Skip to main content
×
×
Home

Transatlantic Contrafacta, Musical Formats, and the Creation of Political Culture in Revolutionary America

  • GLENDA GOODMAN
Abstract

This article investigates Revolutionary-era American political culture through contrafacta of the British anthem “God Save the King.” Before, during, and after the Revolution the tune was frequently set with new lyrics that addressed political topics. The formats through which the song circulated (it was disseminated widely in manuscript and print), shaped the meaning and reception of these various contrafacta. Tracking “God Save the King” through the eighteenth century reveals how the United States remained connected to Britain, even when the lyrics—and the goals of the Revolution—repudiated that bond. Song versions also provide a musical map of the fragmenting political landscape of the early Republic. Ultimately, the diversity of the formats and the song versions reveal the ambivalent relationship between postcolonial United States and Britain, as well as the diversity of political culture within the United States.

Copyright
References
Hide All
Gansevoort, Peter. Jr. “Musick Book, 1778,” Gansevoort–Lansing collection, MssCol 1109, Box 28. Manuscripts and Archives Division. New York Public Library.
Kendal, Joseph. MUS MS 4. Watkinson Library. Trinity College. Hartford, CT.
Nixon, Thomas. Manuscript, 1776–78. Framingham Historical Society, MA.
Van Rensselaer, Elizabeth Sanders. MUS MS 8. Watkinson Library. Trinity College.
A Tory Medley, ” Francis Hopkinson. Philadelphia?, 1780?.
“Ein Lied gegen das unrechte Verfahren des Königs, gegen America. Nach der Weis, Ich kann recht sorglos leben.” Philadelphia?: Printed by John Henry Miller?, 1775?.
Hopkinson, Francis. Account of the Grand Federal Procession. Philadelphia, 1788.
The Psalm Singers Help, being a Collection of Tunes in three parts, that are now us'd in the several dissenting congregations in London. London: Thos. Knibb, 1760.
A Selection of Sacred Harmony. Philadelphia: Andrew Adgate, 1788.
Lyons, James. Urania: or A Choice Collection of Psalm-Tunes, Anthems, and Hymns. Philadelphia: Printed by William Bradford?, 1761.
The American Songster : Being a Select Collection of the Most Celebrated American, English, Scotch and Irish Songs. New York: Printed for Samuel Campbell and Thomas Allen, 1788.
The American Songster . Baltimore, pub. by Warner & Hanna, 1799 and 1800.
Collection of Two Hundred Favourite Country Dances . Vol. 4. London: John Johnson, 1748.
The Columbian Songster , or Jovial companion. New York: Greenleaf's Press, 1797.
The Columbian Songster : Being a Large Collection of Fashionable Songs, for Gentlemen and Ladies; In a Series of Numbers. Wrentham, MA: Nathaniel Heaton, jun., 1799.
The Echo : or, Federal Songster; Being a Large Collection of the Most Celebrated, Modern Poetical Writings, of Different Authors. Brookfield, MA: Press of E. Merriam, 1798.
Harmonia Anglicana : A collection of two, three, and four part songs; several of them never before printed; To which are added some Choice Dialogues, set to music by the most eminent masters. . .. London: John Simpson, [1744?].
The Patriotic Medley . New York: Jacob Johnkin, 1800.
The Philadelphia Songster . Philadelphia: [Andrew Adgate], 1789.
The Sky Lark : or Gentlemen and Ladies’ Complete Songster; Being the Largest Collection of the Most Modern and Celebrated American, English and Scotch Songs Ever Yet Published. 2d. ed. Worcester, MA: Isaiah Thomas, Jr., 1797.
Songs Naval and Military . New York: James Rivington, 1779.
The Albany Register
American Recorder, and the Charlestown Advertiser
Boston Gazette
Commercial Advertiser (New York)
Daily Advertiser (London)
Essex Journal
The Federal Gazette, and Philadelphia Evening Post
The Gazette of the United States (Philadelphia)
Gentleman's Magazine: or, Trader's monthly intelligencer (London)
Independent Gazette (Philadelphia)
Independent Gazetteer (Philadelphia)
The Mail; or, ClayPoole's Daily Advertiser (Philadelphia)
New Hampshire Gazette
New-Jersey Journal
Newport Herald
The New-York Journal, & Patriotic Register
New-York Journal, and Weekly Register
Pennsylvania Packet
Philadelphia Aurora
Philadelphia Gazette Philadelphia Minerva
The Providence Gazette And Country Journal
The Spectator (New York)
Worcester Intelligencer
Albanese, Catherine L. Sons of the Fathers: The Civil Religion of the American Revolution. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1976.
Anderson, Benedict. Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism. New York: Verso, 2006 [1983].
Appleby, Joyce. Capitalism and a New Social Order: The Republican Vision of the 1790s. New York: New York University Press, 1984.
Bechtold, Rebeccah. “A Revolutionary Soundscape: Musical Reform and the Science of Sound in Early America, 1760–1840.” Journal of the Early Republic 35, no. 3 (Fall 2015): 419–50.
Bhabha, Homi K. The Location of Culture. New York: Routledge, 1994.
Branham, Robert James. “‘Of Thee I Sing’: Contesting ‘America.’American Quarterly 48, no. 4 (December 1996): 623–52.
Branham, Robert James. “‘God Save the—!’: American National Songs and National Identities, 1760–1798.” Quarterly Journal of Speech 85, no. 1 (1999): 1737.
Branson, Susan. These Fiery Frenchified Dames: Women and Political Culture in Early National Philadelphia. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2001.
Breen, T. H.Ideology and Nationalism on the Eve of the American Revolution: Revisions Once More in Need of Revising.” Journal of American History 84, no. 1 (June 1997): 1339.
Breen, T. H. The Marketplace of Revolution: How Consumer Politics Shaped American Independence. New York: Oxford University Press, 2004.
Britton, Allen Perdue, Lowens, Irving, and Crawford, Richard. American Sacred Music Imprints 1698–1810: A Bibliography. Worcester, MA: American Antiquarian Society, 1990.
Brooke, John L.Consent, Civil Society, and the Public Sphere in the Age of Revolution and the Early Republic.” In Beyond the Founders: New Approaches to the Political History of the Early American Republic, edited by Pasley, Jeffrey L., Robertson, Andrew W., and Waldstreicher, David, 207–50. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2004.
Brooks, Jeanice. “Musical Monuments for the Country House: Music, Collection, and Display at Tatton Park.” Music and Letters 91, no. 4 (November 2010), 513–35.
Bushman, Richard L. The Refinement of America: Persons, Houses, Cities. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1992.
Byrd, Jodi A. The Transit of Empire: Indigenous Critiques of Colonialism. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2011.
Camus, Raoul F.The Inspector of Music Meets the French.” Journal of the Society for American Music 8, no. 4 (November 2014): 479500.
Chatterjee, Partha. The Nation and its Fragments: Colonial and Postcolonial Histories. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1993.
Coleman, William. “‘The Music of a Well Tun'd State’: ‘The Star Spangled Banner’ and the Development of a Federalist Musical Tradition.” Journal of the Early Republic 35, no. 1 (Winter 2015): 599629.
Colley, Linda. Britons: Forging the Nation, 1707–1837. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1992.
Crawford, Richard. The American Musical Landscape: The Business of Musicianship from Billings to Gershwin. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993.
Darnton, Robert. Poetry and Police: Communication Networks in Eighteenth-Century Paris. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2010.
Franklin, Alexandra. “Making Sense of Broadside Ballad Illustrations in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries.” In Studies in Ephemera: Text and Image in Eighteenth-Century Print, edited by Murphy, Kevin D. and O'Driscoll, Sally, 169–94. Lewisburg, PA: Bucknell University Press, 2013.
Daughtry, J. Martin. “Russia's New Anthem and the Negotiation of National Identity.” Ethnomusicology 47, no. 1 (Winter 2003): 4267.
Dillon, Elizabeth Maddock. New World Drama: The Performative Commons in the Atlantic World, 1649–1849. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2014.
Elkins, Stanley, and McKitrick, Eric. The Age of Federalism: The Early American Republic, 1788–1800. New York: Oxford University Press, 1993.
Gaskell, Philip. A New Introduction to Bibliography. New York: Oxford University Press, 1972.
Gelbart, Matthew. The Invention of “Folk Music” and “Art Music”: Emerging Categories from Ossian to Wagner. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2007.
Gitelman, Lisa. Always Already New: Media, History, and the Data of Culture. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2006.
Gitelman, Lisa. Paper Knowledge: Toward a Media History of Documents. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2014.
Goodman, Glenda. “’The Tears I Shed at the Songs of Thy Church’: Seventeenth-Century Musical Piety in the English Atlantic World.” Journal of the American Musicological Society 65, no. 3 (Fall 2012): 691726.
Goodman, Glenda. “Musical Sleuthing in Early America: ‘Derry Down’ and the XYZ Affair.” Common-Place, Special Issue on Music, 13, no. 2 (Winter 2013), online.
Habermas, Jürgen. The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere: An Inquiry into a Category of Bourgeois Society. Translated by Burger, Thomas and Lawrence, Frederick. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1989.
Hall, David D., ed. A History of the Book in America. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2007–10.
Jackson, Donald, and Twohig, Dorothy, eds. The Diaries of George Washington. Vol. 5. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 1979.
Julian, John. A Dictionary of Hymnology. Vol. 1, 1907. New York: Dover, 1978.
Keller, Kate Van Winkle. Popular Secular Music in America Through 1800: A Preliminary Checklist of Manuscripts in North American Collections. Philadelphia: Music Library Association, 1981.
Keller, Kate Van Winkle. Printers of Ballads, Books, and Newspapers: Biographical Notes and Checklists for Nathaniel Coverly, Sr., Nathaniel Coverly, Jr., and Joseph White. Worcester, MA: American Antiquarian Society, 2008.
Keller, Robert M., Camus, Raoul F., Van Winkle Keller, Kate, and Cifaldi, Susan, comp. Early American Secular Music and its European Sources, 1589–1839: An Index. Annapolis, MD, 2002, CD-ROM.
Kidd, Thomas S. The Great Awakening: The Roots of Evangelical Christianity in Colonial America. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2007.
Krummel, Donald W.God Save the King.” Musical Times 103, no. 1429 (March 1962), 159–60.
Lawrence, Vera Brodsky. Music for Patriots, Politicians and Presidents. New York: Macmillan, 1975.
Looby, Christopher, et al.Forum: Alternative Histories of the Public Sphere.” William and Mary Quarterly, 3rd ser., 62, no. 1 (January 2005): 3112.
Lowance, Mason I. and Barnhill, Georgia B., eds. Massachusetts Broadsides of the American Revolution. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1976.
Lowe, Lisa. The Intimacies of Four Continents. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2015.
Lowens, Irving. A Bibliography of Songsters Printed in America Before 1821. Worcester, MA: American Antiquarian Society, 1976.
Mason, Laura. Singing the French Revolution: Popular Culture and Politics, 1787–1799. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1996.
McClintock, Anne. “The Angel of Progress: Pitfalls in the Term ‘Post-Colonialism.’Social Text 31–32, Third World and Post-Colonial Issues (1992): 8498.
McKenzie, D. F. Bibliography and the Sociology of Texts. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1984.
McLuhan, Marshall. Understanding Media: The Extensions of Man. New York: McGraw Hill, 1964.
Nathans, Heather. Early American Theatre from the Revolution to Thomas Jefferson: Into the Hands of the People. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2003.
Newman, Simon. “Principles or Men? George Washington and the Political Culture of National Leadership, 1776–1801.” Journal of the Early Republic 12, no. 4 (Winter 1992): 477507.
Newman, Simon. Parades and the Politics of the Street: Festive Culture in the Early American Republic. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1997.
Pasley, Jeffrey L.The Tyranny of Printers”: Newspaper Politics in the Early American Republic. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 2001.
Porter, Susan. “English-American Interaction in American Musical Theater at the Turn of the Nineteenth Century.” American Music 4, no. 1 (Spring 1986): 619.
Potter, Dorothy T. Food for Apollo: Cultivated Music in Antebellum Philadelphia. Bethlehem, PA: Lehigh University Press, 2011.
Ramsey, Guthrie P.Cosmopolitan or Provincial? Ideology in Early Black Music Historiography, 1867–1940.Black Music Research Journal 16, no. 1 (Spring 1996): 1142.
Riordan, Liam. “‘O Dear, What Can the Matter Be?’: The Urban Early Republic and the Politics of Popular Song in Benjamin Carr's Federal Overture .” Journal of the Early Republic 31, no. 2 (Summer 2011): 179227.
Robin, William. “Traveling with ‘Ancient Music’: Intellectual and Transatlantic Currents in American Psalmody Reform.” Journal of Musicology 32, no. 2 (Spring 2015): 246–78.
St. George, Robert Blair, ed. Possible Pasts: Becoming Colonial in Early America. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2000.
Scholes, Percy A. God Save the Queen!: The History and Romance of the World's First National Anthem. New York: Oxford University Press, 1954.
Shadle, Douglas. “How Santa Claus became a Slave Driver: The Work of Print Culture in a Nineteenth-Century Musical Controversy.” Journal of the Society for American Music 8, no. 4 (November 2014): 501–37.
Shields, David S. Civil Tongues and Polite Letters in British America. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1997.
Simpson, Claude. The British Broadside Ballad and Its Music. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1966.
Squire, W. Barclay. Catalogue of Printed Music Published between 1487 and 1800 Now in the British Museum. Vol. 2. London, 1912.
Sonneck, Oscar G. T. Early Concert-Life in America (1731–1800). 1907; Reprinted, New York: Da Capo, 1978.
Sonneck, Oscar G. T. A Bibliography of Early Secular Music, 18th Century. Edited by Treat Upton, William. New York: Da Capo, 1964.
Sterne, Jonathan. MP3: The Meaning of a Format. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2012.
Tanselle, G. Thomas. Bibliographical Analysis: A Historical Introduction. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2009.
Tilly, Charles. Contentious Performances. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2008.
Travers, Len. Celebrating the Fourth: Independence Day and the Rites of Nationalism in the Early Republic. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1997.
Turino, Thomas. Nationalists, Cosmopolitans, and Popular Music in Zimbabwe. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2000.
Van Orden, Kate. “Sexual Discourse in the Parisian Chanson: A Libidinous Aviary.” Journal of the American Musicological Society 48, no. 1 (Spring 1995): 141.
Van Orden, Kate, ed. Music and the Cultures of Print. New York: Garland, 2000.
Waldstreicher, David. In the Midst of Perpetual Fetes: The Making of American Nationalism, 1776–1820. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina for the Omohundro Institute, 1997.
Warner, Michael. Letters of the Republic: Publication and the Public Sphere in Eighteenth-Century America. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1990.
Wilentz, Sean. Chants Democratic: New York and the Rise of the American Working Class, 1788–1850. New York: Oxford University Press, 1984.
Wolfe, Richard. Early American Music Engraving and Printing: A History of Music Publishing in America from 1787 to 1825 with Commentary on Earlier and Later Practices. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1980.
Wood, Gordon S. Empire of Liberty: A History of the Early Republic, 1789–1815. New York: Oxford University Press, 2009.
Wood, Kirsten E.‘Join with Heart and Soul and Voice’: Music, Harmony, and Politics in the Early American Republic.” American Historical Review 119, no. 4 (October 2014): 10831116.
Yokota, Kariann Akemi. Unbecoming British: How Revolutionary America Became a Postcolonial Nation. New York: Oxford University Press, 2011.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Journal of the Society for American Music
  • ISSN: 1752-1963
  • EISSN: 1752-1971
  • URL: /core/journals/journal-of-the-society-for-american-music
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed