Aeby, G.S. (2002) Trade-offs for the butterflyfish, Chaetodon multicinctus, when feeding on coral prey infected with trematode metacercariae. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 52, 158–165.
Aeby, G.S. (2003) Corals in the genus Porites are susceptible to infection by a larval trematode. Coral Reefs 22, 216–216.
Aeby, G.S. (2007) Spatial and temporal patterns of Porites trematodiasis on the reefs of Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, Hawaii. Bulletin of Marine Science 80, 209–218.
Ainsworth, T., Fine, M., Roff, G. and Hoegh-Guldberg, O. (2008) Bacteria are not the primary cause of bleaching in the Mediterranean coral Oculina patagonica. ISME Journal 2, 67–73.
Antonius, A. (1985) Coral diseases in the Indo-Pacific: a first record. Marine Ecology 6, 197–218.
Antonius, A. (1999) Halofolliculina corallasia, a new coral-killing ciliate on Indo-Pacific reefs. Coral Reefs 18, 300–300.
Antonius, A. and Lipscomb, D. (2001) First protozoan coral-killer identified in the Indo-Pacific. Atoll Research Bulletin 481, 1–21.
Banin, E., Israely, T., Kushmaro, A., Loya, Y., Orr, E. and Rosenberg, E. (2000) Penetration of the coral-bleaching bacterium Vibrio shiloi into Oculina patagonica. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 66, 3031–3036.
Barash, Y., Sulam, R., Loya, Y. and Rosenberg, E. (2005) Bacterial strain BA-3 and a filterable factor cause a white plague-like disease in corals from the Eilat coral reef. Aquatic Microbial Ecology 40, 183–189.
Barneah, O., Ben-Dov, E., Kramarsky-Winter, E. and Kushmaro, A. (2007) Characterization of black band disease in Red Sea stony corals. Environmental Microbiology 9, 1995–2006.
Ben-Haim, Y. and Rosenberg, E. (2002) A novel Vibrio sp. pathogen of the coral Pocillopora damicornis. Marine Biology 141, 47–55.
Ben-Haim, Y., Thompson, F.L., Thompson, C.C., Cnockaert, M.C., Hoste, B., Swings, J. and Rosenberg, E. (2003a) Vibrio coralliilyticus sp. nov., a temperature-dependent pathogen of the coral Pocillopora damicornis. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 53, 309–315.
Ben-Haim, Y., Zicherman-Keren, M. and Rosenberg, E. (2003b) Temperature-regulated bleaching and lysis of the coral Pocillopora damicornis by the novel pathogen Vibrio coralliilyticus. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 69, 4236–4242.
Borneman, E.H. (2002) Bacterial infections: a response to recent ‘reef notes’ columns. http://www.reefkeeping.com Reefkeeping 1(4)
Borneman, E.H. and Lowrie, J. (2001) Advances in captive husbandry and propagation: an easily utilized reef replenishment means from the private sector? Bulletin of Marine Science 69, 897–913.
Bourne, D.G., Boyett, H.V., Henderson, M.E., Muirhead, A. and Willis, B.L. (2008) Identification of a ciliate (Oligohymenophorea: Scuticociliatia) associated with brown band disease on corals of the Great Barrier Reef. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 74, 883–888.
Bourne, D.G., Garren, M., Work, T.M., Rosenberg, E., Smith, G.W. and Harvell, C.D. (2009) Microbial disease and the coral holobiont. Trends in Microbiology 17, 554–562.
Bourne, D.G. and Munn, C.B. (2005) Diversity of bacteria associated with the coral Pocillopora damicornis from the Great Barrier Reef. Environmental Microbiology 7, 1162–1174.
Bruckner, A.W. (1999) Block-band disease (BBD) of scleractinian corals: occurrence, impacts and mitigation. PhD thesis. University of Puerto Rico, Mayaguez, 286 pp.
Bruckner, A.W. and Bruckner, R.J. (1997) Outbreak of coral disease in Puerto Rico. Coral Reefs 16, 260–260.
Bruckner, A. and Bruckner, R. (1998) Rapid-wasting disease: pathogen or predator? Science 279, 2023–2025.
Bythell, J.C. and Pantos, O. (2004) Establishing methods for microbial community structure analysis in bleaching corals. IOC-GEF/WB Targeted Working Group on Coral Bleaching, Final Report.
Carey, P.G. and Carey, P.G. (1992) Marine interstitial ciliates. An illustrated key. London: Chapman and Hall, 351 pp.
Carl, M. (2008) Predators and pests of captive corals. In Leewis, R.J. and Janse, M. (eds) Advances in coral husbandry in public aquariums. Public aquarium husbandry series. Volume 2. Arnhem, The Netherlands: Burgers' Zoo, pp. 31–36.
Cooney, R.P., Pantos, O., Le Tissier, M.D.A., Barer, M.R., O'Donnell, A.G. and Bythell, J.C. (2002) Characterization of the bacterial consortium associated with black band disease in coral using molecular microbiological techniques. Environmental Microbiology 4, 401–413.
Cooper, W., Lirman, D. and Schmale, M. (2007) Consumption of coral spat by histophagic ciliates. Coral Reefs 26, 249–250.
Croquer, A., Bastidas, C. and Lipscomb, D. (2006a) Folliculinid ciliates: a new threat to Caribbean corals? Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 69, 75–78.
Croquer, A., Bastidas, C., Lipscomp, D., Rodriguez-Martinez, R.E., Jordan-Dahlgren, E. and Guzman, H.M. (2006b) First report of folliculinid ciliates affecting Caribbean scleractinian corals. Coral Reefs 25, 187–191.
Croquer, A. and Weil, E. (2009) Spatial variability in distribution and prevalence of Caribbean scleractinian coral and octocoral diseases. II. Genera-level analysis. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 83, 209–222.
Denner, E.B.M., Smith, G.W., Busse, H.J., Schumann, P., Narzt, T., Polson, S.W., Lubitz, W. and Richardson, L.L. (2003) Aurantimonas coralicida gen. nov., sp. nov., the causative agent of white plague type II on Caribbean scleractinian corals. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 53, 1115–1122.
Ducklow, H.W. and Mitchell, R. (1979) Observations on naturally and artificially diseased tropical corals—scanning electron-microscope study. Microbial Ecology 5, 215–223.
Efrony, R., Atad, I. and Rosenberg, E. (2009) Phage therapy of coral white plague disease: properties of phage BA3. Current Microbiology 58, 139–145.
Efrony, R., Loya, Y., Bacharach, E. and Rosenberg, E. (2007) Phage therapy of coral disease. Coral Reefs 26, 7–13.
Frias-Lopez, J., Bonheyo, G.T., Jin, Q.S. and Fouke, B.W. (2003) Cyanobacteria associated with coral black band disease in Caribbean and Indo-Pacific Reefs. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 69, 2409–2413.
Fredericks, D.N. and Relman, D.A. (1996) Sequence-based identification of microbial pathogens: a reconsideration of Koch's postulates. Clinical Microbiology Reviews 9, 18–33.
Garren, M., Raymundo, L., Guest, J., Harvell, C.D. and Azam, F. (2009) Resilience of coral-associated bacterial communities exposed to fish farm effluent. PLoS ONE 4.
Green, E.P. and Hendry, H. (1999) Is CITES an effective tool for monitoring trade in corals? Coral Reefs 18, 403–407.
Griffin, S.P. (1998) The effects of sunlight on the progression of black band disease. Revista De Biologia Tropical 46, 175–179.
Haapkylä, J., Seymour, A.S., Trebilco, J. and Smith, D. (2007) Coral disease prevalence and coral health in the Wakatobi Marine Park, south-east Sulawesi, Indonesia. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 87, 403–414.
Haapkylä, J., Unsworth, R.K.F., Seymour, A.S., Melbourne-Thomas, J., Flovell, M., Willis, B.L. and Smith, D.J. (2009) Spatio-temporal coral disease dynamics in the Wakatobi Marine National Park, south-east Sulawesi, Indonesia. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 87, 105–115.
Harvell, D. (2007) Coral disease, environmental drivers and the balance between coral and microbial associates. Oceanography 20, 172–195.
Hochberg, R. (2002) Two new species of Pseudostomella (Gastrotricha: Macrodasyida) with scaled triancres from the east coast of Australia. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 36, 571–579.
Hormansdorfer, S., Wentges, H., Neugebaur-Buchler, K. and Bauer, J. (2000) Isolation of Vibrio alginolyticus from seawater aquaria. International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health 203, 169–175.
Hummon, W. (2008) MEIOFAUNA MARINA, Biodiversity, morphology and ecology of small benthic organisms. Volume 16. Department of Biological Sciences, Ohio University, USA.
Kaczmarsky, L. and Richardson, L.L. (2007) Transmission of growth anomalies between Indo-Pacific Porites corals. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 94, 218–221.
Kahan, D., Wilbert, N., Vit, G. and Barel, T. (1982) Feeding-behaviour of Porpostoma notatum (Ciliata). Journal of Protozoology 29, 535–535.
Kahl, A. (1931) Urtiere oder Protozoa. 1. Wimpertiere order Ciliata (Infusoria). 2. Holotricha. Dahl Tierwelt Deutschlands Jena Teil 21, 181–398.
Kimes, N.E., Van Nostrand, J.D., Weil, E., Zhou, J.Z. and Morris, P.J. (2010) Microbial functional structure of Montastraea faveolata, an important Caribbean reef-building coral, differs between healthy and yellow-band diseased colonies. Environmental Microbiology 12, 541–556.
Kirkwood, M., Todd, J.D., Rypien, K.L. and Johnston, A.W.B. (2010) The opportunistic coral pathogen Aspergillus sydowii contains dddP and makes dimethyl sulfide from dimethylsulfoniopropionate. ISME Journal 4, 147–150.
Klaus, J.S., Frias-Lopez, J., Bonheyo, G.T., Heikoop, J.M. and Fouke, B.W. (2005) Bacterial communities inhabiting the healthy tissues of two Caribbean reef corals: interspecific and spatial variation. Coral Reefs 24, 129–137.
Kramarsky-Winter, E., Harel, M., Siboni, N., Ben Dov, E., Brickner, I., Loya, Y. and Kushmaro, A. (2006) Identification of a protist–coral association and its possible ecological role. Marine Ecology Progress Series 317, 67–73.
Kuhlmann, H-W., Braeucker, R. and Schepers, A.G. (1996) Porpostoma notatum, a marine scuticociliate with a conspicuous organelle, shows phototactic orientation. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 43, 15A.
Kushmaro, A., Banin, E., Loya, Y., Stackebradt, E. and Rosenberg, E. (2001) Vibrio shiloi sp. nov., the causative agent of bleaching of the coral Oculina patagonica. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 51, 1383–1388.
Kushmaro, A., Loya, Y., Fine, M. and Rosenberg, E. (1996) Bacterial infection and coral bleaching. Nature 380, 396.
Kushmaro, A., Rosenberg, E., Fine, M., Ben-Haim, Y. and Loya, Y. (1998) Effect of temperature on bleaching of the coral Oculina patagonica by Vibrio AK-1. Marine Ecology Progress Series 171, 131–137.
Kvennefors, E.C.E., Sampayo, E., Ridgway, T., Barnes, A.C. and Hoegh-Guldberg, O. (2010) Bacterial communities of two ubiquitous Great Barrier Reef corals reveals both site- and species-specificity of common bacterial associates. PLoS ONE 5, e10401.
Leewis, R., Wijgerde, T., Laterveer, M. and Osinga, R. (eds) (2009) Working with aquarium corals. A book of protocols for the breeding and husbandry of scleractinian corals. (available at www.coralzoo.org).
Lesser, M.P., Bythell, J.C., Gates, R.D., Johnstone, R.W. and Hoegh-Guldberg, O. (2007) Are infectious diseases really killing corals? Alternative interpretations of the experimental and ecological data. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 346, 36–44.
Lindop, A.M.M., Hind, E.J. and Bythell, J.C. (2008) The unknowns in coral disease identification: an experiment to assess consensus of opinion amongst experts. Proceedings of the 11th International Coral Reef Symposium, Ft Lauderdale, Florida, 7–11 July 2008 Session number 7.
Lobban, C.S., Raymundo, L. and Montagnes, D.J.S. (2011) Porpostoma guamensis n. sp., a philasterine scuticociliate associated with brown-band disease of corals. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 58, 103–113.
Loya, Y., Bull, G. and Pichon, M. (1984) Tumor formations in scleractinian corals. Helgoländer Meeresuntersuchungen 37, 99–112.
Luna, G.M., Biavasco, F. and Danovaro, R. (2007) Bacteria associated with the rapid tissue necrosis of stony corals. Environmental Microbiology 9, 1851–1857.
Luna, G.M., Bongiorni, L., Gili, C., Biavasco, F. and Danovaro, R. (2010) Vibrio harveyi as a causative agent of the white syndrome in tropical stony corals. Environmental Microbiology Reports 2, 120–127.
Lyndon, A.R. (2003) Human gut bug implicated in coral ‘white pox’. Marine Pollution Bulletin 46, 156–156.
Miller, J., Rogers, C. and Waara, R. (2003) Monitoring the coral disease, plague type II, on coral reefs in St. John, US Virgin Islands. Revista De Biologia Tropical 51, 47–55.
Nosratpour, F. (2008) Observations of a polyclad flatworm affecting acroporid corals in captivity. In Leewis, R.J. and Janse, M. (eds) Advances in coral husbandry in public aquariums. Public aquarium husbandry series. Volume 2. Arnhem, The Netherlands: Burgers' Zoo, pp. 37–46.
Nugues, M.M. and Bak, R.P.M. (2009) Brown-band syndrome on feeding scars of the crown-of-thorn starfish Acanthaster planci. Coral Reefs 28, 507–510.
Page, C.A. and Willis, B.L. (2008) Epidemiology of skeletal eroding band on the Great Barrier Reef and the role of injury in the initiation of this widespread coral disease. Coral Reefs 27, 257–272.
Palmer, C.V., Roth, M.S. and Gates, R.D. (2009) Red fluorescent protein responsible for pigmentation in trematode-infected Porites compressa tissues. Biological Bulletin. Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole 216, 68–74.
Pantos, O., Cooney, R.P., Le Tissier, M.D.A., Barer, M.R., O'Donnell, A.G. and Bythell, J.C. (2003) The bacterial ecology of a plague-like disease affecting the Caribbean coral Montastrea annularis. Environmental Microbiology 5, 370–382.
Patterson, K.L., Porter, J.W., Ritchie, K.E., Polson, S.W., Mueller, E., Peters, E.C., Santavy, D.L. and Smiths, G.W. (2002) The etiology of white pox, a lethal disease of the Caribbean elkhorn coral, Acropora palmata. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 99, 8725–8730.
Peters, E.C., Gassman, N.J., Firman, J.C., Richmond, R.H. and Power, E.A. (1997) Ecotoxicology of tropical marine ecosystems. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 16, 12–40.
Peters, E.C., Oprandy, J.J. and Yevich, P.P. (1983) Possible causal agent of white band disease in Caribbean acroporid corals. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 41, 394–396.
Peters, E.C., Halas, J.C. and McCarty, H.B. (1986) Calicoblastic neoplasms in Acropora palmata, with a review of reports on anomalies of growth and form in corals. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 76, 895–912.
Porter, J.W., Dustan, P., Jaap, W.C., Patterson, K.L., Kosmynin, V., Meier, O.W., Patterson, M.E. and Parsons, M. (2001) Patterns of spread of coral disease in the Florida Keys. Hydrobiologia 460, 1–24.
Purdom, C.E. and Howard, A.E. (1971) Ciliate infestations: a problem in marine fish farming. Journal du Conseil International pour l'Exploration de la Mer 33, 511–514.
Qiu, D.J., Huang, L.M., Huang, H., Yang, J.H. and Lin, S.J. (2010) Two functionally distinct ciliates dwelling in Acropora corals in the South China Sea near Sanya, Hainan Province, China. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 76, 5639–5643.
Rama Mohan Rao, P., Hanumantha Rao, K. and Shyamasundari, K. (1981) Helicostoma sigmoida sp. n. from Waltair Coast. Geobios (Jodhpur) 8, 188–189.
Rama Mohan Rao, P., Hanumantha Rao, K. and Shyamasundri, K. (1980) On a new species of the genus Helicostoma Claparède & Lachmann 1866. Indian Science Congress Association Proceedings 67, 164.
Rawlinson, K.A., Gillis, J.A., Billings, R.E.J. and Borneman, E.H. (2011) Taxonomy and life history of the Acropora-eating flatworm Amakusaplana acroporae nov. sp. (Polycladida: Prosthiostomidae). Coral Reefs DOI 10.1007/s00338-011-0745-3.
Raymundo, L.J.H., Harvell, C.D. and Reynolds, T.L. (2003) Porites ulcerative white spot disease: description, prevalence, and host range of a new coral disease affecting Indo-Pacific reefs. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 56, 95–104.
Richardson, L.L., Goldberg, W.M., Kuta, K.G., Aronson, R.B., Smith, G.W., Ritchie, K.B., Halas, J.C., Feingold, J.S. and Miller, S.L. (1998) Florida's mystery coral-killer identified. Nature 392, 557–558.
Richardson, L.L. and Aronson, R.B. (2002) Infectious diseases of reef corals. Proceedings of the Ninth International Coral Reef Symposium, Bali, 23–27 October 2000. Volume 2, 1225–1230.
Riegl, B., Bruckner, A., Coles, S.L., Renaud, P. and Dodge, R.E. (2009) Coral reefs threats and conservation in an era of global change. Year in Ecology and Conservation Biology 2009 1162, 136–186.
Ritchie, K.B. (2006) Regulation of microbial populations by coral surface mucus and mucus-associated bacteria. Marine Ecology Progress Series 322, 1–14.
Ritchie, A.E. and Smith, G.W. (1995) Preferential carbon utilization by surface bacterial communities from water mass, normal, and white band diseased Acropora cervicornis. Molecular Marine Biology and Biotechnology 4, 345–352.
Ritchie, K.B. and Smith, G.W. (2004) Microbial communities of coral surface mucopolysaccharide layers. In Rosenburg, E. and Loya, Y. (eds) Coral health and disease. Berlin and Heildelberg: Spinger-Verlag, pp. 259–263.
Rodriguez, S., Croquer, A., Guzman, H.M. and Bastidas, C. (2009) A mechanism of transmission and factors affecting coral susceptibility to Halofolliculina sp. infection. Coral Reefs 28, 67–77.
Rosenberg, E. and Ben-Haim, Y. (2002) Microbial diseases of corals and global warming. Environmental Microbiology 4, 318–326.
Rutzler, K. and Santavy, D.L. (1983) The black band disease of Atlantic reef corals 1. Description of the cyanophyte pathogen. Marine Ecology 4, 301–320.
Sekar, R., Mills, D.K., Remily, E.R., Voss, J.D. and Richardson, L.L. (2006) Microbial communities in the surface mucopolysaccharide layer and the black band microbial mat of black band diseased Siderastrea siderea. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 72, 5963–5973.
Shannon, T. and Achatz, J.G. (2007) Convolutriloba macropyga sp. nov., an uncommonly fecund acoel (Acoelomorpha) discovered in tropical aquaria. Zootaxa 1525, 1–17.
Song, W.B. (2000) Morphological and taxonomical studies on some marine scuticociliates from China Sea, with description of two new species, Philasterides armatalis sp. n., and Cyclidium varibonneti sp. n. (Protozoa: Ciliophora: Scuticociliatida). Acta Protozoologica 39, 295–322.
Sussman, M., Willis, B.L., Victor, S. and Bourne, D.G. (2008) Coral pathogens identified for white syndrome (WS) epizootics in the Indo-Pacific. PLoS ONE 3.
Sutherland, K.P. and Ritchie, K.B. (2004) White pox disease of the Caribbean Elkhorn coral, Acropora palmata. Coral Health and Disease, 289–300.
Sweet, M.J., Croquer, A. and Bythell, J. (2011a) Bacterial assemblages differ between compartments within the coral holobiont. Coral Reefs 30, 39–52.
Sweet, M.J., Croquer, A. and Bythell, J.C. (2011b) Dynamics of bacterial community development in the reef coral Acropora muricata following experimental antibiotic treatment. Coral Reefs DOI 10.1007/s00338-011-0800-0.
Teplitski, M. and Ritchie, K. (2009) How feasible is the biological control of coral diseases? Trends in Ecology and Evolution 24, 378–385.
Thompson, F.L., Barash, Y., Sawabe, T., Sharon, G., Swings, J. and Rosenberg, E. (2006) Thalassomonas loyana sp. nov., a causative agent of the white plague-like disease of corals on the Eilat coral reef. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 56, 365–368.
Toller, W.W., Rowan, R. and Knowlton, N. (2002) Genetic evidence for a protozoan (phylum Apicomplexa) associated with corals of the Montastraea annularis species complex. Coral Reefs 21, 143–146.
Toren, A., Lanndau, L., Kushmaro, A., Loya, Y. and Rosenberg, E. (1998) Effect of temperature on adhesion of Vibrio strain AK-1 to Oculina patagonica and on coral bleaching. Environmental Microbiology 64, 1379–1384.
Upton, S.J. and Peters, E.C. (1986) A new and unusual species of Coccidium (Apicomplexa, Agamococcidiorida) from Caribbean scleractinian corals. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 47, 184–193.
Wabnitz, C., Taylor, M., Green, E., Razak, T., Wabnitz, C., Taylor, M., Green, E. and Razak, T. (2003) From ocean to aquarium. The global trade in marine ornamental species. Cambridge: UNEP–WCMC, 64 pp.
Weil, E. (2001) Caribbean coral reef diseases: status and research needs. In McMananus, J. (ed.) Priorities for Caribbean Coral research, Proceedings, Miami, pp. 1–8.
Weil, E. (2004) Coral reef diseases in the wider Caribbean. In Rosenberg, E. and Loya, Y. (eds) Coral health and disease. Berlin and Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag, pp. 35–67.
Weil, E. and Croquer, A. (2009) Spatial variability in distribution and prevalence of Caribbean scleractinian coral and octocoral diseases. I. Community-level analysis. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 83, 195–208.
Weil, E., Smith, G. and Gil-Agudelo, D.L. (2006) Status and progress in coral reef disease research. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 69, 1–7.
Williams, E.H. Jr and Bunkley-Williams, L. (2000) Marine major ecological disturbances of the Caribbean. Infectious Disease Review 2, 110–127.
Willis, B., Page, C. and Dinsdale, E. (2004) Coral disease on the Great Barrier Reef. In Rosenberg, E. and Loya, Y. (eds) Coral disease and health. Berlin and Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag, pp. 69–104.
Winkler, R., Antonius, A. and Renegar, D.A. (2004) The skeleton eroding band disease on coral reefs of Aqaba, Red Sea. Marine Ecology—Pubblicazioni Della Stazione Zoologica Di Napoli I 25, 129–144.
Zhang, Q., Miao, M., Struder-Kypke, M.C., Al-Rasheid, K.A.S., Al-Farraj, S.A. and Song, W. (2011) Molecular evolution of Cinetochilum and Sathrophilus (Protozoa, Ciliophora, Oligohymenophorea), two genera of ciliates with morphological affinities to scuticociliates. Zoologica Scripta 40, 317–325.
Zorpette, G. (1995) More coral trouble. Scientific American 273, 36–37.