Skip to main content
×
×
Home

Acidic allomones in marine organisms

  • T. E. Thompson (a1)
Extract

The phenomenon of acid secretion has arisen independently many times, for feeding, for penetrating calcareous material to make a shelter or to pursue prey, or for defence. This last category contains examples from many groups of marine organisms, in which acidic allomones may serve to deter fouling by epibionts or predation by teleost fish. Histochemical and histophysical methods have increased the precision with which acidic allomones can be identified within acid vacuoles, cells, glands, sacs or capsules. Acidic allomones are produced in pleurobranch molluscs by unicellular epidermal glands, by multicellular subepidermal sacs, or by an arborescent internal acid gland, connected to the buccal mass by a thick medio-dorsal duct. Some species have all three types. In the case of the epidermis, discharge is probably triggered directly by the trauma of attack by a predator (effectively, holocrine discharge), but the other types of gland are discharged by contraction of a strong muscle sheath, without tissue damage. Cypraeid molluscs have extensive, mobile mantle lobes which can ensheath the massive shell temporarily. The epidermal acid glands are orientated within the mantle so as to discharge away from the shell. The lamellariid and philinid molluscs have internal shells, well protected from chemical attack, and the multicellular, subepidermal acid glands are situated over all the surfaces of the body. In the tunicates investigated, both blood and tunic were neutral in Ciona intestinalis, but they were both acid (pH 1) in Ascidiella aspersa. In Ascidiella scabra and Ascidia mentula the blood was neutral, and the tunic alone was acid. The acid tunics contained abundant blind lacunae. It is unlikely that these acid-filled lacunae correspond to the blind-ending arterial ampullae described by other workers. Discharge is probably brought about directly through the trauma of attack. The perennial species of the alga Desmarestia, D. aculeata, exhibited a pH near to neutrality. Two annual species, D. dresnayi and D. ligulata, contained acid of pH 1–2, and showed strong precipitation of BaSO4 after BaCl2 treatment. Sections confirmed that the acid is normally held within the swollen parenchymatous cells which pack the sporophyte frond. The cuticle is comparatively thin in the acidic species. In conclusion, it is argued that acid secretion may be the allelochemical analogue of warning or aposematic coloration.

