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The Mongol Empire – the first ‘gunpowder empire’?

  • STEPHEN G. HAW (a1)
Abstract
Abstract

This article uses Chinese sources to argue that a range of gunpowder weapons was already in use in China during the late tenth and early eleventh centuries, earlier than previously thought. ‘True firearms’, that is cannon or guns firing solid projectiles, had quite probably been developed by at least as early as 1200 ce.

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This bibliography is in two main sections, the first further subdivided into two. This first section includes all those works consulted that are written in Chinese. It gives the Chinese characters of names of authors and editors, titles and publishers. In accordance with common usage, pre-modern works (written in Classical Chinese) are listed separately from modern Chinese works. The former are cited in the references by abbreviations derived from their titles. The date given in parenthesis after the author's name is that of first completion of the text. The date of publication of the edition consulted is given at the end of the citation. In a number of cases, more than one edition of the same work has been consulted. This has been noted only when it seemed useful to do so. Names of Chinese authors of modern works in Chinese are cited in full in the references. Those writing in English are cited by initials and surname only. The second section of this bibliography lists works in European and other languages.

BZJ: Rong Yang 楊榮 (1424) Bei Zheng Ji 北征記, in Xu Xiu Si Ku Quan Shu 續修四庫全書, vol. 433, Shanghai 上海: Guji Chubanshe 古籍出版社, n.d.
BZL: Youzi Jin 金幼孜 (1410–14) Jin Wenjing Gong Bei Zheng Lu 金文靖公北征録, in Xu Xiu Si Ku Quan Shu 續修四庫全書, vol. 433, Shanghai 上海: Guji Chubanshe 古籍出版社, n.d.
CHTB: Ruozeng Zheng 鄭若曾 (1562) Chou Hai Tu Bian 籌海圖编, Beijing 北京: Zhonghua Shuju 中華書局, 2007.
CZJ: Wanli Yang 楊萬里 (c. 1200) Cheng Zhai Ji 誠齋記, in SKQS, CD 411, book no. 4369.
DSL: Shu Tang 湯璹 (c. 1187) De'an shou yu lu德安守禦録, appended to Chen Gui 陳規, Shou Cheng Lu 守城録, in SKQS, CD 304, book no. 3125.
JJZ: Yinghe Zhou周應合 (c. 1264) Jingding Jiankang Zhi 景定建康志, in Song Yuan Fangzhi Congkan 宋元方志叢刊, vol. 2, Beijing 北京: Zhonghua Shuju 中華書局, 1990; also in SKQS, CD 226, book no. 2287.
JS: tuo Tuo 脱脱 & Xuan Ouyang 歐陽玄 (c. 1345) Jin Shi 金史, 8 vols, Beijing 北京: Zhonghua Shuju 中華書局, 1975; and Zhonghua Lishi Wenku 中華歷史文庫 electronic edition on CD-Rom (based on the Bai Na Ben 百納本edition), Beijing: Yinguan Dianzi Chuban Youxian Gongsi 銀冠電子出版有限公司, n.d.
JZL: Gang Li 李網 (c. 1130) Jingkang Zhuan Xin Lu 靖康傳信録, in Liangxi Ji 梁溪集, 卷 172, in SKQS, CD 407, book no. 4243.
LXABJ: You Lu 陸游 (c. 1200) Lao Xue An Biji 老學庵筆記, Beijing 北京: Zhonghua Shuju中華書局, 1979.
MHL: Yuanlao Meng 孟元老 (c. 1147) Dongjing Meng Hua Lu Zhu 東京夢華錄注, annotated by Deng Zhicheng 鄧之誠, Hong Kong 香港: Shangwu Yinshuguan 商務印書館, 1961.
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QJJ: Yun Wang 王惲 (c. 1300) Qiu Jian Ji 秋澗集, in SKQS, CD 415, book no. 4561.
QSKS: Ruyu Zhang 章如愚 (c. 1200) Qun Shu Kao Suo 群書考索, 2 vols, Yangzhou 揚州: Guangling Shushe 廣陵書社, 2008; also in SKQS, CD 325, book no. 3672.
QTYS: Yiqing Liu 劉一清 (c. 1300?) Qiantang Yi Shi 錢塘遗事, in SKQS, CD 218, book no. 2135; also in Zhongguo Ye Shi Jicheng 中國野史集成, vol. 10, facsimile of 1887 edition, Chengdu 成都: Ba Shu Shu She 巴蜀書社, 1993.
SKQS: Yun Ji 紀昀 & Xixiong Lu 陸錫熊 (eds) (n.d., originally completed in manuscript in 1782) Wen Yuan Ge Si Ku Quan Shu 文渊閣四庫全書, facsimile electronic edition on CD-ROM, Wuhan: Wuhan Daxue Chubanshe 武漢大學出版社, n.d.
SS: tuo Tuo 脱脱 & Xuan Ouyang 歐陽玄 (c. 1345) Song Shi 宋史, 40 vols, Beijiing 北京: Zhonghua Shuju 中華書局, 1977; and Zhonghua Lishi Wenku 中華歷史文庫 electronic edition on CD-Rom (based on the Bai Na Ben 百納本edition), Beijing: Yinguan Dianzi Chuban Youxian Gongsi 銀冠電子出版有限公司, n.d.
WJZY: Gongliang Zeng 曾公亮, Du Ding 丁度 et al. (eds) (c. 1044) Wu Jing Zong Yao 武經縂要, in SKQS, CD 304, book no. 3122; also in Zhongguo Bingshu Jicheng 中國兵書集成, vols 3–5, Beijing: Jiefangjun Chubanshe 解放軍出版社, 1988.
XJXZ: [Author unknown] (c. 1230) Xing Jun Xu Zhi 行軍须知, in Zhongguo Bingshu Jicheng 中國兵書集成, vol. 5, Beijing: Jiefangjun Chubanshe 解放軍出版社, 1988.
XQL: Yuyu Zhao 趙與裕 (c. 1225) Xinsi Qi Qi Lu 辛巳泣蘄録, in Xu Xiu Si Ku Quan Shu 續修四庫全書, vol. 423, Shanghai 上海: Guji Chubanshe 古籍出版社, n.d.
YS: Lian Song 宋濂 et al. (c. 1370) Yuan Shi 元史, 15 vols, Beijing 北京: Zhonghua Shuju 中華書局, 1976; and Zhonghua Lishi Wenku 中華歷史文庫 electronic edition on CD-Rom (based on the Bai Na Ben 百納本 edition), Beijing: Yinguan Dianzi Chuban Youxian Gongsi 銀冠電子出版有限公司, n.d.
YWLJ: Wanli Yang 楊萬里, (2007) Yang Wanli Ji Jianjiao 楊萬里集箋校, ed. Xin Gengru 辛更儒, 10 vols, Beijing 北京: Zhonghua Shuju中華書局.
ZZX: Zhi Wang 王銍 (c. 1150) Za Zuan Xu 雜纂續, in Shuo Fu 説郛, 卷 76, in SKQS, CD 319, book no. 3637.
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