Akaike, Hirotugu. 1974. A new look at the statistical model identification. IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control 19 (6), 716–723.
Alwan, Abeer, Narayanan, Shrikanth S. & Haker, Katherine. 1997. Toward articulatory-acoustic models for liquid approximants based on MRI and EPG data. Part II: The rhotics. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 101 (2), 1078–1089.
Articulate Instruments Ltd. 2012. Articulate Assistant Advanced [computer program]. Version 2.14.
Bartlett, Christopher M. 1992. Regional variation in New Zealand English: The case of Southland. New Zealand English Newsletter 5.
Bartlett, Christopher M. 2002. The Southland variety of New Zealand English: Postvocalic /r/ and the BATH vowel. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.
Bates, Douglas, Mächler, Martin, Bolker, Ben & Walker, Steve. 2015. Fitting linear mixed-effects models using lme4. Journal of Statistical Software 67 (1), 1–48.
Bauer, Laurie & Warren, Paul. 2008. New Zealand English: Phonology. In Burridge, Kate & Kortmann, Bernd (eds.), Varieties of English 3: The Pacific and Australasia, 39–63. Berlin: De Gruyter.
Boersma, Paul & Weenink, David. 2014. Praat: Doing phonetics by computer [computer program]. Version 5.3.52. http://praat.org/ (retrieved 18 May 2014).
Boyce, Suzanne E., Hamilton, Sarah M. & Rivera-Campos, Ahmed. 2016. Acquiring rhoticity across languages: An ultrasound study of differentiating tongue movements. Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics 30 (3–5), 174–201.
Boyce, Suzanne E., Tiede, Mark K., Espy-Wilson, Carol Y. & Groves-Wright, Kathy. 2015. Diversity of tongue shapes for the American English rhotic liquid. In The Scottish Consortium for ICPhS 2015 (eds.), Proceedings of the 18th International Congress of Phonetic Sciences (ICPhS XVIII), Glasgow.
Brunner, Jana, Fuchs, Susanne & Perrier, Pascal. 2009. On the relationship between palate shape and articulatory behavior. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 125 (6), 3936–3949.
Campbell, Fiona, Gick, Bryan, Wilson, Ian & Vatikiotis-Bateson, Eric. 2010. Spatial and temporal properties of gestures in North American English /r/. Language and Speech 53 (1), 49–69.
Dawson, Katherine M., Tiede, Mark K. & Whalen, Douglas. 2016. Methods for quantifying tongue shape and complexity using ultrasound imaging. Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics 30 (3–5), 328–344.
Delattre, Pierre & Freeman, Donald C.. 1968. A dialect study of American r's by X-ray motion picture. Linguistics 6 (44), 29–68.
Dodd, Bárbara, Holm, Alison, Hua, Zhu & Crosbie, Sharon. 2003. Phonological development: A normative study of British English-speaking children. Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics 17 (8), 617–643.
FFmpeg. 2015. FFmpeg [computer program]. Version 4.8.2. https://ffmpeg.org/ (retrieved 16 October 2015.
Friston, Karl. 2011. What is optimal about motor control? Neuron 72 (3), 488–498.
Fromont, Robert & Hay, Jennifer. 2012. LaBB-CAT: An annotation store. In Cook, Paul & Nowson, Scott (eds.), Proceedings of the Australasian Language Technology Association Workshop 2012, Dunedin, 113–117.
Ganesh, Gowrishankar, Haruno, Masahiko, Kawato, Mitsuo & Burdet, Etienne. 2010. Motor memory and local minimization of error and effort, not global optimization, determine motor behavior. Journal of Neurophysiology 104 (1), 382–390.
Gibson, Andy. 2005. Non-prevocalic /r/ in New Zealand Hip Hop. New Zealand English Journal 19, 5.
Gick, Bryan, Bacsfalvi, Penelope, Bernhardt, Barbara M., Oh, Sunyoung, Stolar, Slade & Wilson, Ian. 2008. A motor differentiation model for liquid substitutions in children's speech. Proceedings of Meetings on Acoustics, vol. 1, 060003.
Gick, Bryan, Iskarous, Khalil, Whalen, Douglas H. & Goldstein, Louis M.. 2003. Constraints on variation in the production of English /r/. Proceedings of the 6th International Seminar on Speech Production, Sydney, 73–78.
Gick, Bryan, Wilson, Ian, Koch, Karsten & Cook, Clare. 2004. Language-specific articulatory settings: Evidence from inter-utterance rest position. Phonetica 61 (4), 220–233.
Gordon, Elizabeth, Campbell, Lyle, Hay, Jennifer, Maclagan, Margaret, Sudbury, Andrea & Trudgill, Peter. 2004. New Zealand English: Its origins and evolution. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Guenther, Frank H., Espy-Wilson, Carol Y., Boyce, Suzanne E., Matthies, Melanie L., Zandipour, Majid & Perkell, Joseph S.. 1999. Articulatory tradeoffs reduce acoustic variability during American English /r/ production. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 105 (5), 2854–2865.
Hagiwara, Robert. 1994. Three types of American /r/. UCLA Working Papers in Phonetics, 55–62.
Harshman, Richard, Ladefoged, Peter & Goldstein, Louis M.. 1977. Factor analysis of tongue shapes. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 62 (3), 693–707.
Hay, Jennifer & Maclagan, Margaret. 2010. Social and phonetic conditioners on the frequency and degree of “intrusive /r/” in New Zealand English. In Preston, Dennis R. & Niedzielski, Nancy (eds.), A reader in sociophonetics, 47–70. New York: Mouton de Gruyter.
Hay, Jennifer & Maclagan, Margaret. 2012. /r/-sandhi in early 20th century New Zealand English. Linguistics 50 (4), 745–763.
Hay, Jennifer, Maclagan, Margaret & Gordon, Elizabeth. 2008. New Zealand English. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
Heyne, Matthias & Derrick, Donald. 2015. Using a radial ultrasound probe's virtual origin to compute midsagittal smoothing splines in polar coordinates. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 138 (6), EL509–514.
Heyne, Matthias, Derrick, Donald & Hay, Jennifer. 2015. An ultrasound study of monophthongs in New Zealand English. Presented at the 46th Annual Conference of the Australian Linguistic Society, Sydney.
Lammert, Adam, Proctor, Michael & Narayanan, Shrikanth S.. 2013. Interspeaker variability in hard palate morphology and vowel production. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research 56 (6), S1924–S1933.
Lawson, Eleanor, Scobbie, James M. & Stuart-Smith, Jane. 2013. Bunched /r/ promotes vowel merger to schwar: An ultrasound tongue imaging study of Scottish sociophonetic variation. Journal of Phonetics 41 (3), 198–210.
Loeb, Gerald E. 2012. Optimal isn't good enough. Biological Cybernetics 106 (11–12), 757–765.
Maclagan, Margaret & Buckley, Anne. 2016. Talking baby: How to help your child discover language. Sydney: Finch.
Magloughlin, Lyra 2016. Accounting for variability in North American English /ɹ/: Evidence from children's articulation. Journal of Phonetics 54, 51–67.
Marsden, Sharon. 2013. Phonological variation and the construction of regional identities in New Zealand English. Ph.D. dissertation, Victoria University of Wellington, Wellington, New Zealand.
MathWorks, Inc. 2016. MATLAB [computer program]. Version 2016b. Natick, MA.
Ménard, Lucie, Aubin, Jerome, Thibeault, Melanie & Richard, Gabrielle. 2011. Measuring tongue shapes and positions with ultrasound imaging: A validation experiment using an articulatory model. Folia Phoniatrica et Logopaedica 64 (2), 64–72.
Mielke, Jeff, Baker, Adam & Archangeli, Diana. 2010. Variability and homogeneity in American English /ɹ/ allophony and /s/ retraction. In Fougeron, Cécile, Kuehnert, Barbara, Mariapaola D'Imperio & Vallée, Nathalie (eds.), Laboratory Phonology 10, 699–730. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
Mielke, Jeff, Baker, Adam & Archangeli, Diana. 2016. Individual-level contact limits phonological complexity: Evidence from bunched and retroflex /ɹ/. Language 92 (1), 101–141.
