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An Indian metaphor in St John's Gospel

  • J. Duncan M. Derrett
Extract

“Influence-research” is not a field to itself. It boasts no experts. Where cultures are sources of national or professional prestige the Einflussforsche's task can be thankless. Cultures are admired as self-consistent, and if possible original. Where indebtedness is notorious – e.g. East Asian artefacts’ effects on European taste – research into it may be conducted without grief. But since unacknowledged indebtedness affronts the increasing specialization of our times tentative disclosures may be accused of implausibility. One is asked “How could such a thing happen?rdquo;, and “What does it add up to?” Learned journals have published many strange “parallels”. Effects are cumulative: quum singula non prosunt multa iuvant. News, for example, that famous stories have migrated over great distances causes no apprehension. But where anomalies bring distant, even antagonistic cultures into confrontation, without a proved contact, one may become impatient. “Influence-research” remains the Cinderella of the sciences, and she has plenty of Ugly Sisters. One may take a trivial example. Judaism has for centuries presented rabbinism as its normative model; and then news accumulated that Yahweh was once seen as a manifestation of Apollo, with an accompanying osmosis from pagan towards Jewish symbols and fashions. This flouting of the standard set by the sensational Maccabees books put the results, such as they were, under a cloud.

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1 A parallel between Zoroastrian, Judaic, and Buddhist sources: Derrett, J. D. M., “‘Every valley shall be exalted’”, ZRGG, XXIV (1972), pp. 153–5;Lincoln, B., “‘The Earth becomes flat’ – a study of apocalyptic imagery”, CSSH, XXV (1983), pp. 136–53;Kölver, B., “The world beyond time: a scene from the Lalitavistara”, Lex et Litterae … O. Botto, ed. Lienhard, S. and Piovano, I. (Alessandria and Turin, 1997), pp. 301–12atpp. 303, 306.

2 Segal, A. F., The Other Judaisms of Late Antiquity (Adanta, 1987). Goodenough and Neusner are known for this awareness.

3 May, R., Ex oriente lux: Heideggers Werk unter ostasiatischem Einfiuβ (Stuttgart, 1989); id., Heidegger's Hidden Sources. East Asian Influences on His Work (London and New York, 1996).

4 McManus, Denis, “Did Heidegger conceal an oriental debt?”, Times Higher Education Supplement, Jan. 31st, 1997, P. 24.

5 S.B.E. XXX (1892), pp. 219, 286–7.

6 Jahnow, Hedwig, “Das Abdecken des Daches: Mc 2.4, Lc 5.19”, ZNW, XXIV (1925), pp. 155–8.

7 Mishnah, order Taharôt, tractate Zabîm, passim.

8 Skt. Mātsya-nyāya. Babylonian Talmud, ‘Avôda Zarâ 4a; Athenagoras (c. AD 177), Supplicatio §34; Irenaeus (d. c. 202) adv. haer. V. 24, 2.

9 J. D. M. Derrett, “Why did Jesus blow on the disciples (Joh 20, 22)?”, Bibbia e Oriente, forthcoming. Cf. Luke 24:49 (“promise”).

10 Bultmann, R., Das Urchristentum in Rahmen der antiken Religionen (Zürich and Stuttgart, 1963);Primitive Christianity in its Contemporary Setting (London, 1960).

11 “Bind” and “loose” means “government”. Derrett, J. D. M., “Binding and Loosing”, Studies in the New Testament, iv (Leiden, 1986), pp. 190–5; id., Some Telltale Words in the New Testament (Shipston-on-Stour, 1997), p. 25, no. 18.Levonian, L., “Insufflation”, Expositor, 8th ser., XXII (1926), pp. 149–54 at P. 153 (me holy man's breath looses the effects of sin). Cf. Kuhn, H.-W., “A legal issue in 1 Corinthians 5 and in Qumran”, in Legal Texts and Legal Issues. FSJ. M. Baumgarten, ed. Bernstein, M. et al. (Leiden, 1997), p. 489, n. 2.

12 Bultmann, R., Das Evangelium des Johannes, 17th edn. (Göttingen, 1962), p. 536, n. 7, speaking of Übertragung der Amtskraji, cites inter alios Bauer, Leonhard, Volksleben im Lande der Bibel (Leipzig, 1903),Gunkel, J. F. H., Legends of Genesis (Chicago, 1901); also Märchen im Alien Testament (1917), p. 98;Sittl, C., Die Gebärden der Griechen und Römer (Leipzig, 1890), pp. 345–6;van der Leeuw, G., Phänomenologie der Religion (Tübingen, 1933), pp. 257–8;Preisigke, Fr., Die Gotteskraji in der frühchristlichen Zeit (Berlin and Leipzig, 1922), pp. 229–30;Staerk, W., Die Erlösererwartung (Stuttgart and Berlin), 1938, pp. 312–14. Add Levonian (n. 11 above) on Kurdistan. He is cited by our foremost Johannine commentator, Brown, R. E., John (Anchor Bible: London, 1978), ii, p. 1023. Ignore an exorcist's “blowing”, though it mimes power: Deissmann, A., Light from the Ancient East, 1st edn. (London, 1910), pp. 254, 260 (magical papyrus, Paris no. 574, Supplement grec, lines 3083–4).

13 Chevalier, J. and Gheerbrant, A., A Dictionary of Symbols (Oxford and Cambridge, MA, 1994), pp. 120–1; Skt. prāna and Heb. rûah ire “mysterious activating powers”. The Spirit confers heroic power: Judges 3:10; 6:34; 11:29; 13:25; 14:6; 15:14. Field, M.J., Angels and Ministers of Grace (London, 1971), ch. 10.

14 One refers to Genesis 2:7; Wisdom 15:11; 1 Kings 17:21; 2 Kings 4:34 (LXX var. lect.); Job 33:4; Psalms 33:6, 104:4, 30. Not one of these parallels John 20:22 (for the apostles were not lifeless). Zoroastrians would abhor the use of breath in this context (information from Prof. Mary Boyce).

15 Buchanan, G. W., Biblical and Theological Insights from Ancient and Modem Civil Law (Lewiston and Lampeter, 1992). PP. 17, 136.In Hebrew the action “to constitute X an agent” appears as “to send (SLH) X”.

16 Shorter Oxford English Dictionary, “Blow”, III; Brewer, E. C., Dictionary of Phrase and Fable, “Blow upon” (London, 1970, 1975), p. 124. The scope of “breathe” is shown in Ben Johnson's To Celia, v. 2, “But thou thereon didst only breathe / and sent'st it back to me”.

17 Chesnutt, R. D., From Death to Life: Conversion in Joseph and Aseneth (Sheffield, 1995).

18 Burchard, C. at Charlesworth, J. H., Old Testament Pseudepigrapha ii (London and Garden City, 1985), PP. 233–4.

19 The dating of early Upaniṣads and the probability of the Buddha's death date as 450–400 BC I owe to Prof. Heinrich von Stietencron (Oct. 17th, 1997).

20 Bṛhadāraṇyaka Upaniṣad (BṛĀU) 1.5.17–20 (cf. IV.3.38). Also Kauṣītakī Upaniṣad II.15. Hume, R. H., Thirteen Principal Upanishads (Oxford, 1931), pp. 90, 318–20;Zaehner, R. C., Hindu Scriptures (London and New York, 1966), pp. 3940.Sprockhoff, J. F., “Die Alten im alten Indien. Ein Versuch nach brahmanischen Quellen”, Saeculum XXX, 4 (1979), pp. 374433 at pp. 392–4;Wezler, A., “Old age and the elderly in ancient and mediaeval India”, in Aging, Asian Concepts and Experiences Past and Present, ed. Formanek, S. and Lienhart, S. (Vienna, 1997), p. 48.

21 Related to wind: BṛĀU III.2, 13; IV.4, 2; 5, 15. Related to the self: ibid., III.4, 1; 9, 26. Cf. ibid., II.2, 1–3.

22 BṛĀU II.1, 10.

23 BṛĀU I.3, 24; 4, 7; VI.1, 1–2, 7–13. KauṣU 11.4(3). BṛĀU IV.4, 1; 5, 13. Indispensable: VI.1, 7–13. Speech, mind and breath: BṛĀU 1.5, 3–13, 20–23. Cf. 1QH 1.27–28 (see next note).

24 1QH VII.6–7; XVII.26. For Qumran references, texts and discussion see The Dead Sea Scrolls Translated, ed. Martínez, F. García, 2nd edn. (Leiden and Grand Rapids, 1996) and Charlesworth, J. H., The Rule of the Community (Philadelphia, 1997).Vermes, G., The Complete Dead Sea Scrolls in English (London, 1998). The Heb. root NWF, “to wave” also means “shake” or “stretch out” (2 Kings 5:11; Job 31:21; Proverbs 7:17; Psalm 68:9(10); Isaiah 11:15, 19:16). Meanings are said to include effundere, stillare, aspergere, suffire, cribrare (Isaiah 30:28), e.g. perfusio aromatum. The Spirit and disciplinary power: CD VII and 1QS IX.13, 15, 18. Cf. Wisdom 1:5; 1 Thessalonians 4:8; Judges 3:10. For David and the Messiah see Isaiah 11:2. See Luke 9:53–55 with the well-attested variant at v. 55 (“You do not know of what kind of Spirit you are”). The Spirit in speech and judgement: Matthew 10:26; 12:18 (Isaiah 42:1–3; 61:1; Luke 4:18). An essential in the church: Matthew 12:31; 28:19.

25 Frazer, J. G., The Golden Bough, 3rd edn. (London, 1923), Bk. 4, pt. 3, ch. 7, p. 200.

26 Frazer, op. cit., pp. 198–9, citing authorities of 1863, 1880, 1884, and 1894.

27 Frazer, p. 199, citing reports of 1845–6.

28 John 1:32–33; 3:8, 34; 15:26, 16:13.

29 Turner, M., Power from on High: the Spirit in Israel's Restoration and Witness in Luke-Acts (Sheffield, 1996).

30 Stauffer, E., in Theol. W. zum Neuen Testament, vi, p. 440, line 31 (he compares John 6:63; 7:38). James Mofatt was of a similar view. Schnackenburg, R., Gospel according to St John iii (London, 1982), pp. 323–6 at pp. 325–6, while allowing the benefit ofjohn 20:22 to all, denies it is the Paraclete (though the latter will advert to moral and legal delinquency: John 16:8), perceiving the source of w. 21–23 was never harmonized with Paraclete material. Derrett, J. D. M., “Advocacy at John 16: 8–11”, Expository Times CX, 6 (1999), pp. 181–2.

31 Modern commentators do this, especially Dibelius, M., Commentary on the Epistle of James, rev. Greeven, H., trans. Williams, M. A. (Philadelphia, 1976), pp. 181206., is Orphic according to Rohde, E., Psyché (Paris, 1928), p. 364, n. 1; Windisch, H., Die Katholischen Briefe, 2nd edn. (Tübingen, 1951), p. 23. But doubts are expressed by Büchsel, F., ‘”, TWNT, i (1933), pp. 680–8. Cf. Wisdom 1:14 (). Niebuhr, K.-W., “Der Jakobusbrief”, NTS XLIV, 3 (1998), pp. 420–43.

32 Philonenko, M., “Un écho de la prédication d'Asoka dans l'Épître de Jacques”, in Ex Orbe Religionum (FS Geo Widengren), ed. Bleeker, C. J. et al. (Numen Suppl. 21; Leiden, 1972), pp. 254–54 at P. 262, n. 9, a second thought of Dibelius (1957).

33 Schopenhauer, A., Parerga and Paratipomena §179 [Berlin, 1851], new edn. (Zürich, 1988, 1991) ii, pp. 332–9 (gratia R. May) at p. 335 (Buddhist). Philonenko (last n.) at pp. 259–65 (self-command, a leading Buddhist and Greek idea). Stehly, R., “Une citation des Upanishads dans Joseph et Aséneth”, RHPR, LV (1975), pp. 209–13 at p. 213.Garbe, R., Indien und das Christentum (Tübingen, 1914), p. 60, n. 2 (Mahāvagga parallel), cited but not followed by Büchsel (above n. 31).

34 Vinaya 1.34–5 and Mahāvagga I.21 discussed by Gombrich, R., How Buddhism Began (London and Atlantic Highlands NJ, 1996), pp. 65–6.Saṃyutta-nikāya III, 71; IV, 19. See Garbe and Philonenko cited above. Elsewhere the Buddha explains that backbiting (a form of slander) causes the offender to be reborn in the worst of hells: Sutta-nipāta III.10 (Kokāliya), §§656–60. One boils or cooks in hell.

35 Philonenko, M., Joseph et Aséneth (Leiden, 1968).Burchard, C., Untersuchungen zu Joseph und Aseneth (Tübingen, 1965) dates it between 1st cent. BC and the beginning of the 2nd cent. AD. See n. 17 above.

36 Pines, S., “From darkness into great light”, Immanuel, IV (1974), pp. 4751 at p. 48. R. Stehly, “Citation” (n. 33 above). Charlesworth, , Old Testament Pseudepigrapha ii, p. 213.

37 BṛĀU I.3, 28 consists of mantras followed by an explanatory commentary. A fanciful paraphrase runs: “Therefore the meaning, ‘From evil acts and ignorance lead me to actions and thoughts that are regulated by scripture, i.e. help me to identify myself with those that lead to divinity’(!)” All ignorance, like a veil, is darkness, and it again is death, being the cause of it. The “light” means “one's divine nature” (material forwarded by Pt. Dr P. K. Aithal). For translations see Hume (n. 20 above), p. 80; Zaehner (ibid.), pp. 34–5.

38 Psalms 107:14; Isaiah 29:18; Colossians 1:13; 1 Thessalonians 5:5.

39 Noticed by Stehly and by Charlesworth. On the Passover Haggadah and the Easter Homily of Melito of Sardis see Pines (n. 36 above), where the redemption from Egypt is in view. 1 Clement 59:2; Constitutiones Apostolorum 7.39, 3. Romans 2:4 (“leads”). Acts 26:18; cf. Isaiah 5:20. Cf. Qur'ān 33:43 (the probity of the Prophet).

40 Sutta-piṭaka: Saṅyutta-nikāya IV.94, 370;Anguttara-nikāya V.256.

41 Derrett, J. D. M., “A Moses-Buddha parallel and its meaning”, Archív Orientálni, LVIII, 4 (1990), pp. 310–17.Hara, M., “A note on the Buddha's birth-story”, in Indianisme et Bouddhisme. Mélanges Lamotte (Louvain-la-Neuve, 1980), pp. 143–57.

42 Madrash Rabbah, Devarîm Rabbah, XI, 10, ed. Mirkin, M. A. (Tel Aviv, 1967), p. 158.

43 Aitareya Brāhmana IV.4;Taittirīya Āraṇyaka 10, 44;Atharvaśira Upaniṣad 1. Irwin, J., “The mystery of the (future) Buddha's first words”, Annali del Istituto Universitario Orientale, XLI (1981), pp. 623–53.

44 Sutta-piṭaka: Dīgha-nikāya II.15 §29;Majjhima-nikāya III.123.

45 Noah (1 Enoch 106), and Zoroaster. Gospel of ps. Matthew 18 (James, M. R., Apocryphal New Testament [Oxford, 1955], pp. 74–5).

46 Karṇa was floated in a box or basket on the R. Aśvā, his mother having become pregnant by the Sun: Mahābhārata 3.290, 6.26. Hara, M. at Buddhist Forum, III (1994), pp. 41, 44.

47 Derrett, J. D. M., “Der Wasserwandel in christlicher und buddhistischer Perspektive”, ZRGG, XLI, 3 (1989), pp. 193214.

48 “Mythological ideas have been diffused only to the extent that the ground was already prepared for them by the existence of parallel notions in the receiving culture”: Irwin (n. 43 above) at p. 626.

49 Derrett (n. 41 above) at p. 315.

50 Cf. Testament of Abraham (c. AD 75–125) 10:8–9 (Charlesworth, , Pseudepigrapha, i, p. 887). Exodus 15:12.

51 Derrett, J. D. M., “The case of Korah against Moses reconsidered”, JSJ, XXIV, 1 (1993), pp. 5978. Add: Philo, Ps., Liber antiquitatum biblicarum XVI, 3.

52 Derrett, J. D. M., “Diffusion: Korah and Devadatta”, Archív Orientální, LXIII (1995), pp. 330–3. Read ), etc. Cf. Kingsley, P. on Ezekiel at JRAS, Series 3, II, 3 (1992), pp. 339–46.

53 Wacholder, B. Z., “Jubilees as the super-canon”, in Legal Texts (n. 11 above), pp. 195211.

54 Derrett, J. D. M., “A problem in the Book of Jubilees and an Indian doctrine”, ZRGG, XIV, 3 (1962), pp. 247–62 citing three authorities, including China and Iran and noting Kalthoff, J. H., Ius matrimonii veterum Indorum cum eodem Hebraeorum iure subinde comparatum (Bonn, 1829), pp. 5760 (where Judges 15:1–2 and 1 Samuel 18:17 do not prove the rule).

55 Hastings, J., “Therapeutae”, in id., ed., ERE, xii, pp. 315–19.Dupont-Sommer, A., “Une nouvelle inscription araméenne d'Asoka trouvée dans la vallée de Lagaman (Afghanistan)”, Comptes rendus des Séances de L'Académie des Inscriptions et Belles Lettres (1970), p. 15 (see n. 101 below). Philonenko (n. 32 above), p. 256 approved Dupont-Sommer's proposition. But Schiirer (n. 61 below) ii, App. A sees them as Essenes.

56 Derrett, J. D. M., Telltale Words (n. 11 above), pp. 66–7, no. 64.

57 Derrett, J. D. M., “The Samaritan Woman in India”, ZRGG, XXXIX (1987), pp. 328–36. On India's knowledge of John see St John Chrysostom (c. AD 347–407), in joannem homil. 2 (otherwise 1) on John 1:1, §2 (Migne, Patrologia, series graeca, LIX, 32). Waldmann, H., Der Königsweg der Apostel in Edessa, Indien und Rom, 2nd edn. (Tübingen, 1997) (gratia H. v. Stietencron): active contacts between India and Syria.

58 Charles, R. H., Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha of the Old Testament (Oxford, 1913), ii, p. 291 §13, 330;de Jonge, M., Studies in the Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs (Leiden, 1975), 136, 149–51.Nissen, A., Gott und der Nächste im antiken judentum (Tübingen, 1974), p. 269.

59 Water into wine (2:8–11); healing at the pool (5:5–9); smearing eyes with mud (9:6–7); Lazarus' emergence (11:43–44); foot-washing (13:4–18); removal of an ear (18:10); blood and water (19:34); Thomas’ hand (20:27–29). All traceable to Jewish/biblical themes; but cf. Philostratus, Vita Apollonii 8.12.

60 Notably the incense. Cicero, de officiis III.8 (Marcus Marius Gratidianus honoured); Polybius XIII.9, 5; Diodorus Siculus V.41, 2; Josephus, Ant. 12.140, 13:243 (Antiochus VII); Plutarch, Alexander 25.4. FGrH 126. Nielsen, K., Incense in Ancient Israel (Leiden, 1986);Martinetz, D. et al. , Weihrauch und Myrrhe (Stuttgart, 1989);Heger, P., The Development of Incense Cult in Israel (Berlin, 1997).

61 Assets from a tainted source were forbidden: Genesis 13:13; 14:23; Proverbs 4:17; Psalms 101:3;: 41:3(4); Sirach 40:29; 1 Enoch 63:10; iQS V.i4-i8, 20; VIII.23–24; IX.8–9, 22; X.18. Test. Zeb. 3:1–3; CD VI.14–16; VIII.5. Inscription from Aphrodisias (Schürer, E., History of the Jewish People in the Age of Jesus Christ, 175 BC–AD 135, iii, 1 [Edinburgh, 1986], p. 166); Josephus, Bell.Jud. 2.141. Mark 14:5; Acts 8:20; Mishnah, Sevi'ît VIII.11; Baba Qama X.1. Contrast Luke 16:9. Cf. Manu V.106.

62 See also Saṃyutta-nikāya 1.21.

63 , carries the applied meanings “charlatan” and “sorcerer”: Liddell, Scott, Jones, Greek-English Lexicon, s.v. no. 3; OCD, 3rd edn. (1996), s.v.; Juvenal, Sat. 3.77; cf. Acts 13:6, 8; Babylonian Talmud, Šabb. 75a; Sôt. 22a (māgûš); Pes. 113b; Qidd. 72a. Here the meaning is “Zoroastrian priest”. Hastings, DB, iii (1900), 204(2). Herodotus 7.37; Aristotle, Frag. 36; Phoenix 1.5; Theodoret, hist. eccl. 5.39, 5; Socrates, hist. eccl. 7.8.58”. (Migne, series graeca 67.752B). Cicero, de div. 1.9; Philo, Spec. leg. 3, 100; quod omnis 74. Pausarias 4.32, 4

64 Boyce, M., “Persian religion in the Achemenid age”, Cambridge History of Judaism, i, ed. Davies, W. D. and Finkelstein, L. (Cambridge 1984), pp. 279307 at pp. 298–9.

65 Catullus, ep. 91; Diogenes Laertius 9, 83; Philo, spec. leg. III. 13–14; Plutarch, Alex. 30.8; Artax. 2.23, 2–4; Mor. 328C. M. Lattke, “Verfluchter Inzest. War der ‘pornos’ von 1 Kor. 5 ein persischer ’Magos’?”, Peregrina Curiositas. Eine Reise durch den orbis antiquus (FS Dirk van Damme), ed. A. Keeler (Freiburg and Göttingen, 1994), pp. 29–55.

66 Yasht 43.3, 16. Sinko, T., “De Vita Platonis apuleiana”, Eos, XXX (1927), pp. 101–12.Boyce, M., History of Zoroastrianism (Leiden, 1975), i, pp. 282–7;ead., Textual Studies (Chicago and Manchester, 1984), pp. 90–1;ead., Zoroastrianism (London, 1987), p. 8;ead., “Persian religion”, p. 301; Kingsley, P., “Meetings with Magi”, JRAS, 3rd. ser. V, 2 (1995), pp. 173209 at p. 197 and n. 156. Derrett, J. D. M., “Shared themes”, J. Higher Criticism, IV, 2 (1997), PP. 5767.

67 Boll, F., “Der Stern der Weisen”, ZNW, XVIII (19171918), pp. 40–8;Viviano, B., “The movement of the Star”, RB, CIII (1996), pp. 5864.Stramare, T., Vangelo (Bornato i.F., 1998), pp. 237–47.

68 Philo, de Abrahamo 115–16 (Loeb edn., Philo, VI, p. 60) comments on Abraham's home. The very holy are not too fussy, and Abraham was the “father” of all proselytes. See Malachi 1:11.

69 Eusebius, hist. eccl. V.10, 3 and Jerome, de vir. ill., 36 say Pantaenus, who died about AD 190, found traces of a Hebrew Matthew in India.

70 Benveniste, E., “Édits d'Asoka en traduction grecque”, JA, CCLII (1964), pp. 137–57 at PP. 140–1.

71 Seydel, R., Das Evangelium Jesu in seinem Verhältnissen zu Buddha-Sage und Buddha-Lehre (Leipzig, 1882), pp. 174 (§26), 234. For a bibliography see Derrett (above, n. 57) at p. 328, nn. 1–2. A. L. Basham traced similarities to gnosticism and Zoroastrianism: “The evolution of the concept of the Bodhisattva”, in The Bodhisattva Doctrine in Buddhism, ed. Kawamura, L. S. (Waterloo, Canada, 1981), pp. 1959.

72 The key exchange is apāpur’ etaṃ amatassa dvāraṃ … Apārutā tesaṃ amatassa dvāarā. The prose equivalent of dvāra would be avakāsa (“opportunity”). Non-knowledge is ignorance and its abolition makes one see reality. When the Buddha opens the door of Deathlessness they respond with faith (Mahāvagga 1.5, 12). For Brahmā's plea see Saṃyutta-nikāya I.137;Majjhima-nikāya I.168–9, 171, 172–3;Dīgha-nikāya II.3640;Mahāvagga 1.5, 712 (Vinaya I.4–7). Cf. Mahāvastu (ed. Senart, ), iii, p. 317.Lamotte, E., Histoire du Bouddhisme Indien (Louvain-la-Neuve, 1976), p. 761; id., in World of Buddhism, ed. Bechert, H. and Gombrich, R. (London, 1984), pp. 42, 45;Nakamura, Hajime, Indian Buddhism (Delhi, 1989), p. 19;Waldschmidt, E., Das Catuṣparisatsūtra (Berlin, 1962) (Nakamura, op. cit., p. 35, n. 17); Bareau, A., Recherches sur la biographie du Buddha dans les Sutrapiṭaka et les Vinayapiṭaka anciens: de la quête de l'éveil à la conversion de Śāriputra et de Maudgalyāyana (Paris, 1963), pp. 135–43. A report of the “opening” appears at Majjhima-nikāya I.227 (vivaṭam amatadvāraṃ).

73 maccudheyya. Sutta-nipāta 358, 1104, 1146; Dhammapada 86; Saṃyutta-nikāya I.4; Ariguttara-nikāya V.232, 253.

74 kusalo Māra-dheyyassa … kusalo Maccu-dheyyassa: Majjhima-nikāya I.227. Oldenberg, H., Buddha (London and Edinburgh, 1882), p. 58, n., cf. ibid., pp. 120, 122.

75 Anguttara-nikāya V.346, 347. That world is not accessible to Death: Majjhima-nikāya I.227, line 9. Cf. Matthew 13:44: Derrett, J. D. M., Law in the New Testament (London, 1970), ch. 1.

76 Majjhima-nikāya I.168 lines 21–2. sattā apparajakkhajātikā (cf. p. 169, lines 8, 19; beings have this not entirely desperate condition: satte apparajakkhe).

77 Ibid., p. 168 lines 25–6: dhammo asuddo samalehi cintito.

78 pamuñcantu saddhaṃ has been translated “Let them abandon their (mistaken) faith”. This is wrong, despite the commentary's suggesting it. T. W. Rhys Davids, Oldenberg, I. B. Horner, and the Pāli-English Dictionary adopt the version indicated here. Compare aperuisti credentibus regna caelorum (Te Deum, 17), where faith is a prerequisite of opening.

79 Isaiah 22:22, where opening and shutting imply every aspect of government. The messianic potential is shown at Revelation 3:7. In Jewish usage he who “closes” ends all argument (Sifre on Deuteronomy, §321 sogēr), Cf. Pausanias, Descriptio Graeciae V, 20, 3.

80 Job 7:9; Psalm 86:13; Wisdom 16:14. See Hosea 13:14. Cf. Psalm 16:10; 68:21(20); 89:49(48).

81 Ramsay, W. M., Cities and Bishoprics of Phrygia, i (Oxford, 1895), pt. 2, and p. 395; id., J. Hell. Studies, V (1884), p. 254. “

82 Revelation 4:1.

83 Sacred space, and its threshold: Leviticus 10:7, 17:4–6; Numbers 12:5; Matthew 25:10; Luke 11:7, 13:24, 25, 28. Hermas, vis. III.9, 6. Cf. Deuteronomy 22:21. Space may become holy: Song of Solomon 5:2; John 18:15–17; 20:19; 26; Revelation 3:20. Temple: Malachi 1:10; Acts 21:30; 1 Clement 43:3.

84 Genesis 28:17 (access to the deity). Cf. Revelation 4:1.

85 Isaiah 60:11; Revelation 21:25.

86 Isaiah 45:1. Josephus, ant. 18.29; Bell. Jud. 6.290ff.

87 Isaiah 26:2; Revelation 3:8.

88 Psalm 118:18–20; Proverbs 12:28; Revelation 2:11, 20:6, 21:4.

89 Acts 14:27; 1 Corinthians 16:9; 2 Corinthians 2:12; Colossians 4:3 (J. Jeremias, “”, TWNT, iii, p. 174 and n. 14). Bauer-Amdt-Gingrich, Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament, “”, 2c. Cf. Luke 13:24; Revelation 3:8, 4:1. In profane Greek means a point of entry or commencement (Epictetus II.11, 1) (so with the Heb. ša'ar), and one may compare mors janua vitae. Rabbinical examples: Mishnah, Nedārim II.i, 5; IX. 1, 2, 4, 5, 9. Genesis Rabbah XXXVIII (on Genesis 11:6); also XCI; Deuteronomy Rabbah III (on Deuteronomy 31:2); Canticles Rabbah to Song 5:2; Sifre on Deuteronomy §27; Babylonian Talmud, Meg. 12b; cf. Sanh. 322–b; Baba Qamma 80b. Pesiqta Rabbatî 42.2.

90 Matthew 16:19. Or to shut the abyss: Revelation 9:1–2, 20:1–3.

91 Revelation 1:18. When Jesus says “I am the door” he implies this also.

92 Luke 11:52; Matthew 23:13. Their motive is at large. Part of a catena of complaint against religious societies. It imputes interested motives. For the original of these verses see Schulz, S., Q. Die Spruchquelle der Evangelisten (Zürich, 1972), pp. 110–14;Marshall, I. Howard, The Gospel of Luke (Exeter, 1978), pp. 506–7.

93 See Deuteronomy 31:2; Micah 2:13. John 10:1–2, 4, 9; cf. Numbers 27:17. Ashton, J., Understanding the Fourth Gospel (Oxford, 1991), p. 348.

94 Possibly based on Micah 2:13.

95 BṛĀU I.3, 10; cf. Manu III.158 (a bar which survived as recently as the predicament of Mahātmā Gandhi). C. Delia Casa at the Oscar Bono Volume (above, n. 1) at pp. 161–72.

96 Strabo, geogr. XV. 1, 68. Philo, quod omnis, XIV (§§92–7) (Loeb edn., Philo, ix, pp. 62–6). Der Kleine Pauly, iii, coll. 53–4.

97 Manu III.I56;IV.99;X.4, 127.

98 Strabo, geogr. XV.1, 73. Rawlinson, H. G., “Early contacts between India and Europe”, in A Cultural History of India, ed. Basham, A. L. (Oxford, 1975), pp. 425–41 at p. 433.

