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A Delay Is Better. By Pamela Z. Starkland CDST-213, 2004.

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1 This career description is posted at

2 Yolande Harris, “Inside-Out Instrument,” Contemporary Music Review 25/1–2 (February–April 2006): 161–62. To be sure, Harris views this fragmentation as conducive to creating a more democratic and participatory performance environment: “Now the body inhabits and navigates through this instrument instead of holding it, the sound and tangibility of the sound comes from the outside rather than generated from inside the body, and the audience spectator no longer has the focal point of body-instrument-sound, but explores as one of the players” (161).

3 Audio examples of Z's voice-over work are posted at

4 For a detailed analysis of Z's work, see George E. Lewis, “The Virtual Discourses of Pamela Z,” Journal of the Society for American Music 1/1 (February 2007): 57–77.

5 Pauline Oliveros, “Tripping on Wires: The Wireless Body: Who is Improvising?” Critical Studies in Improvisation/Études critiques en improvisation 1/1 (2004),

6 Pamela Z, “A Tool Is a Tool,” in Women, Art, and Technology, ed. Judy Malloy, 348–61 (Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press, 2003), posted at

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Journal of the Society for American Music
  • ISSN: 1752-1963
  • EISSN: 1752-1971
  • URL: /core/journals/journal-of-the-society-for-american-music
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