Skip to main content
×
Home
    • Aa
    • Aa

Stress and phrasal prominence in tone languages: The case of Southern Vietnamese

  • Marc Brunelle (a1)
Abstract

There is no consensus on the nature, or even the existence, of Vietnamese word stress. While some authors have proposed that it is morphosyntactically conditioned (Thompson 1963, Thompson 1965, Cao 2003 [1978], Ngô 1984), others have adopted the view that it is consistently word-final (Trần 1967; Nguyễn & Ingram 2006, 2007b; Phạm 2008; Nguyễn 2010) or that it lacks stress altogether (Emeneau 1951). This is due to the elusive nature of word prominence in Vietnamese, and to the small number of studies that tackle the issue experimentally. In this paper, acoustic experiments designed to test previous hypotheses and tease apart possible types of prominence are presented. Southern Vietnamese disyllabic words with various morphosyntactic structures were recorded in controlled environments to test for stress and phrasal effects. Their duration, mean intensity, mean f0, f0 range and formants were then measured to assess word prominence. Results suggest that there is little evidence for word stress in Southern Vietnamese and that reports of final stress can be reinterpreted as phrase-final lengthening. Focus-marking strategies bring no additional evidence for the existence of stress, but they seem to be partly speaker- and tone-specific, which supports results obtained in studies of Northern Vietnamese (Michaud 2005).

Copyright
References
Hide All
Alves Mark J. 2009. Loanwords in Vietnamese. In Haspelmath Martin & Tadmor Uri (eds.), Loanwords in the world's languages: A comparative handbook, 617637. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.
Arvaniti Amalia. 2000. The phonetics of stress in Greek. Journal of Greek Linguistics 1 (1), 939.
Baart Joan. 2003. Tonal features in languages of northern Pakistan. In Baart Joan & Hyder Sindhi Ghulam (eds.), Pakistani languages and society: Problems and prospects, 132144. Islamabad: National Institute of Pakistan Studies and Summer Institute of Linguistics.
Barr Dale J., Levy Roger, Scheepers Christoph & Tily Harry J.. 2013. Random effects structure for confirmatory hypothesis testing: Keep it maximal. Journal of Memory and Language 68 (3), 255278.
Bauer Robert S. & Benedict Paul K.. 1997. Modern Cantonese phonology. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
Beckman Mary E. 1986. Stress and non-stress accent. Dordrecht & Riverton: Foris.
Beckman Mary E. & Edwards Jan. 1990. Lengthenings and shortenings and the nature of prosodic constituency. In Kingston John & Beckman Mary E. (eds.), Papers in Laboratory Phonology I: Between the grammar and physics of speech, 152178. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Brunelle Marc. 2009. Tone perception in Northern and Southern Vietnamese. Journal of Phonetics 37, 7996.
Brunelle Marc. 2015. Vietnamese (Tiếng Việt). In Jenny Matthias & Sidwell Paul (eds.), The handbook of Austroasiatic languages, 909954. Leiden & Boston, MA: Brill.
Brunelle Marc & Thị Xuyến. 2013. Why is sound symbolism so common in Vietnamese? In Williams Jeff (ed.), Grammatical aesthetics in Southeast Asia, 8398. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Byrd Dani. 1996. A phase window framework for articulatory timing. Phonology 13, 139169.
Byrd Dani & Krivokapić Jelena. 2006. How far, how long: On the temporal scope of prosodic boundary effects. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 120 (3), 15891590.
Campbell Nick & Beckman Mary E.. 1997. Stress, prominence, and spectral tilt. Intonation: Theory, models and applications, 6770. http://www.isca-speech.org/archive_open/int_97/inta_067.html.
Cao Xuân Hạo. 2003 [1978].Trọng âm và các quan hệ ngữ pháp trong tiếng Việt. Tiếng Việt: mấy vấn đề ngữ âm, ngữ pháp, ngữ nghĩa [Vietnamese: A few phonetic, grammatical and semantic problems], 161–184. Hà Nội: Nhà xuất bản Giáo dục.
Chen Szu-Wei, Wang Bei & Xu Yi. 2009. Closely related languages, different ways of realizing focus. Proceedings of Interspeech 2009 Brighton, 10071010.
Chen Xiaonan Susan. 1993. Relative duration as a perceptual cue to stress in Mandarin. Language and Speech 36 (4), 415433.
Cutler Ann & Butterfield Sally. 1990a. Durational cues to word boundaries in clear speech. Speech Communication 9, 485495.
Cutler Ann & Butterfield Sally. 1990b. Syllabic lengthening as a word boundary cue. In Seidl Roland (ed.), Proceedings of the 3rd Australian International Conference on Speech Science and Technology, 324328. Canberra: Australian Speech Science and Technology Association.
De Jong Kenneth & Zawaydeh Bushra Adnan. 1999. Stress, duration, and intonation in Arabic word-level prosody. Journal of Phonetics 27 (1), 322.
Duanmu San. 2000. The phonology of Standard Chinese. New York: Oxford University Press.
Emeneau Murray. 1951. Studies in Vietnamese (Annamese) grammar. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Fletcher Janet. 2010. The prosody of speech: Timing and rhythm. In Hardcastle William J., Laver John & Gibbon Fiona E. (eds.), The handbook of phonetic science, 2nd edn., 523602. Oxford: Blackwell.
Fry Dennis B. 1955. Duration and intensity as physical correlates of linguistic stress. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 27 (4), 765768.
Gelman Andrew & Hill Jennifer. 2007. Data analysis using regression and multilevel/hierarchical models. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Gruber James. 2011. An acoustic, articulatory, and auditory study of Burmese tone. Ph.D. dissertation, Georgetown University.
Hayes Bruce. 1995. Metrical stress theory: Principles and case-studies. Chicago, IL & London: University of Chicago Press.
Hoáng Tuê & Hoáng Minh. 1975. Remarques sur la structure phonologique du vietnamien. Études vietnamiennes 40, 6798.
Huỳnh Sabine. 2008. L'assimilation des mots d'emprunts français à la langue vietnamienne: la question des tons. Cahiers de linguistique – Asie Orientale 37 (2), 223240.
Hyman Larry. 2006. Word-prosodic typology. Phonology 23, 225257.
Hyman Larry. 2014. Do all languages have word accent? In van der Hulst Harry (ed.), Word stress: Theoretical and typological issues, 5682. Cambridge: Cambridge University Peess.
Ingram John & Nguyễn Thị Anh Thư. 2006. Stress, tone and word prosody in Vietnamese compounds. In Warren & Watson (eds.), 193–198.
Inkelas Sharon & Zec Draga. 1998. Serbo-Croatian pitch accent: The interaction of tone, stress, and intonation. Language 64 (2), 227248.
Jannedy Stefanie. 2008. The effect of focus on lexical tones in Vietnamese. In Botinis Antonis (ed.), Proceedings of ISCA Tutorial and Research Workshop On Experimental Linguistics, 113116. Athens: ISCA and the University of Athens.
Kirby James. 2011. Vietnamese (Hanoi Vietnamese). Journal of the International Phonetic Association 41 (3), 381392.
Kirby James & Sonderegger Morgan. 2016. Model selection and phonological argumentation. Ms., University of Edinburgh & McGill University.
Lahiri Aditi, Wetterlin Allison & Jönsson-Steiner Elisabet. 2005. Lexical specification of tone in North Germanic. Nordic Journal of Linguistics 28 (1), 6196.
Michaud Alexis. 2004. Final consonants and glottalization: New perspectives from Hanoi Vietnamese. Phonetica 61, 119146.
Michaud Alexis. 2005. Prosodie de langues à tons (naxi et vietnamien), prosodie de l'anglais: éclairages croisés (École doctorale 268, Language et Langues). Ph.D. dissertation, Paris 3 – Sorbonne Nouvelle.
Michaud Alexis & Brunelle Marc. 2016. Information structure in Asia: Yongning Na (Sino-Tibetan) and Vietnamese (Austroasiatic). In Féry Caroline & Ishihara Shinichiro (eds.), The Oxford handbook of information structure, 774789. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Miller Taylor, Athanasopoulou Angeliki, Pincus Nadya & Vogel Irene. 2015. The effect of focus on phonation in Northern Vietnamese tones. Presented at the Linguistic Society of America, Portland.
Nara Kiranpreet. 2015. Punjabi tone and stress (Doabi dialect). MA memoir, University of Ottawa.
Ngô Thanh Nhàn. 1984. The syllabeme and patterns of word formation in Vietnamese. Ph.D. dissertation, New York University.
Nguyễn Đình-Hoà. 1997. Vietnamese. Amsterdam & Philadelphia, PA: John Benjamins.
Nguyễn Thị Thư Anh. 2010. Rhythmic pattern and corrective focus in Vietnamese polysyllabic words. Mon-Khmer Studies 39, 128.
Nguyễn Thị Thư Anh & Ingram John. 2006. Reduplication and word stress in Vietnamese. In Warren & Watson (eds.), 187–192.
Nguyễn Thị Thư Anh & Ingram John. 2007a. Acoustic and perceptual cues for compound-phrasal contrasts in Vietnamese. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 122 (3), 17461757.
Nguyễn Thị Thư Anh & Ingram John. 2007b. Stress and tone sandhi in Vietnamese reduplications. Mon-Khmer Studies 37, 1539.
Nguyễn Văn Lợi & Edmondson Jerold. 1997. Tones and voice quality in modern Northern Vietnamese: Instrumental case studies. Mon-Khmer Studies 28, 118.
Norman Jerry. 1988. Chinese. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Noyer Rolph. 1998. Vietnamese 'morphology' and the definition of word. University of Pennsylvania Working Papers in Linguistics 5 (2), 6589.
Phạm Andrea Hoà. 2003. Vietnamese tones: A new analysis. New York: Routledge.
Phạm Andrea Hoà. 2008. Is there a prosodic word in Vietnamese? Toronto Working Papers in Linguistics 29, 123.
Potisuk Siripong, Gandour Jakson & Harper Mary. 1994. F0 correlates of stress in Thai. Linguistics of the Tibeto-Burman Area 17 (2), 127.
Potisuk Siripong, Gandour Jackson & Harper Mary. 1996. Acoustic correlates of stress in Thai. Phonetica 53, 200220.
Prieto Pilar & Ortega-Llebaria Marta. 2006. Stress and accent in Catalan and Spanish: Patterns of duration, vowel quality, overall intensity, and spectral balance. Proceedings of Speech Prosody, 337340.
Remijsen Bert. 2002. Lexically contrastive stress accent and lexical tone in Ma'ya. In Gussenhoven Carlos & Warner Natasha (eds.), Laboratory Phonology 7, 585614. Berlin & New York: Mouton de Gruyer.
Remijsen Bert & Van Heuven Vincent J.. 2005. Stress, tone and discourse prominence in the Curaçao dialect of Papiamentu. Phonology 22 (2), 205235.
Riad Tomas. 1998. Towards a Scandinavian accent typology. Phonology and Morphology of the Germanic Languages 386, 77109.
Schiering René, Bickel Balthasar & Hildebrandt Kristine A.. 2010. The prosodic word is not universal, but emergent. Journal of Linguistics 46 (3), 657709.
Sluijter Agaath M. C. & Heuven Vincent J. Van. 1996. Spectral balance as an acoustic correlate of linguistic stress. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 100 (4), 24712485.
Sluijter Agaath M. C., Heuven Vincent J. Van & Pacilly Jos J. A.. 1997. Spectral balance as a cue in the perception of linguistic stress. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 101 (1), 503513.
Snow Gregory L. 2009. Power analysis for multi-level models. https://stat.ethz.ch/pipermail/r-sig-mixed-models/2009q1/001790.html (last accessed 3 June 2016).
Thomas David. 1962. On defining the 'word' in Vietnamese. Văn-hóa nguyêt-san XI (5), 519523.
Thompson Laurence. 1963. The problem of the word in Vietnamese. Word 19, 3952.
Thompson Laurence. 1965. Vietnamese reference grammar. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press.
Trần Hương Mai. 1967. Tones and intonation in South Vietnamese. In Nguyễn Đăng Liêm, Trần Hương Mai & Dellinger David (eds.), Papers in Southeast Asian Linguistics No.1 (Series A – Occasional Papers #9), 1934. Canberra: Linguistics Circle of Canberra.
Trần Thị Hiền Thúy & Vallée Nathalie. 2009. An acoustic study of interword consonant sequences in Vietnamese. Journal of the Southeast Asian Linguistics Society (1), 231249.
Trương Vĩnh Ký. 1883. Grammaire de la Langue Annamite. Saigon: C. Guillaud et Martinon.
Turk Alice E. & Shattuck-Hufnagel Stefanie. 2000. Word-boundary-related duration patterns in English. Journal of Phonetics 28, 397440.
Van Der Hulst Harry. 2012. Deconstructing stress. Lingua 122 (13), 14941521.
Warren Paul & Watson Catherine I. (eds.). 2006. Proceedings of the 11th Australian International Conference on Speech Science & Technology. Auckland: University of Auckland.
Wightman Colin W., Shattuck-Huffnagel Stefanie, Ostendorf Mari & Price Patti J.. 1992. Segmental durations in the vicinity of prosodic phrase boundaries. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 91, 17071717.
Williams Briony. 1985. Pitch and duration in Welsh stress perception: The implications for intonation. Journal of Phonetics 13, 381406.
Xu Yi. 1999. Effects of tone and focus on the formation and alignment of f0 contours. Journal of Phonetics 27 (1), 55105.
Xu Yi, Xu Ching X. & Sun Xuejing. 2004. On the temporal domain of focus. Proceedings of Speech Prosody 2004 Nara, 4.
Yoon Tae-Jin, Cole Jennifer & Hasegawa-Johnson Mark. 2007. On the edge: Acoustic cues to layered prosodic domaines. Proceedings of the International Congress of Phonetic Science, 10171020.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Journal of the International Phonetic Association
  • ISSN: 0025-1003
  • EISSN: 1475-3502
  • URL: /core/journals/journal-of-the-international-phonetic-association
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 9
Total number of PDF views: 99 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 301 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between 16th February 2017 - 24th October 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.