99 Rawlinson renders , as Skt. śramanācārya (“teacher of renunciates”). See line 16 of Aśoka's inscription at Kandahar (Benveniste, n. 70 above, at p. 152): .

100 On the Buddha's use of Upanishadic learning see Schumann, H. W., The Historical Buddha (London, 1989), PP. 35–7, 75, 137, 144. At p. 49 he speaks of the Buddha's adopting Upanishadic philosophy “partly unchanged and party in antithetic reversal”. Gombrich, R., Theravada Buddhism (London and New York, 1988), p. 74; id., How Buddhism Began (n. 33 above), pp. 31, 48–9, 59, 61–4, 80–1. See above, n. 34. On sacrificial fires see Ariguttura-nikāya IV.41–5. The relation of early Buddhism to the Upaniṣads was suspected long ago: Müller, F. Max at SBE, XV, p. lii;Oldenberg, H., Die Lehre der Upanishaden und die Anfange des Buddhismus (Göttingen, 1915);Sharma, A. K., “The relation between Buddha and the Upanishads”, The Monist, XXXVIII (1928), pp. 443–77.

101 R. Gombrich, “The Buddhist attitude to thaumaturgy”, in Bauddhavidyāsudhākaraḥ (FS Heinz Bechert), ed. P. Kieffer-Pülz and J. U. Hartmann (Swisttal-Odendorf, 1997), pp. 165–84 at p. 169. For Aśoka see Bloch, J., Les inscriptions d'Asoka (Paris, 1950);Schneider, U., Die grossen Felsen-Edikte Asokas (Wiesbaden, 1978); Beneviste (n. 70 above). For reservations on the geography see J. de Menasce, “A propos d'une inscription araméenne d'Asoka”, Israel Oriental Studies, II (1972), pp. 290–2.Lingat, R., Royautés (Paris, 1989), Chh. 1–2.

102 Strabo, , geogr. II.5, 12. Egyptians reprehended Indian ethics: Philostratus, Vita Apollonii 8.7. Derrett, J. D. M., “Jewish Brahmins”, Classica et Mediaevalia, XXXIV (1983), pp. 7590.

103 Note Herodotus, Hist. II.41–2 (male kine, goats or sheep).

104 The temple at Leontopolis was founded 167–164 BC and lasted until AD 73/4. See Josephus, ant. 13.64–8, 70–1; id., Bell. Jud. 7.426–30. Modrzejewski, J. M., The Jews of Egypt from Rameses II to the Emperor Hadrian (Edinburgh, 1995), pp. xx, 95, 123, 124–9 (the French original appeared in 1992). Schürer (n. 61 sup.), p. 145.

105 Cf. Schopenhauer, A., Die Welt als Wille und Vorstellung (Leipzig, 1819, 3rd edn. 1859), ii, ch.41 (gratia R.May).

106 Rawlinson, “Early contacts”, at pp. 433, 434–5. Artemidorus (Polybius, hist. 34.13).

107 Robert, L., “Des Delphes à l'Oxus”, CRAI, 1968, p. 416.Fox, R. Lane, Alexander the Great (Harmonds-worth, 1986), p. 559.Kuhrt, A. and Sherwin-White, S., Hellenism in the East (London, 1987).

108 Seneca (AD 35–50), ad Helviam de consolatione vii.i quid inter Indos Persasque Macedonicus sermo? 2 Atheniensis in Asia turba est. Plutarch, Mor. 328C.

109 Every find revises history. Michiner, M., Indo-Greek and Indo-Scythian Coinage (London, 1976–7);Errington, E. and Cribb, J., edd., The Crossroads of Asia (Cambridge, 1992);Bopearachchi, O., Indo-Greek, Indo-Scythian and Indo-Parthian Coins in the Smithsonian Institution (Washington DC, 1993);Bopearachchi, O. and Rahman, Aman ur, Pre-Kushana Coins in Pakistan (Karachi, 1995);Smith, R. Morton, Kings and Coins in India. Greek and Śaka Self-advertisement (New Delhi, 1997). Indo-Greek coins present not less than 250 individual “monograms”, which may eventually identify the mints, or perhaps dies. They seem to have a geographical significance. But they testify to a great wealth of coinage. I am obliged to Drs Gillian Evison, Elizabeth Errington and Henry S. Kim.

110 The Third Sermon (Vinaya 1.34–5) at Gombrich (1996) (see n. 34 above).

111 See above, n. 72.

112 Rahner, Hugo, Greek Myths and Christian Mystery (London, 1963), p. 16.

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