This article uses Chinese sources to argue that a range of gunpowder weapons was already in use in China during the late tenth and early eleventh centuries, earlier than previously thought. ‘True firearms’, that is cannon or guns firing solid projectiles, had quite probably been developed by at least as early as 1200 ce.
This bibliography is in two main sections, the first further subdivided into two. This first section includes all those works consulted that are written in Chinese. It gives the Chinese characters of names of authors and editors, titles and publishers. In accordance with common usage, pre-modern works (written in Classical Chinese) are listed separately from modern Chinese works. The former are cited in the references by abbreviations derived from their titles. The date given in parenthesis after the author's name is that of first completion of the text. The date of publication of the edition consulted is given at the end of the citation. In a number of cases, more than one edition of the same work has been consulted. This has been noted only when it seemed useful to do so. Names of Chinese authors of modern works in Chinese are cited in full in the references. Those writing in English are cited by initials and surname only. The second section of this bibliography lists works in European and other languages.
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