Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 45
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Casaretto, Licia Picciulin, Marta and Hawkins, Anthony D. 2016. Differences between male, female and juvenile haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinusL.) sounds. Bioacoustics, Vol. 25, Issue. 2, p. 111.

    Urazghildiiev, Ildar R. and Van Parijs, Sofie M. 2016. Automatic grunt detector and recognizer for Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Vol. 139, Issue. 5, p. 2532.

    Casaretto, L. Picciulin, M. and Hawkins, A. D. 2015. Seasonal patterns and individual differences in the calls of male haddockMelanogrammus aeglefinus. Journal of Fish Biology, Vol. 87, Issue. 3, p. 579.

    Casaretto, Licia Picciulin, Marta and Hawkins, Anthony D. 2015. Mating behaviour by the haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus). Environmental Biology of Fishes, Vol. 98, Issue. 3, p. 913.

    Peng, Chao Zhao, Xinguo and Liu, Guangxu 2015. Noise in the Sea and Its Impacts on Marine Organisms. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, Vol. 12, Issue. 10, p. 12304.

    Sierra-Flores, Rogelio Atack, Tim Migaud, Hervé and Davie, Andrew 2015. Stress response to anthropogenic noise in Atlantic cod Gadus morhua L.. Aquacultural Engineering, Vol. 67, p. 67.

    Bocast, C. Bruch, R. M. and Koenigs, R. P. 2014. Sound production of spawning lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescensRafinesque, 1817) in the Lake Winnebago watershed, Wisconsin, USA. Journal of Applied Ichthyology, Vol. 30, Issue. 6, p. 1186.

    Casaretto, Licia Picciulin, Marta Olsen, Kjell and Hawkins, Anthony D. 2014. Locating spawning haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus, Linnaeus, 1758) at sea by means of sound. Fisheries Research, Vol. 154, p. 127.

    Cott, Peter A. Hawkins, Anthony D. Zeddies, David Martin, Bruce Johnston, Thomas A. Reist, James D. Gunn, John M. and Higgs, Dennis M. 2014. Song of the burbot: Under-ice acoustic signaling by a freshwater gadoid fish. Journal of Great Lakes Research, Vol. 40, Issue. 2, p. 435.

    Radford, A. N. Kerridge, E. and Simpson, S. D. 2014. Acoustic communication in a noisy world: can fish compete with anthropogenic noise?. Behavioral Ecology, Vol. 25, Issue. 5, p. 1022.

    Wall, Carrie C. Rountree, Rodney A. Pomerleau, Corinne and Juanes, Francis 2014. An exploration for deep-sea fish sounds off Vancouver Island from the NEPTUNE Canada ocean observing system. Deep Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers, Vol. 83, p. 57.

    Wilson, L. J. Burrows, M. T. Hastie, G. D. and Wilson, B. 2014. Temporal variation and characterization of grunt sounds produced by Atlantic codGadus morhuaand pollackPollachius pollachiusduring the spawning season. Journal of Fish Biology, Vol. 84, Issue. 4, p. 1014.

    Cott, Peter A. Johnston, Tom A. Gunn, John M. and Higgs, Dennis M. 2013. Hearing Sensitivity of the Burbot. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society, Vol. 142, Issue. 6, p. 1699.

    Hernandez, K. M. Risch, D. Cholewiak, D. M. Dean, M. J. Hatch, L. T. Hoffman, W. S. Rice, A. N. Zemeckis, D. and Van Parijs, S. M. 2013. Acoustic monitoring of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) in Massachusetts Bay: implications for management and conservation. ICES Journal of Marine Science, Vol. 70, Issue. 3, p. 628.

    Skjæraasen, Jon Egil Meager, Justin J. and Heino, Mikko 2012. Secondary sexual characteristics in codfishes (Gadidae) in relation to sound production, habitat use and social behaviour. Marine Biology Research, Vol. 8, Issue. 3, p. 201.

    Groison, Anne-Laure Kjesbu, Olav S. and Suquet, Marc 2011. Sexual dimorphism of drumming muscles in European hake (Merluccius merluccius). Environmental Biology of Fishes, Vol. 91, Issue. 1, p. 7.

    Kasumyan, A. O. 2009. Acoustic signaling in fish. Journal of Ichthyology, Vol. 49, Issue. 11, p. 963.

    Maruska, Karen P. and Tricas, Timothy C. 2009. Encoding properties of auditory neurons in the brain of a soniferous damselfish: response to simple tones and complex conspecific signals. Journal of Comparative Physiology A, Vol. 195, Issue. 11, p. 1071.

    Kasumyan, A. O. 2008. Sounds and sound production in fishes. Journal of Ichthyology, Vol. 48, Issue. 11, p. 981.

    Luczkovich, Joseph J. Pullinger, R. Christopher Johnson, Stephen E. and Sprague, Mark W. 2008. Identifying Sciaenid Critical Spawning Habitats by the Use of Passive Acoustics. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society, Vol. 137, Issue. 2, p. 576.

  • Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, Volume 58, Issue 4
  • November 1978, pp. 891-911

The calls of gadoid fish

  • A. D. Hawkins (a1) and Knud Just Rasmussen (a2)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 01 May 2009

Of nine northern European species of the Gadidae examined in the aquarium, or in cages in the sea, four produced sounds. The vocal species were the haddock, Melanogrammus aeglefinus (L.); the cod, Gadus morhua L.; the lythe, Pollachius pollachius (L.); and the tadpole-fish, Raniceps raninns (L.). The main differences between the calls of the vocal species lay in their temporal structure, all the calls being divisible into brief pulses of low frequency sound, repeated at different rates and in different groupings. Calls with this structure yielded spectra with a series of spaced harmonics, the frequency spacing depending upon the pulse repetition rate.

Sixteen additional species were dissected, and seven of these showed well developed muscles attached to the swimbladder, similar to those found in the four vocal species. The remaining nine species, together with the five non-vocal species examined in the aquarium, lacked the muscles.

The behavioural significance of the calls and the operation of the sound producing mechanism are discussed.

Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

V. M. Brawn , 1961. Sound production by the cod (Gadus callarias L.). Behaviour, 18, 239255.

G. A. Gray & H. E. Winn , 1961. Reproductive ecology and sound production of the toadfish, Opsanus tau. Ecology, 42, 274282.

A. D. Hawkins , C. J. Chapman & D. J. Symonds , 1967. Spawning of haddock in captivity. Nature, London, 215, 923925.

F. R. H. Jones & N. B. Marshall , 1953. The structure and functions of the teleostean swimbladder. Biological Reviews, 28, 1683.

G. C. Offutt , 1967. Integration of the energy in repeated tone pulses by man and the goldfish. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 41, 1319.

D. Poggendorf , 1952. The absolute auditory threshold of the dwarf catfish (Ameiurus rebulosus) and notes on the physics of the Weberian apparatus in the Ostariophysi. Zeitschrift für vergleichende Physiologie, 34, 222257.

A. N. Popper , 1972. Auditory threshold in the goldfish (Carassius auratus) as a function of signal duration. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 52, 596602.

C. R. Skoglund , 1961. Functional analysis of swimbladder muscles engaged in sound production of the toadfish. Journal of Biophysical and Biochemical Cytology, 10, 187200.

W. Templeman , & V. M. Hodder , 1958. Variation with fish length, sex, stage of sexual maturity and season, in the appearance and volume of the drumming muscles of the swimbladder in the haddock, Melanograrnmus aeglefinus L. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada, 15 355390.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom
  • ISSN: 0025-3154
  • EISSN: 1469-7769
  • URL: /core/journals/journal-of-the-marine-biological-association-of-the-united-kingdom
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *