Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 29
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Kragh, Christine Lund Ubhi, Kiren Wyss-Corey, Tony and Masliah, Eliezer 2012. Autophagy in Dementias. Brain Pathology, Vol. 22, Issue. 1, p. 99.

    Heckman, Timothy G. and Halkitis, Perry N. 2014. Biopsychosocial Aspects of HIV and Aging. Behavioral Medicine, Vol. 40, Issue. 3, p. 81.

    Wendelken, Lauren A. and Valcour, Victor 2012. Impact of HIV and aging on neuropsychological function. Journal of NeuroVirology, Vol. 18, Issue. 4, p. 256.

    Cysique, Lucette A. and Brew, Bruce J. 2014. The effects of HIV and aging on brain functions. Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS, Vol. 9, Issue. 4, p. 355.

    Saylor, Deanna and Sacktor, Ned 2016. Cognitive Impairment Among Older Individuals with HIV Infection. Current Geriatrics Reports, Vol. 5, Issue. 2, p. 63.

    Davies, Nicholas W.S. and Brew, Bruce J. 2014. HIV and Psychiatry.

    Morgan, Erin E. Iudicello, Jennifer E. Weber, Erica Duarte, Nichole A. Riggs, P. Katie Delano-Wood, Lisa Ellis, Ronald Grant, Igor and Woods, Steven P. 2012. Synergistic Effects of HIV Infection and Older Age on Daily Functioning. JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, Vol. 61, Issue. 3, p. 341.

    Loeber, Sabine Nakovics, Helmut Kniest, Anja Kiefer, Falk Mann, Karl and Croissant, Bernhard 2012. Factors affecting cognitive function of opiate-dependent patients. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, Vol. 120, Issue. 1-3, p. 81.

    Seider, Talia R. Luo, Xi Gongvatana, Assawin Devlin, Kathryn N. de la Monte, Suzanne M. Chasman, Jesse D. Yan, Peisi Tashima, Karen T. Navia, Bradford and Cohen, Ronald A. 2014. Verbal memory declines more rapidly with age in HIV infected versus uninfected adults. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, Vol. 36, Issue. 4, p. 356.

    Patel, Sapna M. Thames, April D. Arbid, Natalie Panos, Stella E. Castellon, Steven and Hinkin, Charles H. 2013. The aggregate effects of multiple comorbid risk factors on cognition among HIV-infected individuals. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, Vol. 35, Issue. 4, p. 421.

    Vance, David E. Fazeli, Pariya L. Ball, David A. Slater, Larry Z. and Ross, Lesley A. 2014. Cognitive Functioning and Driving Simulator Performance in Middle-aged and Older Adults With HIV. Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care, Vol. 25, Issue. 2, p. e11.

    Fellows, Robert P. Byrd, Desiree A. Elliott, Kathryn Robinson-Papp, Jessica Mindt, Monica Rivera and Morgello, Susan 2012. Distal Sensory Polyneuropathy is Associated with Neuropsychological Test Performance among Persons with HIV. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, Vol. 18, Issue. 05, p. 898.

    Vance, David E. Cody, Shameka L. and Batey, Scott D. 2015. HIV-Related Cognitive Dysfunction: Implications for Aging and Social Work. Social Work in Mental Health, Vol. 13, Issue. 6, p. 553.

    Iudicello, Jennifer E. Morgan, Erin E. Gongvatana, Assawin Letendre, Scott L. Grant, Igor and Woods, Steven Paul 2014. Detrimental impact of remote methamphetamine dependence on neurocognitive and everyday functioning in older but not younger HIV+ adults: evidence for a legacy effect?. Journal of NeuroVirology, Vol. 20, Issue. 1, p. 85.

    Overton, Edgar Turner Azad, Tej D. Parker, Neva Demarco Shaw, Debra Frain, Judy Spitz, Teresa Westerhaus, Elizabeth Paul, Robert Clifford, David B. and Ances, Beau M. 2013. The Alzheimer’s disease-8 and Montreal Cognitive Assessment as screening tools for neurocognitive impairment in HIV-infected persons. Journal of NeuroVirology, Vol. 19, Issue. 1, p. 109.

    Milanini, Benedetta Wendelken, Lauren A. Esmaeili-Firidouni, Pardis Chartier, Maggie Crouch, Pierre-Cedric and Valcour, Victor 2014. The Montreal Cognitive Assessment to Screen for Cognitive Impairment in HIV Patients Older Than 60 Years. JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, Vol. 67, Issue. 1, p. 67.

    Nir, Talia M. Jahanshad, Neda Busovaca, Edgar Wendelken, Lauren Nicolas, Krista Thompson, Paul M. and Valcour, Victor G. 2014. Mapping white matter integrity in elderly people with HIV. Human Brain Mapping, Vol. 35, Issue. 3, p. 975.

    Shapiro, Miriam E. Mahoney, Jeannette R. Zingman, Barry S. Pogge, David L. and Verghese, Joe 2013. Apathy correlates with cognitive performance, functional disability, and HIV RNA plasma levels in HIV-positive individuals. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, Vol. 35, Issue. 9, p. 934.

    Fellows, Robert P. Byrd, Desiree A. and Morgello, Susan 2014. Effects of information processing speed on learning, memory, and executive functioning in people living with HIV/AIDS. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, Vol. 36, Issue. 8, p. 806.

    Chambers, Lori A. Wilson, Michael G. Rueda, Sergio Gogolishvili, David Shi, Maggie Qiyun Rourke, Sean B. and Team, The Positive Aging Review 2014. Evidence Informing the Intersection of HIV, Aging and Health: A Scoping Review. AIDS and Behavior, Vol. 18, Issue. 4, p. 661.

  • Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, Volume 17, Issue 1
  • January 2011, pp. 190-195

The Effects of Age and HIV on Neuropsychological Performance

  • Victor Valcour (a1) (a2) (a3), Robert Paul (a4), John Neuhaus (a5) and Cecilia Shikuma (a2)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 10 December 2010

Both HIV and aging impact performance on neuropsychological testing; however, evidence for differences between HIV effects in younger compared to older subjects (interaction effects) is limited and the findings have been inconsistent. Coexisting morbidities that contribute to cognitive impairment in HIV include those not directly referable to infection, per se, and are more prevalent with advancing age, increasing the likelihood that HIV and age effects may be largely independent. As individuals survive with HIV into geriatric age groups, greater clarity on these relationships is essential. We present cross-sectional data from a large (n = 450) cohort designed to analyze HIV, age, and interaction effects using a well-matched cohort of HIV-negative individuals. Results reveal limited evidence for interaction effects between HIV and age on neuropsychological performance. We conclude that older age does not significantly influence neuropsychological performance among HIV patients when seronegative controls are largely composed of individuals from a similar socioeconomic background. (JINS, 2011, 17, 1–6)

Corresponding author
Correspondence and reprint requests to: Victor Valcour, MD, Memory and Aging Center, Suite 905, 350 Parnassus Avenue, San Francisco, CA 94143. E-mail:
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

J.T. Becker , O.L. Lopez , M.A. Dew , H.J. Aizenstein (2004). Prevalence of cognitive disorders differs as a function of age in HIV virus infection. Aids, 18(Suppl 1), S11S18.

N. Butters , I. Grant , J. Haxby , L.L. Judd , A. Martin , J. McClelland , E. Stover (1990). Assessment of AIDS-related cognitive changes: Recommendations of the NIMH Workshop on Neuropsychological Assessment Approaches. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 12(6), 963978.

M. Cherner , R.J. Ellis , D. Lazzaretto , C. Young , M.R. Mindt , J.H. Atkinson , R.K. Heaton (2004). Effects of HIV-1 infection and aging on neurobehavioral functioning: Preliminary findings. Aids, 18(Suppl 1), S27S34.

A. Chiesi , S. Vella , L.G. Dally , C. Pedersen , S. Danner , A.M. Johnson , F. Antunes (1996). Epidemiology of AIDS dementia complex in Europe. AIDS in Europe Study Group. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes and Human Retrovirology, 11(1), 3944.

E.C. Kissel , N.D. Pukay-Martin , R.A. Bornstein (2005). The relationship between age and cognitive function in HIV-infected men. The Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 17(2), 180184.

J.C. McArthur , D.R. Hoover , H. Bacellar , E.N. Miller , B.A. Cohen , J.T. Becker , L.P. Jacobson (1993). Dementia in AIDS patients: Incidence and risk factors. Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study. Neurology, 43(11), 22452252.

K.R. Robertson , M. Smurzynski , T.D. Parsons , K. Wu , R.J. Bosch , J. Wu , R.J. Ellis (2007). The prevalence and incidence of neurocognitive impairment in the HAART era. Aids, 21(14), 19151921.

D.M. Stoff , J.H. Khalsa , A. Monjan , P. Portegies (2004). Introduction: HIV/AIDS and Aging. Aids, 18(Suppl 1), S1S2.

V. Valcour , C. Shikuma , B. Shiramizu , M. Watters , P. Poff , O. Selnes , N. Sacktor (2004). Higher frequency of dementia in older HIV-1 individuals: The Hawaii Aging with HIV-1 Cohort. Neurology, 63(5), 822827.

V. Valcour , M.R. Watters , A.E. Williams , N. Sacktor , A. McMurtray , C. Shikuma (2008). Aging exacerbates extrapyramidal motor signs in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Journal of Neurovirology, 14(5), 362367.

V. Valcour , P. Yee , A.E. Williams , B. Shiramizu , M. Watters , O. Selnes , N. Sacktor (2006). Lowest ever CD4 lymphocyte count (CD4 nadir) as a predictor of current cognitive and neurological status in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection–The Hawaii Aging with HIV Cohort. Journal of Neurovirology, 12(5), 387391.

W.G. van Gorp , E.N. Miller , T.D. Marcotte , W. Dixon , D. Paz , O. Selnes , M. Mitrushina (1994). The relationship between age and cognitive impairment in HIV-1 infection: Findings from the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study and a clinical cohort. Neurology, 44(5), 929935.

F.L. Wilkie , K. Goodkin , I. Khamis , M.H. van Zuilen , D. Lee , R. Lecusay , C. Eisdorfer (2003). Cognitive functioning in younger and older HIV-1-infected adults. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 33(Suppl 2), S93S105.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society
  • ISSN: 1355-6177
  • EISSN: 1469-7661
  • URL: /core/journals/journal-of-the-international-neuropsychological-society
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *


Type Description Title
Supplementary Materials

Valcour Supplementary Material

 Unknown (82 KB)
82 KB