Miller, Amanda L. & Finch, Kenneth B.. 2011. Corrected high-frame rate anchored ultrasound with software alignment. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research 54 (2), 471–486.
Miyawaki, Kuniko, Hirose, Hajime, Ushijima, Tatsujiro & Sawashima, Masayuki. 1975. A preliminary report on the electromyographic study of the activity of lingual muscles. Annual Bulletin Research Institute of Logopedics and Phoniatrics 9 (91), 406.
Morrish, Kathleen A., Stone, Maureen, Shawker, Thomas H. & Sonies, Barbara C.. 1985. Distinguishability of tongue shape during vowel production. Journal of Phonetics 13 (2), 189–203.
Nieto-Castañón, Alfonso, Guenther, Frank H., Perkell, Joseph S. & Curtin, Hugh D.. 2005. A modeling investigation of articulatory variability and acoustic stability during American English /r/ production. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 117 (5), 3196–3212.
Ong, Darryl & Stone, Maureen. 1998. Three-dimensional vocal tract shapes in /r/ and /l/: A study of MRI, ultrasound, electropalatography, and acoustics. Phonoscope 1 (1), 1–13.
Python Software Foundation. 2013. Python [computer program]. Version 3.4. http://www.python.org (retrieved 12 October 2015). R Core Team. 2015. R: A language and environment for statistical computing Vienna: R Foundation for Statistical Computing. http://www.R-project.org/ (accessed 13 September 2015).
Ramanarayanan, Vikram, Goldstein, Louis M., Byrd, Dani & Narayanan, Shrikanth S.. 2013. An investigation of articulatory setting using real-time magnetic resonance imaging. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 134 (1), 510–519.
Ripley, Brian & Venables, William. 2016. Nnet [computer program]. Version 7.3 (retrieved 10 February 2016).
Smit, Ann B., Hand, Linda, Freilinger, J. Joseph, Bernthal, John E. & Bird, Ann. 1990. The Iowa Articulation Norms Project and its Nebraska replication. Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders 55 (4), 779–798.
Stavness, Ian, Gick, Bryan, Derrick, Donald & Fels, Sidney. 2012. Biomechanical modeling of English /r/ variants. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 131 (5), EL355–360.
Stolar, Stade & Gick, Bryan. 2013. An index for quantifying tongue curvature. Canadian Acoustics 41 (1), 11–15.
Stone, Maureen. 2005. A guide to analysing tongue motion from ultrasound images. Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics 19 (6–7), 455–501.
Stone, Maureen, Epstein, Melissa A. & Iskarous, Khalil. 2004. Functional segments in tongue movement. Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics 18 (6–8), 507–521.
Tiede, Mark K., Boyce, Suzanne E., Espy-Wilson, Carol Y. & Gracco, Vincent L.. 2011. Variability of North American English /r/ production in response to palatal perturbation. In Maassen, Ben & van Lieshout, Pascal (eds.), Speech motor control: New developments in basic and applied research, 53–67. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Westbury, John R., Hashi, Michiko & Lindstrom, Mary J.. 1998. Differences among speakers in lingual articulation for American English /ɹ/. Speech Communication 26 (3), 203–226.
Wilson, Ian. 2006. Articulatory settings of French and English monolingual and bilingual speakers. Ph.D. dissertation, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.
Wilson, Ian & Gick, Bryan. 2014. Bilinguals use language-specific articulatory settings. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research 57 (2), 1–13.
Wittenburg, Peter, Brugman, Hennie, Russel, Albert, Klassmann, Alex & Sloetjes, Han. 2006. ELAN: A professional framework for multimodality research. Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation, Genoa, 1556–1559.
Young, Steve, Evermann, Gunnar, Gales, Mark, Hain, Thomas, Kershaw, Dan, Liu, Xunying A., Moore, Gareth, Odell, Julian, Ollason, Dave & Povey, Dan. 2006. The HTK book (for HTK version 3.4). Cambridge: Cambridge University Engineering Department.
Zharkova, Natalia 2013. Using ultrasound to quantify tongue shape and movement characteristics. The Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Journal 50 (1), 76–81.