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  • Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, Volume 39, Issue 3
  • October 1960, pp. 667-680

The influence of temperature on the breeding and the moulting activities of some warm-water species of operculate barnacles

  • Bhupendra Patel (a1) and D. J. Crisp (a1)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 01 May 2009

Thorson (1946) considered in detail the earlier views of Appellöf (1912), Orton (1920) and Runnström (1928) that breeding activities of the majority of marine organisms were controlled by the temperature of the sea and referred to this as Orton's rule. RecentlyCrisp (1954) and Qasim (1956) also reviewed the existing literature on this subject in relation to barnacles and fish. By considering the seasonal availability of planktonic food in con-junction with Orton's rule, they explained why tropical species inhabiting cool temperate waters have a breeding season confined to the warmer months, whereas boreo-arctic species throughout their whole range breed only during colder months.

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H. Barnes & D. J. Crisp , 1956. Evidence of self fertilization in certain species of barnacles. J. mar. biol. Ass. U.K., Vol. 35, pp. 631–39.

D. J. Crisp , 1950. Breeding and distribution of Chthamalus stellatus. Nature, Lond., Vol. 166, p. 311.

D. J. Crisp , 1954. The breeding of Balanus porcatus (da Costa). J. mar. biol. Ass. U.K., Vol. 33, pp. 473–94.

D. J. Crisp , 1956. A substance promoting hatching and liberation of young in cirripedes. Nature, Lond., Vol. 178, p. 263.

D. J. Crisp , 1957. Effect of low temperature on the breeding of marine animals. Nature, Lond., Vol.179, p. 1138.

D. J. Crisp , 1960. Factors influencing the time of breeding of Balanus balanoides. Oikos, Vol. 10, pp. 275–89.

D. J. Crisp & P. A. Davies , 1955. Observations in vivo on the breeding of Elminius modestus grown on glass slides. J. mar. biol. Ass. U.K., Vol. 34, pp. 357–80.

D. J. Crisp & B. S. Patel , 1958. Relation between breeding and ecdysis in Cirripedes. Nature, Lond., Vol. 181, pp. 1078–79.

D. J. Crisp & B. S. Patel , 1960. The moulting cycle in Balanus balanoides L. Biol. Bull., Woods Hole, Vol. 118, pp. 3147.

V. L. Loosanoff , 1959. The size and shape of metamorphosing larvae of Venus (Mercenaria) mercenaria grown at different temperatures. Biol. Bull., Woods Hole, Vol.117, pp. 308–18.

V. L. Loosanoff & H. C. Davis , 1950. Conditioning V. mercenaria for spawning in winter and breeding its larvae in the laboratory. Biol. Bull., Woods Hole, Vol. 98, pp. 6065.

J. A. Moore , 1949. Geographic variation of adaptive characters in Rana pipiens Schreber. Evolution, Vol. 3, pp. 124.

J. H. Orton , 1920. Sea temperature, breeding and distribution of marine animals. J. mar. biol. Ass. U.K., Vol. 12, pp. 339–66.

B. Patel , 1959. The influence of temperature on the reproduction and moulting of Lepas anatifera L. under laboratory conditions. J. mar. biol. Ass. U.K., Vol. 38, pp. 589–97.

B. Patel & D. J. Crisp , 1960. Rates of development of the embryos of several species of barnacles. Physiol. Zoöl., Vol. 33, pp. 104–19.

S. Z. Qasim , 1956. Time and duration of thespawning season in some marine Teleosts in relation to their distribution. J. Cons. int. Explor. Mer, Vol. 21 (2), pp. 144–55.

A. J. Southward , 1955. On the behaviour of barnacles. I. The relation of cirral and other activities to temperature. J. mar. biol. Ass. U.K., Vol. 34, pp. 403–22.

A. J. Southward , 1957. On the behaviour of barnacles. III. Further observations on the influence of temperature and age on cirral activity. J. mar. biol. Ass. U.K., Vol. 36, PP. 323–34.

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