, providing data for a total of 623 cannabis users and 409 non- or minimal users. Neuropsychological results were grouped into 8 ability domains, and effect sizes were calculated by domain for each study individually, and combined for the full set of studies. Using slightly liberalized criteria, an additional four studies were included in a second analysis, bringing the total number of subjects to 1,188 (i.e., 704 cannabis users and 484 non-users). With the exception of both the learning and forgetting domains, effect size confidence intervals for the remaining 6 domains included zero, suggesting a lack of effect. Few studies on the non-acute neurocognitive effects of cannabis meet current research standards; nevertheless, our results indicate that there might be decrements in the ability to learn and remember new information in chronic users, whereas other cognitive abilities are unaffected. However, from a neurocognitive standpoint, the small magnitude of these effect sizes suggests that if cannabis compounds are found to have therapeutic value, they may have an acceptable margin of safety under the more limited conditions of exposure that would likely obtain in a medical setting. (JINS, 2003, 9, 679–689.)

Corresponding author
Reprint requests to: Igor Grant, M.D., University of California, Center for Medicinal Cannabis Research, 150 West Washington Street, Second Floor, San Diego, CA 92103. E-mail:
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society
  • ISSN: 1355-6177
  • EISSN: 1469-7661
  • URL: /core/journals/journal-of-the-international-neuropsychological-society
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *