Skip to main content
×
×
Home

Frugivory and seed dispersal of woody species by the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) in a mid-elevation tropical evergreen forest in India

  • P. S. Jothish (a1)
Abstract:

Frugivory and seed dispersal by the Asian elephant, Elephas maximus, in a mid-elevation tropical evergreen forest in India was studied by dung analysis and conducting seed germination trials on ingested and control seeds. A total of 384 dung piles were observed during the period February 2007 to December 2008. Fruits/seeds and seedlings of 27 woody species were observed from the dung piles. Seed germination experiments showed that seeds from dung were viable and germination time of ingested seeds was significantly lower than that of control seeds. It was observed that 43.6% of the seedlings in the dung piles established as saplings. The study suggests that the Asian elephant is a legitimate seed disperser in tropical forests in its range.

Copyright
Corresponding author
1Email: jothishtbgri@gmail.com
References
Hide All
ALEXANDRE, D. Y. 1978. Dispersal of seeds by elephants in Tai forest, Ivory-Coast. Revue d'Ecologie – la Terre et la Vie 32:4772.
BASHA, C. S. 1999. Forest types of Silent Valley. Pp. 109116 in Manoharan, T. M., Biju, S. D., Nayar, T. S. & Easa, P. S. (eds.). Silent Valley whispers of reason. Kerala Forest Department, Thiruvananthapuram.
BLAKE, S., DEEM, S. L., MOSSIMBO, E., MAISELS, F. & WALSH, P. 2009. Forest elephants: tree planters of the Congo. Biotropica 41:459468.
CAMPOS-ARCEIZ, A. & BLAKE, S. 2011. Megagardeners of the forest – the role of elephants in seed dispersal. Acta Oecologica 37:542553.
CHEN, J., DENG, X., ZHANG, L. & BAI, Z. 2006. Diet composition and foraging ecology of Asian elephants in Shangyong, Xishuangbanna, China. Acta Ecologica Sinica 26:309316.
DUDLEY, J. P. 2000. Seed dispersal by elephants in semiarid woodland habitats of Hwange National Park, Zimbabwe. Biotropica 32:556561.
GAUTIER-HION, A., DUPLANTIER, J. M., QURIS, R., FEER, F., SOURD, C., DECOUX, J. P., DUBOST, G., EMMONS, L., ERARD, C., HECKETSWEILER, P., MOUNGAZI, A., ROUSSILHON, C. & THIOLLAY, J. M. 1985. Fruit characteristics as a basis of fruit choice and seed dispersal in a tropical forest vertebrate community. Oecologia 65:324337.
KITAMURA, S., YUMOTO, T., POONSWAD, P. & WOHANDEE, P. 2007. Frugivory and seed dispersal by Asian elephants, Elephas maximus, in a moist evergreen forest of Thailand. Journal of Tropical Ecology 23:373376.
LIEBERMAN, D., LIEBERMAN, M. & MARTIN, C. 1987. Notes on seeds in elephant dung from Bia National Park, Ghana. Biotropica 19:365369.
MANILAL, K. S. 1988. Flora of Silent Valley tropical rain forest of India. Department of Science & Technology, Government of India. 398 pp.
NCHANJI, A. C. & PLUMPTRE, A. J. 2003. Seed germination and early seedling establishment of some elephant-dispersed species in Banyang-Mbo Wildlife Sanctuary, south-western Cameroon. Journal of Tropical Ecology 19:229237.
PASCAL, J. P. 1988. Wet evergreen forests of the Western Ghats of India: ecology, structure, floristic composition and succession. Travaux de la Section Scientifique et Technique, French Institute, Pondicherry. 345 pp.
SAMANSIRI, K. A. P. & WEERAKOON, D. K. 2008. A study on the seed dispersal capability of Asian elephants in the northwestern region of Sri Lanka. Gajah 28:1924.
SHORT, J. 1981. Diet and feeding-behavior of the forest elephant. Mammalia 45:177185.
SIVASUBRAMANIYAN, G. & SIVAGANESAN, N. 1996. Role of elephants in Sujalkuttai–Bannari corridor in Sathyamangalam Forest Division, TamilNadu, Southern India. Gajah 15:927.
SUKUMAR, R. 1990. Ecology of the Asian elephant in southern India 2. Feeding-habits and crop raiding patterns. Journal of Tropical Ecology 6:3353.
SUKUMAR, R. & EASA, P. S. 2006. Elephant conservation in South India: issues and recommendations. Gajah 25:7186.
THEUERKAUF, J., WAITKUWAIT, W. E., GUIRO, Y., ELLENBERG, H. & POREMBSKI, S. 2000. Diet of forest elephants and their role in seed dispersal in the Bossematie forest reserve, Ivory Coast. Mammalia 64:447459.
VINOD, T. R. & CHEERAN, J. V. 2000. Seed dispersal by Asian elephants (Elephas maximus L.) in Idukki Wildlife Sanctuary, Kerala, South India. Tigerpaper 27:3032.
VOYSEY, B. C., McDONALD, K. E., ROGERS, M. E., TUTIN, C. E. G. & PARNELL, R. J. 1999. Gorillas and seed dispersal in the Lope Reserve, Gabon. II: survival and growth of seedlings. Journal of Tropical Ecology 15:3960.
YUMOTO, T., MARUHASHI, T., YAMAGIWA, J. & MWANZA, N. 1995. Seed-dispersal by elephants in a tropical rain forest in Kahuzi–Biega National Park, Zaire. Biotropica 27:526530.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Journal of Tropical Ecology
  • ISSN: 0266-4674
  • EISSN: 1469-7831
  • URL: /core/journals/journal-of-tropical-ecology
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 2
Total number of PDF views: 27 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 204 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 19th July 2018. This data will be updated every 24 hours.