Airoldi, L. and Hawkins, S.J. (2007) Negative effects of sediment deposition on grazing activity and survival of the limpet Patella vulgata. Marine Ecology Progress Series 332, 235–240.
Ang, P.O., Sharp, G.J. and Semple, R.E. (1996) Comparison of the structure of populations of Ascophyllum nodosum (Fucales, Phaeophyta) at sites with different harvesting histories. Hydrobiologia 327, 179–184.
Araújo, R., Sousa-Pinto, I., Serrão, E. and Åberg, P. (2012) Recovery after trampling disturbance in a canopy-forming seaweed population. Marine Biology 159, 697–707.
Araújo, R., Vaselli, S., Almeida, M., Serrao, E. and Sousa-Pinto, I. (2009) Effects of disturbance on marginal populations: human trampling on Ascophyllum nodosum assemblages at its southern distribution limit. Marine Ecology Progress Series 378, 81–92.
Bellgrove, A., Clayton, M.N. and Quinn, G.P. (1997) Effects of secondarily treated sewage effluent on intertidal macroalgal recruitment processes. Marine and Freshwater Research 48, 137–146.
Bertness, M.D. and Leonard, G.H. (1997) The role of positive interactions in communities: lessons from intertidal habitats. Ecology 78, 1976–1989.
Bertocci, I., Araújo, R., Vaselli, S. and Sousa-Pinto, I. (2011) Marginal populations under pressure: spatial and temporal heterogeneity of Ascophyllum nodosum and associated assemblages affected by human trampling in Portugal. Marine Ecology Progress Series 439, 73–82.
Black, R. and Miller, R. (1991) Use of the intertidal zone by fish in Nova Scotia. Environmental Biology of Fishes 31, 109–121.
Boaden, P.J.S. and Dring, M.T. (1980) A quantitative evaluation of the effects of Ascophyllum harvesting on the littoral ecosystem. Helgolander Meeresuntersuchungen 33, 700–710.
Bonsdorff, E., Blomqvist, E.M., Mattila, J. and Norkko, A. (1997) Coastal eutrophication: causes, consequences and perspectives in the Archipelago areas of the northern Baltic Sea. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 44(Suppl. 1), 63–72.
Bruno, J. and Bertness, M.D. (2001) Habitat modification and facilitation in benthic marine communities. In Bertness, M.D., Gaines, S.D. and Hay, M.E. (eds) Marine community ecology. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates, pp. 201–218.
Cervin, G. and Åberg, P. (1997) Do littorinids affect the survival of Ascophyllum nodosum germlings? Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 218, 35–47.
Crain, C.M. and Bertness, M.D. (2006) Ecosystem engineering across environmental gradients: implications for conservation and management. Bioscience 56, 211–218.
Crisp, D.J. (1964) The effects of the winter of 1962/63 on the British marine fauna. Helgoland Marine Research 10, 313–327.
Davies, A.J., Johnson, M.P. and Maggs, C.A. (2007) Limpet grazing and loss of Ascophyllum nodosum canopies on decadal time scales. Marine Ecology Progress Series 339, 131–141.
Davies, A.J., Johnson, M.P. and Maggs, C.A. (2008) Subsidy by Ascophyllum nodosum increases growth rate and survivorship of Patella vulgata. Marine Ecology Progress Series 366, 43–48.
De O. Figueiredo, M.A., Kain, J.M. and Norton, T.A. (2000) Responses of crustose corallines to epiphyte and canopy cover. Journal of Phycology 36, 14–24.
Gollety, C., Thiébaut, E. and Davoult, D. (2011) Characteristics of the Ascophyllum nodosum stands and their associated diversity along the coast of Brittany, France. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 91, 569–577.
Hawkins, S.J., Sugden, H.E., Mieszkowska, N., Moore, P.J., Poloczanska, E., Leaper, R., Herbert, R.J.H., Genner, M.J., Moschella, P.S., Thompson, R.C., Jenkins, S.R., Southward, A.J. and Burrows, M.T. (2009) Consequences of climate-driven biodiversity changes for ecosystem functioning of North European rocky shores. Marine Ecology Progress Series 396, 245–259.
Ingólfsson, A. and Hawkins, S.J. (2008) Slow recovery from disturbance: a 20 year study of Ascophyllum canopy clearances. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 88, 689–691.
Irving, A.D., Connell, S.D. and Elsdon, T.S. (2004) Effects of kelp canopies on bleaching and photosynthetic activity of encrusting coralline algae. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 310, 1–12.
Jenkins, S.R., Coleman, R.A., Hawkins, S.J., Burrows, M.T. and Hartnoll, R.G. (2005) Regional scale differences in determinism of grazing effects in the rocky intertidal. Marine Ecology Progress Series 287, 77–86.
Jenkins, S.R. and Hawkins, S.J. (2003) Barnacle larval supply to sheltered rocky shores: a limiting factor? Hydrobiologia 503, 143–151.
Jenkins, S.R., Hawkins, S.J. and Norton, T.A. (1999a) Direct and indirect effects of a macroalgal canopy and limpet grazing in structuring a sheltered inter-tidal community. Marine Ecology Progress Series 188, 81–92.
Jenkins, S.R., Hawkins, S.J. and Norton, T.A. (1999b) Interaction between a fucoid canopy and limpet grazing in structuring a low shore intertidal community. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 233, 41–63.
Jenkins, S.R., Norton, T.A. and Hawkins, S.J. (1999c) Interactions between canopy forming algae in the eulittoral zone of sheltered rocky shores on the Isle of Man. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 79, 341–349.
Jenkins, S.R., Norton, T.A. and Hawkins, S.J. (2004) Long term effects of Ascophyllum nodosum canopy removal on mid shore community structure. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 84, 327–329.
Jenkins, S.R., Moore, P., Burrows, M.T., Garbary, D.J., Hawkins, S.J., Ingólfsson, A., Sebens, K.P., Snelgrove, P.V.R., Wethey, D.S. and Woodin, S.A. (2008) Comparative ecology of North Atlantic shores: do differences in players matter for process? Ecology 89, S3–S23.
Jones, C.G., Lawton, J.H. and Shachak, M. (1994) Organisms as ecosystem engineers. Oikos 69, 373–386.
Jones, C.G., Lawton, J.H. and Shachak, M. (1997) Positive and negative effects of organisms as physical ecosystem engineers. Ecology 78, 1946–1957.
Keough, M.J. and Quinn, G.P. (1998) Effects of periodic disturbances from trampling on rocky intertidal algal beds. Ecological Applications 8, 141–161.
Keser, M., Swenarton, J.T. and Foertch, J.F. (2005) Effects of thermal input and climate change on growth of Ascophyllum nodosum (Fucales, Phaeophyceae) in eastern Long Island Sound (USA). Journal of Sea Research 54, 211–220.
Kubler, J.E. and Raven, J.A. (1994) Consequences of light limitation for carbon acquisition in three rhodophytes. Marine Ecology Progress Series 110, 203–209.
Leonard, G.H. (1999) Positive and negative effects of intertidal algal canopies on recruitment and survival of barnacles. Ecology 80, 1762–1769.
Lilley, S.A. and Schiel, D.R. (2006) Community effects following the deletion of a habitat-forming alga from rocky marine shores. Oecologia 148, 672–681.
Littler, M.M. and Murray, S.N. (1974) The primary productivity of marine macrophytes from a rocky intertidal community. Marine Biology 27, 131–135.
Menge, B.A. and Olson, A.M. (1990) Role of scale and environmental factors in regulation of community structure. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 5, 52–57.
Mieszkowska, N., Hawkins, S.J., Burrows, M.T. and Kendall, M.A. (2007) Long-term changes in the geographic distribution and population structures of Osilinus lineatus (Gastropoda: Trochidae) in Britain and Ireland. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 87, 537–545.
Pavia, H. and Toth, G.B. (2000) Inducible chemical resistance to herbivory in the brown seaweed Ascophyllum nodosum. Ecology 81, 3212–3225.
Petraitis, P.S. and Dudgeon, S.R. (1999) Experimental evidence for the origin of alternative communities on rocky intertidal shores. Oikos 84, 239–245.
Povey, A. and Keough, M.J. (1991) Effects of trampling on plant and animal populations on rocky shores. Oikos 61, 355–368.
Quinn, G.P. and Keough, M.J. (2002) Experimental design and data analysis for biologists, 1st edition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Rönnberg, C. and Bonsdorff, E. (2004) Baltic Sea eutrophication: area-specific ecological consequences. In Kautsky, H. and Snoeijs, P. (eds) Biology of the Baltic Sea, Volume 176. Amsterdam: Springer, pp. 227–241.
Schiel, D. and Lilley, S. (2007) Gradients of disturbance to an algal canopy and the modification of an intertidal community. Marine Ecology Progress Series 339, 1–11.
Schiel, D.R. and Taylor, D.I. (1999) Effects of trampling on a rocky intertidal algal assemblage in southern New Zealand. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 235, 213–235.
Schiel, D.R., Wood, S.A., Dunmore, R.A. and Taylor, D.I. (2006) Sediment on rocky intertidal reefs: effects on early post-settlement stages of habitat-forming seaweeds. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 331, 158–172.
Speidel, M., Harley, C.D.G. and Wohnam, M.J. (2001) Recovery of the brown alga Fucus gardneri following a range of removal intensities. Aquatic Botany 71, 273–280.
Stephenson, T.A. and Stephenson, A. (1972) Life between tidemarks on rocky shores. San Francisco, CA: W. H. Freeman and Company.
Svensson, C., Pavia, H. and Åberg, P. (2009) Robustness in life history of the brown seaweed Ascophyllum nodosum (Fucales, Phaeophyceae) across large scales: effects of spatially and temporally induced variability on population growth. Marine Biology 156, 1139–1148.
Thompson, R.C., Crowe, T.P. and Hawkins, S.J. (2002) Rocky intertidal communities: past environmental changes, present status and predictions for the next 25 years. Environmental Conservation 29, 168–191.
Ugarte, R.A., Sharp, G. and Moore, B. (2006) Changes in the brown seaweed Ascophyllum nodosum (L.) Le Jol. Plant morphology and biomass produced by cutter rake harvests in southern New Brunswick, Canada. Journal of Applied Phycology 18, 351–359.
Underwood, A.J. (1998) Grazing and disturbance: an experimental analysis of patchiness in recovery from a severe storm by the intertidal alga Hormosira banksii on rocky shores in New South Wales. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 231, 291–306.
Underwood, A.J. (1999) Physical disturbances and their direct effect on an indirect effect: responses of an intertidal assemblage to a severe storm. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 232, 125–140.
Watson, D.C. and Norton, T.A. (1987) The habitat and feeding preferences of Littorina obtusata (L.) and L. mariae sacchi et rastelli. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 112, 61–72.
Watt, C.A. and Scrosati, R.A. (2013) Regional consistency of intertidal elevation as a mediator of seaweed canopy effects on benthic species richness, diversity and composition. Marine Ecology Progress Series 491, 91–99.
Wernberg, T., Bennett, S., Babcock, R.C., de Bettignies, T., Cure, K., Depczynski, M., Dufois, F., Fromont, J., Fulton, C.J., Hovey, R.K., Harvey, E.S., Holmes, T.H., Kendrick, G.A., Radford, B., Santana-Garcon, J., Saunders, B.J., Smale, D.A., Thomsen, M.S., Tuckett, C.A., Tuya, F., Vanderklift, M.A. and Wilson, S.K. (2016) Climate driven regime shift of a temperate marine ecosystem. Science 353, 169–172.
Wiencke, C. and Davenport, J. (1988) Respiration and photosynthesis in the intertidal alga Cladophora rupestris (L.) Kutz. under fluctuating salinity regimes. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 114, 183–197.
Williams, G.A. (1992) The effect of predation on the life histories of Littorina obtusata and Littorina mariae. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 72, 403–416.
Zemke-White, W.L. and Masao, O. (1999) World seaweed utilisation: an end-of-century summary. Journal of Applied Phycology 11, 369–376.