Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Seasonal changes in diatom biomass, sediment stability and biogenic stabilization in the Severn Estuary

  • Graham J. C. Underwood (a1) and David M. Paterson (a2)

Extract

Epipelic diatoms represented the dominant microphy tobenthos on the intertidal mudflats of the Severn Estuary, south-western Britain. Algal biomass (measured as chlorophyll a concentration) varied over a seasonal cycle and was strongly correlated with sediment shear strength and critical shear stress and therefore with position on the shore. High levels of diatom biomass were positively correlated with the concentration of colloidal carbohydrate within the surface sediments. The critical shear strength for incipient erosion was significantly correlated with position on the shore (moisture content) and with both chlorophyll a and colloidal carbohydrate, the latter being the best biochemical predictor for the incipient erosion threshold. The range of stress required to cause incipient erosion varied from 1.0 to 8.0 N m-2, with the sediment increasing in resistance landwards. Two-way analysis of variance using both moisture content and colloidal carbohydrate as variables explained the stability of the sediment better than individual pair-wise comparisons.

Copyright

References

Hide All
Admiraal, W., 1984. The ecology of estuarine sediment-inhabiting diatoms. Progress in Phycolovical Research, 3, 269322.
Admiraal, W., Peletier, H. & Zomer, H., 1982. Observations and experiments on the population dynamics of epipelic diatoms from an estuarine mudflat. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 14, 471487.
Aller, R.C. & Aller, J.Y., 1992. Meiofauna and solute transport in marine muds. Limnology and Oceanography, 37, 10181033.
Amos, C.L., Grant, J., Daborn, G.R. & Black, K., 1992. Sea carousel - a benthic annular flume. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 34, 557577.
Amos, C.L., Wagoner, N.A. Van & Daborn, G.R., 1988. The influence of subaerial exposure on the bulk properties of fine-grained intertidal sediment from Minas Basin, Bay of Fundy. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 27, 113.
Boer, P.L. De, 1981. Mechanical effects of micro-organisms on intertidal bedform migration. Sedimentology. Amsterdam, 28, 129132.
Cadée, G.C. & Hegeman, J., 1974. Primary production of the benthic microflora living on tidal flats in the Dutch Wadden Sea. Netherlands Journal of Sea Research, 8, 260291.
Cammen, L.M., 1991. Annual bacterial production in relation to benthic microalgal production and sediment oxygen uptake in an intertidal sandflat and an intertidal mudflat. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 71, 1325.
Cammen, L.M. & Walker, J.A., 1986. The relationship between bacteria and micro-algae in the sediment of a Bay of Fundy mudflat. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 22, 9199.
Christoffersen, K., Riemann, B., Hansen, L.R., Klysner, A. & Sorensen, H.B., 1990. Qualitative importance of the microbial loop and plankton community structure in a eutrophic lake during a bloom of cyanobacteria. Microbial Ecology, 20, 253272.
Cole, J.J., Findlay, S. & Pace, M.L., 1988. Bacterial production in fresh and saltwater ecosystems: a cross-system overview. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 43, 110.
Colijn, F. & Dijkema, K.S., 1981. Species composition of benthic diatoms and distribution of chlorophyll a on an intertidal flat in the Dutch Wadden Sea. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 4, 921.
Colijn, F. & Jonge, V.N. De, 1984. Primary production of microphytobenthos in the Ems-Dollard Estuary. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 14, 185196.
Daborn, G.R.et al., 1993. An ecological cascade effect: migratory birds affect stability of intertidal sediments. Limnology and Oceanography, 38, 225231.
Dade, B.W., Davis, J.D., Nichols, P.D., Nowell, A.R.M., Thistle, D., Trexler, M.B. & White, D.C., 1990. Effects of bacterial exopolymer adhesion on the entrainment of sand. Geomicrobiology Journal,8, 116.
Decho, A.W., 1990. Microbial exopolymer secretions in ocean environments: their role(s) in food webs and marine processes. Oceanography and Marine Biology. Annual Review. London, 28, 73153.
Deflaun, M.F. & Mayer, L.M., 1983. Relationships between bacteria and grain surfaces in intertidal sediments. Limnology and Oceanography, 28, 873881.
Delo, E.A. & Ockenden, M.C., 1992. Estuarine muds manual. Report SR 309. Wallingford: HR Wallingford.
Dubois, M., Gilles, K.A., Hamilton, J.K., Reber, P.A. & Smith, F., 1956. Colorimetric method for determination of sugars and related substances. Analytical Chemistry, 28, 350356.
Edgar, L.A. & Pickett-Heaps, J.D., 1984. Diatom locomotion. Progress in Phycological Research, 3, 4788.
Findlay, S., Pace, M.L., Lints, D., Cole, J.J., Caraco, N.F. & Peierls, B., 1991. Weak coupling of bacterial and algal production in a heterotrophic ecosystem: the Hudson River Estuary. Limnology and Oceanography, 36, 268278.
Frostick, L.E. & McCave, I.N., 1979. Seasonal shifts of sediment within an estuary mediated by algal growth. Estuarine and Coastal Marine Science, 9, 569576.
Grant, J., Bathmann, U.V. & Mills, E.L., 1986. The interaction between benthic diatom films and sediment transport. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 23, 225238.
Grant, J. & Gust, G., 1987. Prediction of coastal sediment stability from photopigment content from mats of purple sulphur bacteria. Nature, London, 330, 244246.
Grossmann, S. & Reichardt, W., 1991. Impact of Arenicola marina on bacteria in intertidal sediments. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 77, 8593.
Hobbie, J.E., Daley, R.J. & Jasper, S., 1977. Use of nucleopore filters for counting bacteria by fluorescence microscopy. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 33, 12251228.
Jensen, A., 1978. Chlorophylls and carotenoids. In Handbookof phycological methods: physiological and biochemical methods (ed. J.A., Hellebust and J.S., Craigie), pp. 5970. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Jonge, V.N. De, 1980. Fluctuations in the organic carbon to chlorophyll a ratios for estuarine benthic diatom populations. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 2, 345353.
Lassen, C., Ploug, H. & Jørgensen, B.B., 1992. Microalgal photosynthesis and spectral scalar irradiance in coastal marine sediments of Limfjorden, Denmark. Limnology and Oceanography, 37, 760772.
Little, C., Paterson, D.M., Crawford, R.M., Underwood, G.J.C. & McArthur, J.J., 1992. Algal stabilization of estuarine sediment. Report (May 1992) to the Energy Technology Support Unit, United Kingdom Department of Trade and Industry.
Liu, D., Wong, P.T.S. & Dutka, B.J., 1973. Determination of carbohydrates in lake sediment by a modified phenol-sulfuric acid method. Water Research, 7, 741746.
Masden, K.N., Nilsson, P. & Sundbäck, K., in press. The influence of benthic microalgae on the stability of a subtidal shallow water sediment. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology.
Meadows, P.S. & Tait, J., 1989. Modification of sediment permeability and shear strength by two burrowing invertebrates. Marine Biology, 101, 7582.
Montagna, P.A., 1984. In situ measurement of meiobenthic grazing rates on sediment bacteria and edaphic diatoms. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 18, 119130.
Montagna, P.A., Coull, B.C., Herring, T.L. & Dudley, B.W., 1983. The relationship between abundances of meiofauna and their suspected microbial food (diatoms and bacteria). Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 17, 381394.
Morrisey, D.J., 1988. Differences in effects of grazing by deposit-feeders Hydrobia ulvae (Pennant) (Gastropoda: Prosobranchia) and Corophium arenarium Crawford (Amphipoda) on sediment microalgal populations. II. Quantitative effects. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 118, 4353.
Paterson, D.M., 1989. Short-term changes in the erodibility of intertidal cohesive sediments related to the migratory behaviour of epipelic diatoms. Limnology and Oceanography, 34, 223234.
Paterson, D.M., Crawford, R.M. & Little, C., 1990. Subaerial exposure and changes in the stability of intertidal sediments. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 30, 541556.
Pinckney, J. & Zingmark, R.G., 1991. Effects of tidal stage and sun angles on intertidal benthic microalgal productivity. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 76, 8189.
Reise, K., 1985. Tidal flat ecology: an experimental approach to species interactions. Berlin: Springer Verlag.
Underwood, G.J.C. & Paterson, D.M., 1993. Recovery of intertidal benthic diatoms after biocide treatment and associated sediment dynamics. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 73, 2545.
Warwick, R.M., Goss-Custard, J.D., Kirby, R., George, C.L., Pope, N.D. & Rowden, A.A., 1991. Static and dynamic environmental factors determining the community structure of estuarine macrobenthos in south-west Britain: why is the Severn Estuary different? Journal of Applied Ecology, 28, 329345.

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed