Skip to main content
×
Home

A comparison of the degree of implementation of marine biodiversity indicators by European countries in relation to the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD)

  • Herman Hummel (a1), Matt Frost (a2), José A. Juanes (a3), Judith Kochmann (a4), Carlos F. Castellanos Perez Bolde (a5), Fernando Aneiros (a6), François Vandenbosch (a7) (a8), João N. Franco (a9), Beatriz Echavarri (a3), Xabier Guinda (a3), Araceli Puente (a3), Camino Fernández (a3), Cristina Galván (a3), Maria Merino (a3), Elvira Ramos (a3), Paloma Fernández (a3), Valentina Pitacco (a10), Madara Alberte (a11), Dagmara Wojcik (a12), Monika Grabowska (a13), Marlene Jahnke (a14), Fabio Crocetta (a14), Laura Carugati (a15), Simonetta Scorrano (a16), Simonetta Fraschetti (a16), Patricia Pérez García (a17), José Antonio Sanabria Fernández (a17) (a18), Artem Poromov (a19), Anna Iurchenko (a19), Artem Isachenko (a19), Alexandra Chava (a19), Christina Pavloudi (a20), François Bordeyne (a7) (a8), Simone Fie Andersen (a21), Elizabeth Grace Tunka Eronat (a22), Taylan Cakmak (a23), Paraskevi Louizidou (a24), José Rico (a25), Stela Ruci (a26), David Corta Diego (a27), Sara Mendez (a28), Maria Rousou (a29), Laurence de Clippele (a30), Annukka Eriksson (a31), Winnie van Zanten (a32), Anna Diamant (a33) and Valentina Kirienko Fernandes de Matos (a34)...
Abstract

The degree of development and operability of the indicators for the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) using Descriptor 1 (D1) Biological Diversity was assessed. To this end, an overview of the relevance and degree of operability of the underlying parameters across 20 European countries was compiled by analysing national directives, legislation, regulations, and publicly available reports. Marked differences were found between countries in the degree of ecological relevance as well as in the degree of implementation and operability of the parameters chosen to indicate biological diversity. The best scoring EU countries were France, Germany, Greece and Spain, while the worst scoring countries were Italy and Slovenia. No country achieved maximum scores for the implementation of MSFD D1. The non-EU countries Norway and Turkey score as highly as the top-scoring EU countries. On the positive side, the chosen parameters for D1 indicators were generally identified as being an ecologically relevant reflection of Biological Diversity. On the negative side however, less than half of the chosen parameters are currently operational. It appears that at a pan-European level, no consistent and harmonized approach currently exists for the description and assessment of marine biological diversity. The implementation of the MSFD Descriptor 1 for Europe as a whole can therefore at best be marked as moderately successful.

Copyright
Corresponding author
Correspondence should be addressed to: H. Hummel, Monitor Taskforce, Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research (NIOZ), Yerseke, the Netherlands email: herman.hummel@nioz.nl
References
Hide All
Anistratenko V.V., Anistratenko O. and Haliman I.A. (2007) The composition of the mollusk fauna of the Azov Sea as a function of its salinity regime. Reports of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine 4, 161166. [In Russian]
Anonymous (1985) Environmental studies in engineering prospecting on the continental shelf. RD 51 11-01-85, 110 pp. [In Russian].
Anonymous (2010) Ley 41/2010, de 29 de diciembre, de protección del medio marino. Boletín Oficial del Estado, Núm. 317 (Jueves 30 de diciembre de 2010), Sec. I., 108464–108488.
Arcos J.M., Bécares J., Cama A. and Rodríguez B. (2012) Estrategias Marinas. Grupo Aves. Evaluación inicial y buen estado ambiental. de Armas D., Bellas J. & de Sola L. Gil (Coords.). Ministerio de Agricultura, Alimentación y Medio Ambiente, Secretaría General Técnica, Centro de Publicaciones. Madrid, 296 pp.
Aslaksen I., Framstad E., Garnåsjordet P.A., Nybø S. and Skarpaas O. (2012) Knowledge gathering and communication on biodiversity: developing the Norwegian Nature Index. Norsk Geografisk Tidsskrift – Norwegian Journal of Geography 66, 300308.
Aslaksen I. and Garnåsjordet P.A. (2012) The Norwegian Nature Index. Norsk Geografisk Tidsskrift – Norwegian Journal of Geography 66, 239240.
Belgische Staat (2012) Omschrijving van Goede Milieutoestand en vaststelling van Milieudoelen voor de Belgische mariene wateren. Kaderrichtlijn Mariene Strategie – Art 9 & 10. BMM, Federale Overheidsdienst Volksgezondheid, Veiligheid van de Voedselketen en Leefmilieu, Brussel, België, 34 pp.
BLMP (2014) Entwicklung nationaler Indikatorlisten für die Nord- und Ostsee, Sachstand 07.03.2014. Bund-Länder Messprogramm, 11 pp.
BMUB (2014a) Reporting requirement on monitoring programmes under MSFD Article 11 (Baltic Sea). Federal Ministry for the Environment, Building, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety. Web questionnaire with reporting date: 2014-–0–15 (with amendments to D10 from 2014–11–5) (http://cdr.eionet.europa.eu/de/eu/msfd_mp/balde), 73 pp. [Partially in German]
BMUB (2014b) Reporting requirement on monitoring programmes under MSFD Article 11 (The Greater North Sea, including the Kattegat, and the English Channel). Federal Ministry for the Environment, Building, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety. Web questionnaire with reporting date: 2014–10–15 (with amendments to D10 from 2014–11–5) (http://cdr.eionet.europa.eu/de/eu/msfd_mp/ansde), 73 pp. [Partially in German]
BMUB (2014c) Umsetzung der Meeresstrategie-Rahmenrichtlinie RICHTLINIE 2008/56/EG zur Schaffung eines Ordnungsrahmens für Maßnahmen der Gemeinschaft im Bereich der Meeresumwelt (Meeresstrategie-Rahmenrichtlinie). Überwachungsprogramme gemäß § 45f Abs. 1 WHG zur Umsetzung von Art. 11 MSRL – Teil A – Rahmenkonzept. Bundesministerium für Umwelt, Naturschutz, Bau und Reaktorsicherheit. Referat WA I 5 Meeresumweltschutz, Internationales Recht des Schutzes der marinen Gewässer, 104 pp.
Borja Á., Galparsoro I., Irigoien X., Iriondo A., Menchaca I., Muxika I., Pascual M., Quincoces I., Revilla M., Rodríguez J.G., Santurtún M., Solaun O., Uriarte A., Valencia V. and Zorita I. (2011) Implementation of the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive: a methodological approach for the assessment of environmental status, from the Basque Country (Bay of Biscay). Marine Pollution Bulletin 62, 889904.
Burrows M.T., Mieszkowska N. and Hawkins S.J. (2014a) Marine Strategy Framework Directive Indicators for UK Rocky Shores. Part 1: Defining and validating the indicators. JNCC Report, 522, SAMS/MBA/NOCS for JNCC, JNCC Peterborough, 98 pp.
Burrows M.T., Smale D., O'connor N. and Van Rein H. (2014b) Marine Strategy Framework Directive Indicators for UK Kelp Habitats. Part 1: Developing proposals for potential indicators. JNCC Report, 525, SAMS/MBA/QUB/UAber for JNCC, JNCC Peterborough, 80 pp.
Certain G., Skarpaas O., Bjerke J.W., Framstad E. and Lindholm M. (2011) The Nature Index: a general framework for synthesizing knowledge on the state of biodiversity. PLoS ONE 6, e18930.
Cima F. and Ballarin L. (2013) A proposed integrated bioindex for the macrofouling biocoenosis of hard substrata in the lagoon of Venice. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 130, 190201.
Cochrane S.K.J., Connor D.W., Nilsson P., Mitchell I., Reker J., Franco J., Valavanis V., Moncheva S., Ekebom J., Nygaard K., Serrão Santos R., Narberhaus I., Packeiser T., van de Bund W. and Cardoso A.C. (2010) Marine Strategy Framework Directive – Task Group 1 Report Biological Diversity. JRC Scientific and Technical Reports, Joint Research Centre, EUR 24337, 111 pp.
