Skip to main content
×
Home
    • Aa
    • Aa

Perceptual span deficits in adults with HIV

  • DAVID J. HARDY (a1), STEVEN A. CASTELLON (a1) (a2) and CHARLES H. HINKIN (a1) (a2)
Abstract

Studies have found that infection with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) leads to cognitive dysfunction. In fact, attention problems have been reported to be the most frequent cognitive symptom in HIV-infected adults. One question is how early in the course of information processing can attention impairment be detected? To address this issue, performance on a perceptual span task was examined in 54 HIV-infected adults and 19 seronegative controls. In this task a target had to be identified in a briefly presented (50 ms) array of 1, 4, or 12 letter-characters. Response accuracy was differentially worse in the HIV+ group relative to seronegative controls in the most difficult condition, the 12-item array, but not in the easier conditions. There was no evidence of a group difference in response strategy due to disinhibition or in psychomotor speed. These data suggest that HIV infection leads to a reduction in early visual processing capacity (or span of apprehension). The present results illustrate a new type of attentional deficit in HIV and show the impact of HIV on cognition at an earlier point in information processing than has been previously reported. (JINS, 2004, 10, 135–140.)

Copyright
Corresponding author
Reprint requests to: David J. Hardy, Ph.D., UCLA School of Medicine, 760 Westwood Plaza, Room C8-747, Los Angeles, CA 90024. E-mail: dhardy@ucla.edu
References
Hide All

REFERENCES

Asarnow, R.F., Granholm, E., & Sherman, T. (1991). Span of apprehension in schizophrenia. In S.R. Steinhauer, J.H. Gruzelier, & J. Zubin (Eds.), Neuropsychology, psychophysiology and information processing (pp. 335370). Amsterdam: Elsevier Science Publishers.
Asarnow, R.F. & MacCrimmon, D.J. (1978). Residual performance deficit in clinically remitted schizophrenics: A marker for schizophrenia? Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 87, 597608.
Centers for Disease Control. (1992). 1993 revised classification system for HIV infection and expanded surveillance case definition for AIDS among adolescents and adults. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 41 (Suppl. 44–17), 119.
Duncan, J. (1980). The demonstration of capacity limitation. Cognitive Psychology, 12, 7596.
Estes, W.K. & Taylor, H.A. (1964). A detection method and probabilistic models for assessing information processing from brief visual displays. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, 52, 446454.
Estes, W.K. & Taylor, H.A. (1965). Visual detection in relation to display size and redundancy of critical elements. Perception and Psychophysics, 1, 915.
First, M.B., Spitzer, R.L., Gibbon, M., & Williams, J.B.W. (1995). Structured Clinical Interview for DSM IV Axis Disorder, Version 2.0. New York: Biometrics Research.
Grassi, B., Garghentini, G., Arturo, C., Grassi, E., Bertelli, S., Cinque, P., Epifani, M., Lazzarin, A., & Scarone, S. (1999). Spatial working memory in asymptomatic HIV-infected subjects. The Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 11, 387391.
Green, M.F. (1993). Cognitive remediation in schizophrenia: Is it time yet? American Journal of Psychiatry, 150, 178187.
Hardy, D.J. & Hinkin, C.H. (2002). Reaction time performance in adults with HIV/AIDS. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 24, 912929.
Heaton, R.K., Grant, I., Butters, N., White, D.A., Kirson, D., Atkinson, J.H., McCutchan, J.A., Taylor, A., & the HNRC Group. (1995). The HNRC 500—Neuropsychology of HIV infection at different disease stages. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 1, 231251.
Hinkin, C.H., Castellon, S.A., & Hardy, D.J. (2000). Dual task performance in HIV-1 infection. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 22, 1624.
Hinkin, C.H., Castellon, S.A., van Gorp, W.G., & Satz, P. (1998). Neuropsychological features of HIV disease. In W.G. van Gorp & S.L. Buckingham (Eds.), Practitioner's guide to the neuropsychiatry of HIV/AIDS (pp. 141). New York: The Guilford Press.
Kosslyn, S.M. & Koenig, O. (1992). Wet mind. The new cognitive neuroscience. New York: Free Press.
Law, W.A., Mapou, R.L., Roller, T.L., Martin, A., Nannis, E.D., & Temoshok, L.R. (1995). Reaction time slowing in HIV-1-infected individuals: Role of the preparatory interval. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 17, 122133.
Martin, A. (1994). HIV, cognition, and the basal ganglia. In I. Grant & A. Martin (Eds.), Neuropsychology of HIV infection (pp. 234259). New York: Oxford University Press.
Martin, E.M., Pitrak, D.L., Pursell, K.J., Mullane, K.M., & Novak, R.M. (1995). Delayed recognition memory span in HIV-1 infection. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 1, 575580.
Martin, E.M., Robertson, L.C., Edelstein, H.E., Jagust, W.J., Sorensen, D.J., Giovanni, D.S., & Chirurgi, V.A. (1992). Performance of patients with early HIV-1 infection on the Stroop task. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 14, 857868.
Maruff, P., Malone, V., McArthur-Jackson, C., Mulhall, B., Benson, E., & Currie, J. (1995). Abnormalities of visual spatial attention in HIV infection and the HIV-associated dementia complex. Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 7, 325333.
McArthur, J.C. & Grant, I. (1998). HIV neurocognitive disorders. In H.E. Gendelman, S.A. Lipton, L. Epstein, & S. Swindells, (Eds.), The neurology of AIDS (pp. 499523). New York: Chapman & Hall.
Miller, E.N., Satz, P., & Visscher, V. (1991). Computerized and conventional neuropsychological assessment of HIV-1-infected homosexual men. Neurology, 41, 16081616.
Neale, J.M., McIntyre, C.W., Fox, R., & Cromwell, R.L. (1969). Span of apprehension in acute schizophrenics. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 74, 593596.
Pashler, H.E. (1998). The psychology of attention. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Sperling, G. (1960). The information available in brief visual presentations. Psychological Monographs, 74 (whole no. 498).
SuperLab Pro Version 2.0 (Computer Software) (1999). San Pedro, CA: Cedrus Corporation.
Tanner, W.P., Jr. (1961). Physiological implications of psychophysical data. Annals of the New York Academy of Science, 89, 752765.
van Gorp, W.G., Miller, E.N., Satz, P., & Visscher, B. (1989). Neuropsychological performance in HIV-1 immunocompromised patients: A preliminary report. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 11, 763773.
Wagener, D.K., Hogarty, G.E., Goldstein, M.J., Asarnow, R.F., & Browne, A. (1986). Information processing and communication deviance in schizophrenic patients and their mothers. Psychiatry Research, 18, 365377.
Worth, J.L., Savage, C.R., Baer, L., Esty, E.K., & Navia, B.A. (1993). Computer-based neuropsychological screening for AIDS dementia complex. AIDS, 7, 677681.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society
  • ISSN: 1355-6177
  • EISSN: 1469-7661
  • URL: /core/journals/journal-of-the-international-neuropsychological-society
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords:

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 2
Total number of PDF views: 6 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 43 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 21st October 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.