Mangrove trees are not immune to herbivory. They are affected mainly by folivores, which may influence litter production and nutrient cycling within the system (Choudhury 1988). The amount of leaf material lost to herbivory is also related to the characteristics of the trees and local environmental conditions (Feller 1995), which result in widely varying rates of leaf consumption (Anderson & Lee 1995). According to Cannicci et al. (2008), the true ecological role played by insect herbivores is not simply the amount of plant material lost to herbivory, but also involves effects at the scale of whole plant performance and ecosystem functioning. Thus, the activities of insect herbivores may also be viewed as a positive impact on mangroves, influencing, for example, energy transfer in the system.
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