Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Observation and Experiments on Sex-Change in the European Oyster (O. edulis.): Part I. The Change from Female to Male

  • J. H. Orton (a1)

Extract

The gonads of 1,121 oysters have been examined at various periods from a few hours to twelve months after the individuals had spawned as females; the material for the research was obtained by collection and experiment. In 702 individuals taken with young in the mantle cavity the gonad shows a progressive development of maleness in its primary sexual characters; within a mean period of 2¼ hours after spawning eggs, the gonad was found in 50 per cent of cases with only young spermmasses developing, followed at later periods by a progressive ripening of the sperm-masses, until in individuals carrying shelled and black-coloured larvae 77 per cent contained abundant ripe sperm-masses as well as advanced developing sperm-masses.

In 444 individuals examined at various periods after extruding their larvæ, the development of sperm was found to continue for about a month after egg-spawning, and to abate in about the second month. In from 2 to 3 months after egg-spawning sperm-development is completed and the male phase begins to wane, and a small percentage of individuals may become female or actively female-functioning again. In 12 months after the last egg-spawning a significant number of individuals become once more functional females.

The varieties of mixed sexes found in O. edulis are denned and their frequencies shown by an analysis of samples—from two widely separated beds—examined at the beginning of the breeding season in 1926. Experiments on the rate of growth of sperm-masses and on determining of age at different stages of development in embryos and larvæ are given.

Copyright

References

Hide All
1877. Möbius, K. Die Auster und die Austernwirthscaft. Berlin, 1877. Transalated in U.S.C. of F. and F. Report of Commissioners for 1880. Part VIII, Appendix H, p. 692.
1883. Hoek, P. P. C. Les organes da la génération de I'huître. Contributions à la connaissance de leurs structure et de leurs fonction. Tijdschrift Ned: Dierk: Ver: Supplement Deel I. Leiden, 1883–84.
1883. Horst, R. Enbryogénie de l'huître (Ostrea edulis L.) Tijdschr: Nederl: Dierk: Ver: Supplement Deel I. 1883–84.
1889. Bourne, G. C.The Generative Organs of the Oyster. (Abstract of a paper by DrHoek, P. P. C.) Journ. Mar. Biol. Assoc., Vol. I. 1889–90.
1902. Hoek, P. P. C. Rapport over de oorzaken van den acherutigang in hoedanigheid van de zeeuwsche oester. Minister van Waterstaat, Handel, en Nijverheid. s&Gravenhage, 1902.
1909. Orton, J. H.On the occurrence of protandic hermaphroditism i the mollusc, Crepidula fornicata. Proc. Roy. Soc. B., Vol. 81, 1909.
1913. Smith, G.Studies in the experimental Analysis of Sex. The effect of Sacculina on the storage of fat and glycogen, and on the formation of pigment by its host. Q.J.M.Sc., Vol. 59, 1913.
1919. Orton, J. H.Sex-phenomena in the Common Limpet (Patella vulgata). Nature, Vol. 104, 1919—20, p. 373.
1921. Orton, J. H.Sex-change in the Native Oyster (O. edulis). Nature, Vol. 107, p. 608, 07 7th, 1921.
1922. Orton, J. H.The Phenomena and Conditions of Sex-change in the Oyster (O. edulis) and Crepidula. Nature, Vol. 110, p. 213, 08 12th, 1922.
1923. Manoilow, E. O. Russian Medical Journal, 15. (Wratchebnaia Gazeta).
1923. Goldschmidt, R.The Mechanism and Physiology of Sex-determination. Translated by Dakin, W. J.London, 1923.
1923. Russell, B. S.Report on Seasonal Variation in the Chemical Composition of Oysters. Fishery Investigations, London, II, Vol. VI, 1, 1923.
1924a. Orton, J. H. An Account of Investigations into the Cause or Causes of the unusual Mortality among Oysters in English Oyster Beds during 1920 and 1921. Part 1. Report, Fishery Investigations, London. Series II, Vol. 6, No. 3, 1924.
1924b. Orton, J. H.Sex-change and Breeding in the Native Oyster (O. edulis).Nature, Vol. 114, p. 191, 08 9th, 1924.
1924. Sparck, R.Studies on the Biology of the Oyster (O. edulis) in the Limfjord, with special reference to the Influence of Temperature on the Sex-change. Report of the Danish Biological Station, Copenhagen, Vol. XXX, 1924 (1925).
1925. Savage, R. E.The Food of the Oyster. Fishery Investigations, London, Series II, Vol. VIII, No. 1, 1925.
1926. Orton, J. H.On Lunar Periodicity in Spawning of normally grown Falmouth Oysters (O. edulis) in 1925, with a comparison of the spawning capacity of normally grown and dumpy Oysters. Journ. Mar. Biol. Assoc., N.S., Vol. XIV, No. 1, 1926.

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed