Skip to main content
×
Home
    • Aa
    • Aa

Rates of symptom reporting following traumatic brain injury

  • SUREYYA DIKMEN (a1) (a2) (a3), JOAN MACHAMER (a1), JESSE R. FANN (a3) and NANCY R. TEMKIN (a2) (a4)
Abstract
Abstract

This study examines rates of reporting of new or worse post-traumatic symptoms for patients with a broad range of injury severity at 1 month and 1 year after traumatic brain injury (TBI), as compared with those whose injury spared the head, and assesses variables related to symptom reporting at 1 year post-injury. Seven hundred thirty two TBI subjects and 120 general trauma comparison (TC) subjects provided new or worse symptom information at 1 month and/or 1 year post-injury. Symptom reporting at 1 year post-injury was compared in subgroups based on basic demographics, preexisting conditions, and severity of brain injury. The TBI group reported significantly more symptoms at 1 month and 1 year after injury than TCs (each p < .001). Although symptom endorsement declined from 1 month to 1 year, 53% of people with TBI and 24% of TC continued to report 3 or more symptoms at 1 year post-injury. Symptom reporting in the TBI group was significantly related to age, gender, preinjury alcohol abuse, pre-injury psychiatric history, and severity of TBI. Symptom reporting is common following a traumatic injury and continues to be experienced by a substantial number of TBI subjects of all severity levels at 1 year post-injury. (JINS, 2010, 16, 401–411.)

    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Rates of symptom reporting following traumatic brain injury
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Rates of symptom reporting following traumatic brain injury
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Rates of symptom reporting following traumatic brain injury
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
Corresponding author
*Correspondence to: Sureyya Dikmen, Ph.D., Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Mail Stop: 359612, Harborview Medical Center, 325 Ninth Avenue, Seattle, Washington 98104. E-mail: Dikmen@u.washington.edu
References
Hide All
American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.). Washinton, DC: American Psychiatric Association.
Baker S.P., O’Neill B., Haddon W. Jr., & Long W.B. (1974). The Injury Severity Score: A method for describing patients with multiple injuries and evaluating emergency care. Journal of Trauma, 14, 187196.
Bell K.R., Hoffman J.M., Temkin N.R., Powell J.M., Fraser R.T., Esselman P.C., Barber J.K., & Dikmen S. (2008). The effect of telephone counseling on reducing post-traumatic symptoms after mild traumatic brain injury: A randomized trial. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry, 79, 12751281.
Binder L.M., & Rohling M.L. (1996). Money matters: A meta-analytic review of the effects of financial incentives on recovery after closed-head injury. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 153, 710.
Boake C., McCauley S.R., Levin H.S., Contant C.F., Song J.X., Brown S.A., Goodman H.S., Brundage S.I., Diaz-Marchan P.J., & Merritt S.G. (2004). Limited agreement between criteria-based diagnoses of postconcussional syndrome. The Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 16, 493499.
Boake C., McCauley S.R., Levin H.S., Pedroza C., Contant C.F., Song J.X., Brown S.A., Goodman H., Brundage S.I., & Diaz-Marchan P.J. (2005). Diagnostic criteria for postconcussional syndrome after mild to moderate traumatic brain injury. The Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 17, 350356.
Carroll L.J., Cassidy J.D., Peloso P.M., Borg J., von Holst H., Holm L., Paniak C., & Pepin M. (2004). Prognosis for mild traumatic brain injury: Results of the WHO Collaborating Centre Task Force on Mild Traumatic Brain Injury. Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, 43(Suppl), 84105.
Dikmen S., Machamer J., & Temkin N. (2007). Retrospectively assessed post-traumatic amnesia: Is it of any value? Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 13(Suppl 2), 6465.
Dikmen S.S., Machamer J.E., Winn H.R., & Temkin N.R. (1995a). Neuropsychological outcome at 1-year post head injury. Neuropsychology, 9, 8090.
Dikmen S.S., Ross B.L., Machamer J.E., & Temkin N.R. (1995b). One year psychosocial outcome in head injury. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 1, 6777.
Dunn J.T., Lees-Haley P.R., Brown R.S., Williams C.W., & English L.T. (1995). Neurotoxic complaint base rates of personal injury claimants: Implications for neuropsychological assessment. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 51, 577584.
Gasquoine P.G. (2000). Postconcussional symptoms in chronic back pain. Applied Neuropsychology, 7, 8389.
Gerber D., & Schraa J. (1995). Mild traumatic brain injury: Searching for the syndrome. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 10, 2840.
Gouvier W.D., Uddo-Crane M., & Brown L.M. (1988). Base rates of post-concussional symptoms. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 3, 273278.
Gunstad J., & Suhr J.A. (2002). Perception of illness: Nonspecificity of postconcussion syndrome symptom expectation. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 8, 3747.
Heitger M.H., Jones R.D., Frampton C.M., Ardagh M.W., & Anderson T.J. (2007). Recovery in the first year after mild head injury: Divergence of symptom status and self-perceived quality of life. Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, 39, 612621.
Hoge C.W., McGurk D., Thomas J.L., Cox A.L., Engel C.C., & Castro C.A. (2008). Mild traumatic brain injury in U.S. Soldiers returning from Iraq. New England Journal of Medicine, 358, 453463.
Horvitz D., & Thompson D. (1952). A generalization of sampling without replacement from a finite population. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 47, 663685.
Institute of Medicine. (2009). Gulf War and Health: Long term consequences of traumatic brain injury (Vol. 7). Washington, DC: National Academies Press.
Iverson G. (2006). Misdiagnosis of the persistent post-concussion syndrome in patients with depression. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 21, 303310.
Iverson G., Zasler N., & Lange R. (2007). Post-Concussive Disorder. In Zasler N. & Katz D. & Zafonte R. (Eds.), Brain injury medicine principles and practice (pp. 373406). New York: Demos.
Iverson G.L., & Lange R.T. (2003). Examination of “postconcussion-like” symptoms in a healthy sample. Applied Neuropsychology, 10, 137144.
Iverson G.L., & McCracken L.M. (1997). ‘Postconcussive’ symptoms in persons with chronic pain. Brain Injury, 11, 783790.
Kashluba S., Casey J.E., & Paniak C. (2006). Evaluating the utility of ICD-10 diagnostic criteria for postconcussion syndrome following mild traumatic brain injury. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 12, 111118.
Lannsjo M., af Geijerstam J.L., Johansson U., Bring J., & Borg J. (2009). Prevalence and structure of symptoms at 3 months after mild traumatic brain injury in a national cohort. Brain Injury, 23, 213219.
Lees-Haley P.R., & Brown R.S. (1993). Neuropsychological complaint base rates of 170 personal injury claimants. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 8, 203209.
Machulda M.M., Bergquist T.F., Ito V., & Chew S. (1998). Relationship between stress, coping, and postconcussion symptoms in a healthy adult population. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 13, 415424.
Masson F., Maurette P., Salmi L.R., Dartigues J.F., Vecsey J., Destaillats J.M., & Erny P. (1996). Prevalence of impairments 5 years after a head injury, and their relationship with disabilities and outcome. Brain Injury, 10, 487497.
McCauley S.R., Boake C., Pedroza C., Brown S.A., Levin H.S., Goodman H.S., & Merritt S.G. (2005). Postconcussional disorder: Are the DSM-IV criteria an improvement over the ICD-10? The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 193, 540550.
McCrea M.A. (2008). Mild traumatic brain injury and postconcussion syndrome. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
McLean A. Jr., Dikmen S., & Temkin N. (1993). Psychosocial recovery after head injury. Archives of Physical and Medical Rehabilitation, 74, 10411046.
McLean A. Jr., Dikmen S., Temkin N., Wyler A.R., & Gale J.L. (1984). Psychosocial functioning at 1 month after head injury. Neurosurgery, 14, 393399.
Mickeviciene D., Schrader H., Nestvold K., Surkiene D., Kunickas R., Stovner L.J., & Sand T. (2002). A controlled historical cohort study on the post-concussion syndrome. European Journal of Neurology, 9, 581587.
Mickeviciene D., Schrader H., Obelieniene D., Surkiene D., Kunickas R., Stovner L.J., & Sand T. (2004). A controlled prospective inception cohort study on the post-concussion syndrome outside the medicolegal context. European Journal of Neurology, 11, 411419.
Mittenberg W., DiGiulio D.V., Perrin S., & Bass A.E. (1992). Symptoms following mild head injury: Expectation as aetiology. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, 55, 200204.
Nolin P., Villemure R., & Heroux L. (2006). Determining long-term symptoms following mild traumatic brain injury: Method of interview affects self-report. Brain Injury, 20, 11471154.
Paniak C., Reynolds S., Toller-Lobe G., Melnyk A., Nagy J., & Schmidt D. (2002). A longitudinal study of the relationship between financial compensation and symptoms after treated mild traumatic brain injury. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 24, 187193.
Radanov B.P., Dvorak J., & Valach L. (1992). Cognitive deficits in patients after soft tissue injury of the cervical spine. Spine, 17, 127131.
Russell W.R., & Smith A. (1961). Post-traumatic amnesia in closed head injury. Archives of Neurology, 5, 417.
Sawchyn J.M., Brulot M.M., & Strauss E. (2000). Note on the use of the Postconcussion Syndrome Checklist. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 15, 18.
Smith-Seemiller L., Fow N.R., Kant R., & Franzen M.D. (2003). Presence of post-concussion syndrome symptoms in patients with chronic pain vs. mild traumatic brain injury. Brain Injury, 17, 199206.
Stulemeijer M. van der Werf S., Bleijenberg G., Biert J., Brauer J., & Vos P.E. (2006). Recovery from mild traumatic brain injury: A focus on fatigue. Journal of Neurology, 253, 10411047.
Teasdale G., & Jennett B. (1974). Assessment of coma and impaired consciousness: A practical scale. Lancet, 2, 8184.
Temkin N.R., Dikmen S.S., Anderson G.D., Wilensky A.J., Holmes M.D., Cohen W., Newell D.W., Nelson P., Awan A., & Winn H.R. (1999). Valproate therapy for prevention of posttraumatic seizures: A randomized trial. Journal of Neurosurgery, 91, 593600.
Thurman D.J., Alverson C., Dunn K.A., Guerrero J., & Sniezek J.E. (1999). Traumatic brain injury in the United States: A public health perspective. The Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 14, 602615.
Trahan D.E., Ross C.E., & Trahan S.L. (2001). Relationships among postconcussional-type symptoms, depression, and anxiety in neurologically normal young adults and victims of mild brain injury. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 16, 435445.
Williams D.H., Levin H.S., & Eisenberg H.M. (1990). Mild head injury classification. Journal of Neurosurgery, 27, 422428.
Wong J.L., Regennitter R.P., & Barrios F. (1994). Base rate and simulated symptoms of mild head injury among normals. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 9, 411425.
World Health Organization. (1992). International statistical classification of diseases and related health problems (10th ed.). Geneva: World Health Organization.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society
  • ISSN: 1355-6177
  • EISSN: 1469-7661
  • URL: /core/journals/journal-of-the-international-neuropsychological-society
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords:

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 26
Total number of PDF views: 238 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 383 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 21st October 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.