Skip to main content
×
Home

Sond cruise 1965: Factor and cluster analyses of the plankton results, a general summary

  • M. V Angel (a1) and M. J. R Fasham
Abstract

1. The data for five planktonic taxa sampled during the SOND cruise (autumn 1965) by R.R.S. ‘Discovery’ in a day and a night series of horizontally towed nets have been analysed by factor and cluster analyses.

2. The factor analyses of hauls showed that there were five biologically distinct zones in the water column between the surface and 1000 m. The zones were more distinct in the day series than in the night.

3. Factor analyses of the individual taxa gave sensible groupings of species and the factor score plots gave ‘averaged’ depth distributions for each group.

4. Cluster analyses of the individual taxa gave results consistent with the factor analyses. Both methods gave groupings which fitted the zonation patterns of the hauls, except for the two zones between 100 and 460 m at night.

5. Only cluster analyses could be carried out on the total data matrices. Although satisfactory interpretation was only possible with the aid of the analyses of the individual taxa, the zonation and species groupings were again largely retained.

6. The zonation of the planktonic taxa is shown to be very similar to that described for nektonic species sampled on the same cruise.

7. The usefulness of these analytical methods is compared with the conclusions of other investigators. It is concluded that the rotation of the matrices to simple structure in the factor analysis gave a marked improvement in the ease of interpretation.

8. For this data, principal component analyses gave very similar results to the full factor analyses.

Copyright
References
Hide All
Angel M. V., 1969. Planktonic ostracods from the Canary Islands region; their depth distributions, diurnal migrations and community organization. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 49, 515–53.
Badcock J., 1970. The vertical distribution of mesopelagic fishes collected on the SOND Cruise. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 50, 1001–44.
Baker A.C De, 1970. The vertical distribution of euphausiids near Fuerteventura, Canary Islands (‘Discovery’ SOND Cruise, 1965). Journal ofthe Marine Biological Association of United Kingdom, 50, 301–42.
Baker A. De C, Clarke M. R. & HARRIS M. (1973). The NIO combination net (RMT 1 + 8) and further developments of rectangular midwater trawls. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 53, 167–84.
Barkham J. P. & Norris J. M., 1970. Multivariate procedures in an investigation of vegetation and soil relations of two beechwoods, Cotswold Hills. Ecology, 51, 630–9.
Blaxter J. H. S. & Currie R. I., 1967. The effect of artificial lights on acoustic scattering layers in the ocean. In Aspects of Marine Zoology (ed. Marshall N. B.), pp. 114. London: Academic Press.
Boden B. P. & KAMPA E. M., 1967. The influence of natural light on the vertical migration of an animal community in the sea. In Aspects of Marine Zoology (ed. Marshall N. B.), pp. 1526. London: Academic Press.
Carrol J. B., 1953. An analytical solution for approximating simple structure in factor analysis. Psychometrika, 18, 2338.
Cassie R. M., 1959. An experimental study of factors inducing aggregation in marine plankton. New Zealand Journal of Science, 2, 339365.
Cassie R. M., 1962. Frequency distribution in the ecology of plankton and other organisms. Journal of Animal Ecology, 31, 6582.
Cassie R. M., 1963. Multivariate analysis in the interpretation of numerical plankton data. New Zealand Journal of Science, 6, 3659.
Clarke M. R., 1969 a. Cephalopoda collected on the SOND Cruise. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 49, 961–76.
Clarke M. R., 1969 b. A new midwater trawl for sampling discrete depth horizons. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 49, 945–60.
Colebrook J. M., 1964. Continuous plankton recorders: a principal component analysis of the geographical distribution of zooplankton. Bulletin of Marine Ecology, 6, 78100.
Colebrook J. M., 1969. Variability in the plankton. In Progress in Oceanography (ed. Sears M.), vol. 5, pp. 115–25. Oxford: Pergamon Press.
Currie R. I., Boden B. P. & Kampa E. M., 1969. An investigation on sonic-scattering layers: the R.R.S. ‘Discovery’ SOND Cruise 1965. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 49, 489514.
David P. M., 1973. In preparation.
Ebeling A. W., Ibara R. M., Lavenberg R. J. & Rohlf F. J., 1970 a. Ecological groups of deep-sea animals of Southern California. Bulletin of the Los Angeles County Museum of Natural History Science, no. 6, 43 pp.
Ebeling A. W., Calliet G. M., Ibara R. M., Dewitt F. A. & Brown D. W., 1970 b. Pelagic communities and sound scattering off Santa Barbara California. In Proceedings of an International Symposium on Biological Sound Scattering in the ocean (ed. Broake Farquahar E. J. G), pp. 118. Washington, D.C.: Maury Center for Ocean Research.
Fager E. W. & Mcgowan I. A., 1963. Zooplankton species groups in the North Pacific. Science, 140, 453–60.
Foxton P., 1969. SOND cruise 1965. Biological sampling methods and procedures. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 49, 603–20.
Foxton P., 1970 a. The vertical distribution of pelagic decapods (Crustacea: Natantia) collected on the SOND cruise 1965. 1. The Caridea. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 50, 939–60.
Foxton P., 1970 b. The vertical distribution of pelagic decapods (Crustacea: Natantia) collected on the SOND cruise 1965. II. The Peneidea and general discussion. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 50, 9611000.
Goodall D. W., 1954. Objective methods for the classification of vegetation. III. An essay in the use of factor analysis. Australian Journal of Botany, 2, 304–24.
Guttman L., 1954. Some necessary conditions for common factor analysis. Psychometrika, 19, 149–61.
Harman H. H., 1967. Modern Factor Analysis. 474 pp. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Horst P., 1965. Factor Analysis of Data Matrices. 730 pp New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston Inc.
Hughes R. N. & Thomas M. L. H., 1971 a. The classification and ordination of shallow-water benthic samples from Prince Edward Island, Canada. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 7, 139.
Hughes R. N. & Thomas M. L. H., 1971 b. Classification and ordination of benthic samples from Bedeque Bay and estuary Prince Edward Island, Canada. Marine Biology, 10, 227–35.
Jardine C. J., Jardine N. & Sibson R., 1967. The structure and construction of taxonomic hierarchies. Mathematical Biosciences, 1, 173–9.
Jardine N. & Sibson R., 1968. The construction of hierarchic and non-hierarchic classifications. Computer Journal, 11, 177–84.
Kaiser H. F., 1958. The varimax criterion for analytic rotation in factor analysis. Psychometrika, 23, 187200.
Lance G. N. & Williams W. J., 1967. A general theory of classificatory sorting systems. 1. Hierarchical systems. Computer Journal, 9, 373–80.
Orloci L., 1967. An agglomerative method for classification of plant communities. Journal of Ecology, 55, 193205.
Roe H. S. J., 1972 a. The vertical distribution and diurnal migrations of calanoid copepods collected on the SOND cruise 1965. I. The total population and general discussion. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 52, 277314.
Roe H. S. J., 1972 b. The vertical distributions and diurnal migrations of Calanoid copepods collected on the SOND cruise, 1965. III. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 52, 525–52.
Roe H. S. J., 1972 c. The vertical distributions and diurnal migrations of Calanoid copepods collected on the SOND cruise, 1965. IV. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 52, 1021–44.
Sneath P. H. A., 1957. The application of a computer for taxonomy. Journal of General Microbiology, 17, 201–26.
Sokal R. R. & Michener C. D., 1958. A statistical method for evaluating systematic relationships. Kansas University Science Bulletin, 38, 1409–8.
Sokal R. R. & Sneath P. H. A., 1963. Principals of Numerical Taxonomy. 359 pp. San Francisco: W. H. Freeman & Co.
Thurston M. (1973). In preparation.
Thurstone L. L., 1947. Multiple Factor Analysis. 535pp. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Vinogradov M. E., 1968. Vertical Distribution of the Oceanic Zooplankton. 339 pp. Moscow: Nauka. (Translation from the Russian, Jerusalem: Israel Program for Scientific Translations. 1970.)
Williamson M. H., 1961. A method for studying the relation of plankton variations to hydrography. Bulletin of Marine Ecology, 5, 224–9.
Williamson M. H., 1963. The relation of plankton to some parameters of the herring population of the North-western North Sea. Rapports et Procès-Verbaux des Réunions du Conseil Permanent International pour L'Exploration de la Mer, 154, 179185.
Wrigley C, 1956. An empirical comparison of various methods for the estimationof communalities, 27 pp. Contract Report (1). Berkley, California; University of California.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom
  • ISSN: 0025-3154
  • EISSN: 1469-7769
  • URL: /core/journals/journal-of-the-marine-biological-association-of-the-united-kingdom
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 2 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 314 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 21st November 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.