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    Cox, Martin Kawaguchi, So King, Robert Dholakia, Kishan and Brown, Christian T.A. 2015. Internal physiology of live krill revealed using new aquaria techniques and mixed optical microscopy and optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging techniques. Marine and Freshwater Behaviour and Physiology, Vol. 48, Issue. 6, p. 455.

    Lehette, P Tovar-Sánchez, A Duarte, CM and Hernández-León, S 2012. Krill excretion and its effect on primary production. Marine Ecology Progress Series, Vol. 459, p. 29.

    Ritz, David A. Hobday, Alistair J. Montgomery, John C. and Ward, Ashley J.W. 2011. Advances in Marine Biology Volume 60.

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    Robinson, Nathan J. Thatje, Sven and Osseforth, Christian 2009. Heartbeat sensors under pressure: a new method for assessing hyperbaric physiology. High Pressure Research, Vol. 29, Issue. 3, p. 422.

  • Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, Volume 83, Issue 2
  • April 2003, pp. 329-330

Heart rate as a measure of stress in Antarctic krill, Euphausia superba

  • D.A. Ritz (a1), L. Cromer (a1), K.M. Swadling (a1), S. Nicol (a2) and J. Osborn (a3)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 01 March 2003

Antarctic krill, Euphausia superba, normally live in social aggregations (schools) but rarely aggregate in laboratory tanks. In order to study the effect of stress on solitary living we tethered krill to wooden skewers and measured heart rate both when they were held isolated from conspecifics and when they were held at normal schooling distances (∼1 body length). Heart rate did not differ significantly with sex or body size. However, intermoult krill had a significantly lower heart rate than postmoult animals. When two individuals were held at schooling distance, with one slightly higher in the water column than the other, the heart rate of the higher individual slowed significantly (106–98 beats min−1), while that of the lower individual remained the same. We interpret these results to mean that krill living solitarily are stressed but will respond to neighbouring individuals by decreasing their metabolic rate and saving energy.

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Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom
  • ISSN: 0025-3154
  • EISSN: 1469-7769
  • URL: /core/journals/journal-of-the-marine-biological-association-of-the-united-kingdom
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