Cook A.S.C.P., Ross-Smith V.H. and Robinson R.A. (2012) Development of MSFD indicators, baselines and target for seabird breeding failure occurrence in the UK. BTO Research Report, 615, British Trust for Ornithology for JNCC, JNCC Peterborough, 94 pp.
COREM (2012) La tutela della biodiversità marina in Mediterraneo, esperienze a confronto. Progetto COREM “Cooperacione delle Reti Ecologiche del Mediterraneo”, Portoferraio, 30 pp.
DEFRA (2014) Marine strategy part two: UK marine monitoring programmes. Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, 86 pp.
DFMR (2012a) Initial assessment of the marine environment of Cyprus, Part I – characteristics: implementation of Article 8 of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (2008/56/EC). Department of Fisheries and Marine Research, Ministry of Agriculture, Natural Resources and the Environment, Nicosia, Cyprus, 273 pp.
DFMR (2012b) Determination of good environmental status of the marine environment of Cyprus: Implementation of Article 9 of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (2008/56/EC). Department of Fisheries and Marine Research, Ministry of Agriculture, Natural Resources and the Environment, Nicosia, Cyprus, 90 pp.
DFMR (2012c) Environmental targets and associated indicators. Implementation of Article 10 of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (2008/56/EC). Department of Fisheries and Marine Research, Ministry of Agriculture, Natural Resources and the Environment, Nicosia, Cyprus, 33 pp.
DFMR (2014a) Revision of reports prepared in 2012 for the implementation of Articles 8, 9 and 10 of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (2008/56/EC). Department of Fisheries and Marine Research, Ministry of Agriculture, Natural Resources and the Environment, Nicosia, Cyprus, 74 pp.
DFMR (2014b) Report on the monitoring programmes of Cyprus in the framework of the implementation of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (2008/56/EC). Department of Fisheries and Marine Research, Ministry of Agriculture, Natural Resources and the Environment, Nicosia, Cyprus, 154 pp.
DME (2012) Danmarks Havstrategi – Miljømålsrapport. Danish Ministry of the Environment, Nature Agency, 46 pp.
DME (2014) Danmarks Havstrategi – Overvågningsprogram. Danish Ministry of the Environment, Nature Agency, 53 pp.
Dupont C., Belin A., Vermonden B., Moreira G., Cochrane S., Wilson L., Emblow C., Kater B., Des Clercs S., Parr W., Le Visage C., Green N., Cools J., Thomsen F. (2014) Article 12 Technical assessment of the MSFD 2012 obligations. Brussels: Milieu Ltd, 67 pp.
État Belge (2012) Définition du bon état écologique et définition d'objectifs environnementaux pour les eaux marines Belges. Directive-cadre Stratégie pour le milieu marin – Art 9 & 10. Bruxelles: UGMM, Service Public Fédéral Santé publique, Sécurité de la Chaîne alimentaire et Environnement, 32 pp.
European Commission (2011) Relationship between the initial assessment of marine waters and the criteria for good environmental status. Commission staff working paper. European Commission, Brussels. SEC (2011) 1255 final, 95 pp.
European Commission (2012) Links between the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD 2008/56/EC) and the Nature Directives (Birds Directive 2009/147/EEC (BD) and Habitats Directive 92/43/EEC (HD)). Interactions, overlaps and potential areas for closer coordination. Brussels: European Commission, 31 pp.
Fariñas-Franco J.M., Pearce B., Porter J., Harries D., Mair J.M., Woolmer A.S. and Sanderson W.G. (2014) Marine Strategy Framework Directive Indicators for Biogenic Reefs formed by Modiolus modiolus, Mytilus edulis and Sabellaria spinulosa. Part 1: Defining and Validating the Indicators. JNCC Report, 523. Peterborough: Heriot Watt University for JNCC, 276 pp.
Gil J., Ramos F., Jiménez M.P., Silva L., Baldó F., Farias C., Sobrino I., Burgos C., Serrano A., Velasco F., Punzón A., Tello O., Lens S., Macías D., Bellas J., Coján M., Aguirre E., Módica L., González-Irusta J.M. and Díaz V. (2012) Estrategia Marina. Demarcación Marina Sudatlántica. Parte IV. Descriptores del buen estado ambiental. Descriptor 1: Biodiversidad. Evaluación inicial y buen estado ambiental. de Armas D. & Bellas J. (Coords.). Madrid: Ministerio de Agricultura, Alimentación y Medio Ambiente, Secretaría General Técnica, Centro de Publicaciones, 425 pp.
Gil de Sola L., Serrano A., Velasco F., Punzón A., Preciado I., Ordines F., Ruiz J.M., Acosta J., Lens S., Macías D., Tello O., González-Irusta J.M., García J.E., Módica L. and Díaz V. (2012) Estrategia Marina. Demarcación Marina del Estrecho y Alborán. Parte IV. Descriptores del buen estado ambiental. Descriptor 1: Biodiversidad. Evaluación inicial y buen estado ambiental. de Armas D. & Bellas J. (Coords.). Madrid: Ministerio de Agricultura, Alimentación y Medio Ambiente, Secretaría General Técnica, Centro de Publicaciones, 615 pp.
Gladilina E.V. (2010) Observations of cetaceans (Cetacea) in the waters of Karadag nature reserve and the adjacent waters. Scientific Notes of Taurida V.I. Vernadsky National University. Series: Biology, Chemistry 25, 5159. [In Russian]
Guérin L., Feunteun E., Gremare A., Beauvais S., Gailhard-Rocher I., Grall J., Labrune C., Laurand S., Lavesque N., Lejart M., Paillet J., Personnic S., Quemmerais-Amice F., Sterckeman A., Robinet T. and You H. (2013). Définition du programme de surveillance et plan d'acquisition de connaissances pour la DCSMM: propositions scientifiques et techniques (chantier 2). Thématique 1: Biodiversité. MNHN-Service des stations marines, RESOMAR, AAMP, 212 pp. plus annexes.
Guide to hydrological work in the oceans and seas (1977). Leningrad: Gidrometeoizdat, 725 pp. [In Russian]
Haynes T., Bell J., Saunders G., Irving R., Williams J. and Bell G. (2014) Marine Strategy Framework Directive shallow sublittoral rock indicators for fragile sponges and anthozoan assemblages. Part 1: developing proposals for potential indicators. JNCC Report, 524. Peterborough: Nature Bureau and Environment Systems Ltd. for JNCC, 85 pp.
Heip C. and Mcdonough N. (2012) Marine biodiversity: a science roadmap for Europe. Marine Board Future Science Brief 1. Ostend: European Marine Board, 36 pp.
Hernández C.L., Serrano A., García-Santamaría M.T., Perales C., Martín-Sosa P., Alayón P.P., Jiménez S., Tello O., Lens S., Macías D., González J.G., Rodríguez J.E. and Díaz V. (2012) Estrategia Marina. Demarcación Marina Canaria. Parte IV. Descriptores del buen estado ambiental. Descriptor 1: Biodiversidad. Evaluación inicial y buen estado ambiental. de Armas D. & Bellas J. (Coords.). Madrid: Ministerio de Agricultura, Alimentación y Medio Ambiente, Secretaría General Técnica, Centro de Publicaciones, 264 pp.
ICES (2013). Report of the Joint ICES/OSPAR Expert Group on Seabirds (WGBIRD), 22–25 October 2013, Copenhagen, Denmark. ICES CM 2013/ACOM:78, 77 pp.
ISPRA (2013). Proposte per la definizione del buono stato ambientle e dei traguardi ambientali. Descrittore 1 Biodiversità. ISPRA, 110 pp.
Krzymiński W. (2013) Wstępna ocena stanu środowiska wód morskich polskiej strefy Morza Bałtyckiego. Raport do Komisji Europejskiej. Departament monitoringu i informacji o środowisku, GIOŚ, 463 pp.
Krzymiński W. (2014) Zestaw właściwości typowych dla dobrego stanu środowiska wód morskich. Raport do Komisji Europejskiej. [Set of features peculiar to good condition of marine water environment. Report to European Commission.] Departament monitoringu i informacji o środowisku, GIOŚ, 21 pp.
LHEI (2012) Jūras stratēǵijas pamatdirektīva 2008/56/EK. Jūras vides stāvokļa sākotnējais novērtējums – Laba vides stāvokļa kritēriji, indikatori un vērtējums Rīgas līcim un Baltijas jūrai. Rīga: Latvijas Hidroekoloǵijas institūts, 18 pp.
LHEI (2014) Latvijas piekrastes un pārejas ūdeņu (Baltijas jūras) bioloǵisko kvalitātes elementu (fitoplanktona, makrofītu, bentosa bezmugurkaulnieku faunas, zivju) klašu robežu izstrāde (ES Ūdens Struktūrdirektīva 2000/60/EK). Projekta ziņojums. Rīga: Latvijas Hidroekoloǵijas institūts, 45 pp.
Losovskaya G.V. (2005) Change of some parameters (dominance and diversity) for the species structure of the Mytilus galloprovincialis biocenosis under hypoxic and fish die-off conditions in the north-western part of the Black Sea. Ecological Safety of Coastal and Shelf Zones and Complex use of Shelf Resources 12, 574580. [In Russian]
MAGRAMA (2014) Estrategias Marinas. VI. Programas de Seguimiento. Documento 1: Indicadores. Ministerio de Agricultura, Alimentación y Medio Ambiente. 92 pp plus annexes.
MAMAOT (2012) Estratégia Marinha para a subdivisão do Continente. Diretiva Quadro Estratégia Marinha. Ministério da Agricultura, do Mar, do Ambiente e do Ordenamento do Território, Portugal, 930 pp.
MAMAOT (2014) Estratégias Marinhas para as Àguas Marinhas Portuguesas. Versão para consulta pública Outubro de 2014. Diretiva Quadro Estratégia Marinha. Ministério da Agricultura, do Mar, do Ambiente e do Ordenamento do Território, Portugal, 164 pp.
MARMONI (2014) List of new, innovative and cost-effective indicators for monitoring biodiversity in the Baltic Sea. MARMONI project report. Baltic Environmental Forum, 164 pp.
MATTM (2009) Convenzione sulla Diversità Biologica – 4o Rapporto Nazionale. Ministero dell'Ambiente e della Tutela del Territorio e del Mare, Italy, 138 pp.
MATTM (2010) La Strategia Nazionale per la Biodiversità. Ministero dell'Ambiente e della Tutela del Territorio e del Mare, Italy, 204 pp.
MEECC (2014) National strategy & action plan for biodiversity [In Greek]. Ministry of Environment, Energy and Climate Change, Greece, 130 pp.
MENRU (2010) The Convention about biodiversity. The forth national report of Ukraine. Ministry of Ecology and Natural Resources of Ukraine, Kiev, 80 pp. [In Russian]
MFWM (2008) National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan. Ankara: Ministry of Forest and Water Management, General Directorate of Natural Conservation and National Parks, 176 pp [In Turkish]
MIE (2012) Marine Strategy for the Netherlands part of the North Sea 2012–2020, Part 1. Ministry of Infrastructure and the Environment, 140 pp.
MIE (2014) The Draft Marine Strategy for the Dutch part of the North Sea 2012–2020, Part 2. MSFD Monitoring Programme version 04.02.2014. Ministry of Infrastructure and the Environment, 21 pp.
Mikhalev Y.A. (2008) Characteristics of distribution of the common dolphins, Delphinus delphis (Cetacea), in the Black Sea. Vestnik zoologii 42, 325337. [In Russian]
Milieu (2014a) Article 12 Technical Assessment of the MSFD 2012 obligations. National Report: Italy. Brussels: Milieu Ltd, 46 pp.
Milieu (2014b) Article 12 Technical Assessment of the MSFD 2012 obligations. National Report: Spain. Brussels: Milieu Ltd, 69 pp.
Munari C. and Mistri M. (2010). Towards the application of the Water Framework Directive in Italy: assessing the potential of benthic tools in Adriatic coastal transitional ecosystems. Marine Pollution Bulletin 60, 10401050.
Nybø S., Certain G. and Skarpaas O. (2011) The Norwegian Nature Index 2010. DN-report, 2011, 1, 24 pp.
Nybø S., Certain G. and Skarpaas O. (2012) The Norwegian Nature Index – state and trends of biodiversity in Norway. Norsk Geografisk Tidsskrift – Norwegian Journal of Geography 66, 241249.
OSPAR Commission (2012a) MSFD Advice Manual and Background Document on Biodiversity. A living document – Version 3.2 of 5 March 2012. Approaches to determining Good Environmental Status, setting of environmental targets and selecting indicators for Marine Strategy Framework Directive descriptors 1, 2, 4 and 6. OSPAR Commission Publication, 581, 141 pp.
OSPAR Commission (2012b) Report of the OSPAR workshop on MSFD biodiversity descriptors: comparison of targets and associated indicators. OSPAR Commission Publication, 575, 56 pp.
OSPAR Commission (2013) OSPAR special request on review of the technical specification and application of common indicators under D1, D2, D4 and D6. ICES Advice, 1, 14 pp.
Palialexis A., Tornero V., Barbone E., Gonzalez D., Hanke G., Cardoso A.C., Hoepffner N., Katsanevakis S., Somma F. and Zampoukas N. (2014) In-depth assessment of the EU member states’ submissions for the Marine Strategy Framework Directive under articles 8, 9 and 10. Luxembourg: Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Joint Research Centre, European Commission, 153 pp.
Peterlin M., Bremec U., Centa M., Bruderman B., Gabrijelčič E., Gosar L., Kramar M., Mohorko T., Palatinus A., Petelin Š., Urbanič G., Orlando-Bonaca M., Lipej L., Malej A., Francé J., Čermelj B., Bajt O., Kovač N., Mavrič B., Turk V., Mozetič P., Ramšak A., Kogovšek T., Šiško M., Flander Putrle V., Grego M., Tinta T., Petelin B., Vodopivec M., Jeromel M., Martinčič U., Malačič V., Marčeta B., Pengal P., Deželak F. and Jenko J. (2013) Management plan of marine environment: description of good marine environmental status and environmental objective. Inštitut za vode Republike Slovenije, Ljubljana, 36 pp. [In Slovenian]
Petrenko O.A. (2013) Main results of complex research in the Azov-Black Sea basin and the World Ocean. Kerch: Southern Scientific Research Institute of Marine Fisheries and Oceanography (YugNIRO), 166 pp.
Ruiz J.M., Massutí E., Ordines F., Quetglas A., Moranta J., Ramos A., Barcala E., Franco I., Gil de Sola L., García J.E., Macías D., Lens S., Deudero S., Vázquez M., Bellas J., Mas J., Giménez F., Gomariz F., de la Ossa J.A., del Pilar-Ruso Y., Ramos A., Sánchez J.L., Garrido D., Rodríguez J.C., González-Irusta J.M., García J.E., Farriols M.T. and Díaz V. (2012) Estrategia Marina. Demarcación Marina Levantino-Balear. Parte IV. Descriptores del buen estado ambiental. Descriptor 1: Biodiversidad. Evaluación inicial y buen estado ambiental. de Armas D. & Bellas J. (Coords.). Madrid: Ministerio de Agricultura, Alimentación y Medio Ambiente, Secretaría General Técnica, Centro de Publicaciones, 839 pp.
Santos Vázquez B., Read F., Saavedra C., Lens S., de Stephanis R., Giménez Verdugo J., Verborgh P., Gauffier P., Esteban Pavo R., García Tiscar S., Salazar Sierra J.M., Jiménez C., López A., Martínez Cedeira J.A., Llanova A., Covelo P., Vázquez Bonales J.A., Laria L., Marcos Ipiña E., Salazar Sierra J., Maestre I., Cañadas A., Moreno P., Murcia J.L., Martín V., Raga J.A., Gozalbes Aparicio P., Aguilar Vila A., Learmonth J., Fernández R., Pierce G.J., Sagarminaga R., Urquiola Pascual E., Ruano A. and Areces J.J. (2012) Estrategias Marinas. Grupo Mamíferos Marinos. Evaluación inicial y buen estado ambiental. Bellas J., Santos Vázquez B. & de Stephanis R. (Coords.). Madrid: Ministerio de Agricultura, Alimentación y Medio Ambiente, Secretaría General Técnica, Centro de Publicaciones, 448 pp.
Şekeroğlu C., Anderson S., Akçay E., Bilgin R., Can Ö.E., Semiz G., Tavşanoğlu Ç., Yokeş M. B., Soyumert A., İpekdali K., Sağlam İ.K., Yücel M. and Dalfesm N. (2011) Turkey's globally important biodiversity in crisis. Biological Conservation 144, 27522769.
SRMC (2014) Plan d'action pour le milieu marin. Programme de surveillance. Sous-Région Marine Mers Celtiques. Projet de programme de surveillance soumis à la consultation des instances, 18 août 2014, 327 pp.
SRMG (2014) Plan d'action pour le milieu marin. Programme de surveillance. Sous-Région Marine Golfe de Gascogne. Projet de programme de surveillance soumis à la consultation des instances, 18 août 2014, 332 pp.
SRMM (2014) Plan d'action pour le milieu marin. Programme de surveillance. Sous-Région Marine Manche-mer du Nord. Consultation du 18 août au 17 novembre 2014, 363 pp.
Sumer V. and Muluk C. (2011) Challenges for Turkey to implement the EU Water Framework Directive. In Kibaroğlu A., Klaphake A., Kramer A. and Scheumann W. (eds), Turkey's water policy, national frameworks and international cooperation. Heidelberg: Springer Berlin, pp 4368.
SYKE (2012) The assessment of the current state of the sea environment, determination of the characteristics of good environmental status, targets and indicators. The Finnish Environment Institute (SYKE), 19.10.2012, 42 pp. [In Finnish]
SYKE (2014) Indicators of the marine strategy framework directive in Finland. Working document (Excel). The Finnish Environment Institute (SYKE), 24.11.2014, 1 p.
Tunesi L., Casazza G., Dalù M., Giorgi G. and Silvestri C. (2013) The implementation of the marine strategy framework directive in Italy: knowledge to support the management. Biologia Marina Mediterranea 20, 3552.
UNEP/MAP (2007) Report on marine pollution indicators in Mediterranean Countries. UNEP(DEPI)/MED WG. 316/Inf.11, 62 pp.
Velasco F., Serrano A., Punzón A., Lens S., Nogueira E., González-Quirós R., Tello O., Macías D., Módica L., González-Irusta J.M., Airbe E. and Díaz V. (2012) Estrategia Marina. Demarcación Marina Noratlántica. Parte IV. Descriptores del buen estado ambiental. Descriptor 1: Biodiversidad. Evaluación inicial y buen estado ambiental. de Armas D. & Bellas J. (Coords.). Madrid: Ministerio de Agricultura, Alimentación y Medio Ambiente, Secretaría General Técnica, Centro de Publicaciones, 680 pp.
Vishnyakova K. and Gol'din P. (2014) Seasonality of strandings and bycatch of harbour porpoises in the Sea of Azov: the effects of fisheries, weather conditions, and life history. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 192 pp.
VNIRO (2004) Instructions and guidelines for biological information collection and processing in the European North Sea and the North Atlantic. All-Russia Institute of Marine Fisheries and Oceanography, 299 pp. [In Russian]
Zamora V.V., Snigirev S.M., Kurakin A.P. and Oleinik Y.N. (2005) Species composition and distribution of fish in the area of Snake Island. Ecological Safety of Coastal and Shelf Zones and Complex use of Shelf Resources 12, 593602 [In Russian]
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom
  • ISSN: 0025-3154
  • EISSN: 1469-7769
  • URL: /core/journals/journal-of-the-marine-biological-association-of-the-united-kingdom
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords:

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 6
Total number of PDF views: 30 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 347 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 24th November 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.