Copyright
References
Hide All
Bateson, W., 1890. The sense-organs and perceptions of fishes; with remarks on the supply of bait. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 1, 225256.
Carriker, M. R., 1969. Excavation of boreholes by the gastropod, Urosalpinx: an analysis by light and scanning electron microscopy. American Zoologist, 9, 917933.
Day, J. A., 1969. Feeding of the cymatiid gastropod, Argobuccinum argus, in relation to the structure of the proboscis and secretions of the proboscis gland. American Zoologist, 9, 909916.
Dorsett, D. A., 1961. The behaviour of Polydora ciliata (Johnst.). Tube building and burrowing. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 41, 577590.
Edmunds, M., 1968. Acid secretion in some species of Doridacea (Mollusca, Nudibranchia). Proceedings of the Malacological Society of London, 38, 121133.
Endean, R., 1953. Discovery of iron in tunicin-forming blood cells of an ascidian. Nature, London, 172, 123.
Endean, R., 1961. The test of the ascidian, Phallusia mammillata. Quarterly Journal of Microscopical Science, 102, 107117.
Eppley, R. W. & Bovell, C. R., 1958. Sulfuric acid in Desmarestia. Biological Bulletin. Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, Mass., 115, 101106.
Fange, R. & Lidman, U., 1976. Secretion of sulfuric acid in Cassidaria echinophora Lamarck (Mollusca: Mesogastropoda, marine carnivorous snail). Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, 53 A, 101103.
Fontaine, A. R., 1964. The integumentary mucous secretions of the ophiuroid Ophiocomina nigra. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 44, 145—162.
Garstang, W., 1890. A complete list of the opisthobranchiate Mollusca found at Plymouth; with further observations on their morphology, colours, and natural history. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 1, 399—457.
Goodbody, I., 1974. The physiology of ascidians. Advances in Marine Biology, 12, 2149.
Hawkins, C. J., James, G. A., Parry, D. L. & Swinehart, J. H., 1983. Intracellular acidity in the ascidian. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, 76 B, 559565.
Henze, M., 1911. Untersuchungen über das Blut der Ascidien. I. Mitteilung. Die Vanadiumverbindung der Blutkörperchen. Hoppe-Seyler's Zeitschrift für physiologische Chemie, 72, 494501.
Henze, M., 1913. Untersuchungen über das Blut der Ascidien. III. Mitteilung. Hoppe-Seyler's Zeitschrift für physiologische Chemie, 86, 340344.
Hodgkin, N. M., 1962. Limestone boring by the mytilid Lithophaga. Veliger, 4, 123129.
Houbrick, J. R. & Fretter, V., 1969. Some aspects of the functional anatomy and biology of Cymatium and Bursa. Proceedings of the Malacological Society of London, 38, 415429.
Hughes, R. N. & Hughes, H. P. I., 1981. Morphological and behavioural aspects of feeding in the Cassidae (Tonnacea, Mesogastropoda). Malacologia, 20, 385402.
Johnson, E. L., 1982. Modern ion chromatography. International Laboratory, 14, 110115.
Kniffen, J. C., 1968. Acid secretion in Cypraea. American Journal of Digestive Diseases, 13, 775778.
Marbach, A. & Tsurnamal, M., 1973. The biology of Berthellina citrina (Gastropoda: Opisthobranchia) and its defensive acid secretion. Marine Biology, 21, 331339.
Panceri, P., 1869. Gli organi e la secrezione dell'acido solforico nei gasteropodi. Atti dell'Accademia delle scienze fisiche e matematiche, 4, 56 pp.
Parry, D. L., 1984. Chemical properties of the test of ascidians in relation to predation. Marine Ecology -Progress Series, 17, 279282.
Pirie, B. J. S. & Bell, M. V., 1984. The localization of inorganic elements, particularly vanadium and sulphur, in haemolymph from the ascidians Ascidia mentula (Müller) and Ascidiella aspersa (Müller). Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 74, 187194.
Preyer, W., 1866. Uber das für speichel gehaltene sekret von Dolium galea. Sitzungsberichte der niederrhein Gesellschaft für Natur- und Heilkunde zu Bonn, 1866, 69.
Schulz, F. N., 1905. Der histologische Bau der Sauredrüse von Pleurobranchaea Meckelii. Verhandlungen der Gesellschaft deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte. Leipzig. 76, 487—489.
Smith, M., 1970. The blood cells and tunic of the ascidian Halocynthia aurantium (Pallas). I. Hematology, tunic morphology and partition of cells between blood and tunic. Biological Bulletin. Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, Mass., 138, 354378.
Steedman, H. F., 1950. Alcian blue 8 GS: a new stain for mucin. Quarterly Journal of Microscopical Science, 91, 477479.
Steedman, H. F., 1970. A one-solution triacid general stain which differentiates oxygenated from non-oxygenated red blood corpuscles. Stain Technology, 45, 247253.
Stoecker, D., 1978. Resistance of a tunicate to fouling. Biological Bulletin, Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, Mass., 155, 615626.
Stoecker, D., 1980. Chemical defenses of ascidians against predators. Ecology, 61, 13271334.
Thompson, T. E., 1960 a. Defensive acid secretion in marine gastropods. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 39, 115122.
Thompson, T. E., 1960 b. Defensive adaptations in opisthobranchs. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 39, 123134.
Thompson, T. E., 1961. Acid-secretion in British cowries. Proceedings of the Malacological Society of London, 34,210211.
Thompson, T. E., 1965. Epidermal acid secretion in some marine polyclad Turbellaria. Nature, London, 206, 954955.
Thompson, T. E., 1969. Acid secretion in Pacific Ocean gastropods. Australian Journal of Zoology, 17, 755764.
Thompson, T. E., 1976. Biology of Opisthobranch Molluscs, vol. I. London: Ray Society.
Thompson, T. E., 1983. Detection of epithelial acid secretions in marine molluscs: review of techniques, and new analytical methods. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, 74 A, 615621.
Thompson, T. E., 1986. Investigation of the acidic allomone of the gastropod mollusc Philine aperta by means of ion chromatography and histochemical localisation of sulphate and chloride ions. Journal of Molluscan Studies, 52, 3844.
Thompson, T. E. & Colman, J. G., 1984. Histology of acid glands in Pleurobranchomorpha. Journal of Molluscan Studies, 50, 6667.
Thompson, T. E. & Gathercole, L. J., 1986. Histophysical demonstration of barium sulphate in acidic epithelia of molluscs and other organisms following irrigation in vivo with aqueous barium chloride. Journal of Molluscan Studies, 52, 261262.
Troschel, F. H., 1854. Ueber den Speichel von Dolium galea Lam. Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin, 1854, 486494.
Webb, D. A., 1939. Observations on the blood of certain ascidians, with special reference to the biochemistry of vanadium. Journal of Experimental Biology, 16, 499523.
Wirth, W. E. & Rigg, G. B., 1937. The acidity of the juice of Desmarestia. American Journal of Botany, 24, 6870.
Yonge, C. M., 1949. The Sea Shore. London: Collins.
Yonge, C. M., 1955. Adaptation to rock boring in Botula and Lithophaga. Quarterly Journal of Microscopical Science, 96, 383—410.
Zottoli, R. A. & Carriker, M. R., 1974. Burrow morphology, tube formation, and microarchitecture of shell dissolution by the spionid polychaete Polydora websteri. Marine Biology, 27, 307316.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom
  • ISSN: 0025-3154
  • EISSN: 1469-7769
  • URL: /core/journals/journal-of-the-marine-biological-association-of-the-united-kingdom
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed