Piiroinen, Tiina Valtonen, Anu and Roininen, Heikki 2017. Vertebrate herbivores are the main cause of seedling mortality in a logged African rainforest-implications for forest restoration. Restoration Ecology, Vol. 25, Issue. 3, p. 442.
Yang, Yuguo Geng, Yuqing Zhou, Hongjuan Zhao, Guangliang and Wang, Ling 2017. Effects of gaps in the forest canopy on soil microbial communities and enzyme activity in a Chinese pine forest. Pedobiologia, Vol. 61, p. 51.
Wallace, K. J. Laughlin, Daniel C. and Clarkson, Bruce D. 2017. Exotic weeds and fluctuating microclimate can constrain native plant regeneration in urban forest restoration. Ecological Applications, Vol. 27, Issue. 4, p. 1268.
Xing, Shuang Bonebrake, Timothy C. Tang, Chin Cheung Pickett, Evan J. Cheng, Wenda Greenspan, Sasha E. Williams, Stephen E. and Scheffers, Brett R. 2016. Cool habitats support darker and bigger butterflies in Australian tropical forests. Ecology and Evolution, Vol. 6, Issue. 22, p. 8062.
Dechnik-Vázquez, Yanus A. Meave, Jorge A. Pérez-García, Eduardo A. Gallardo-Cruz, José A. and Romero-Romero, Marco Antonio 2016. The effect of treefall gaps on the understorey structure and composition of the tropical dry forest of Nizanda, Oaxaca, Mexico: implications for forest regeneration. Journal of Tropical Ecology, Vol. 32, Issue. 02, p. 89.
Bellingham, Peter J. Richardson, Sarah J. Mason, Norman W.H. Veltman, Clare J. Allen, Robert B. Allen, Will J. Barker, Richard J. Forsyth, David M. Nicol, Simon J. and Ramsey, David S.L. 2016. Introduced deer at low densities do not inhibit the regeneration of a dominant tree. Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 364, p. 70.
Negrelle, Raquel Rejane Bonato and Veiga, Fábio Hiratsuka 2015. Dinâmica de regeneração de Merostachys skvortzovii Send. em remanescente de Floresta com Araucaria. Ciência Rural, Vol. 45, Issue. 7, p. 1198.
Peres, Marcelo Cesar Lima Benati, Kátia Regina de Andrade, Alessandra Rodrigues S. Guimarães, Marcos Vinicius Alvim da Silva Melo, Tércio Brescovit, Antonio Domingo and Delabie, Jacques Hubert Charles 2014. Tree-Fall Gaps Effects on Spider (Araneae) Assemblages in an Atlantic Forest Landscape in Northeastern Brazil. Open Journal of Animal Sciences, Vol. 04, Issue. 03, p. 118.
Muscolo, Adele Bagnato, Silvio Sidari, Maria and Mercurio, Roberto 2014. A review of the roles of forest canopy gaps. Journal of Forestry Research, Vol. 25, Issue. 4, p. 725.
Piiroinen, Tiina Nyeko, Philip and Roininen, Heikki 2014. Canopy openness in gaps determines the influence of herbaceous climbers and insect folivory on the survival of a tropical pioneer tree,Neoboutonia macrocalyxPax. African Journal of Ecology, Vol. 52, Issue. 1, p. 41.
Toledo-Aceves, Tarin Mehltreter, Klaus García-Franco, José G. Hernández-Rojas, Adriana and Sosa, Vinicio J. 2013. Benefits and costs of epiphyte management in shade coffee plantations. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, Vol. 181, p. 149.
Forsthofer, Mônica Marimon, Beatriz Schwantes Abreu, Mariângela Fernandes Oliveira-Santos, Claudinei Morandi, Paulo Sérgio and Marimon-Junior, Ben Hur 2013. Monodominância arbórea e diversidade de samambaias em florestas da transição Cerrado-Floresta Amazônica, Brasil. Rodriguésia, Vol. 64, Issue. 2, p. 349.
Escandón, Antonio B. Paula, Susana Rojas, Roke Corcuera, Luis J. and Coopman, Rafael E. 2013. Sprouting extends the regeneration niche in temperate rain forests: The case of the long-lived tree Eucryphia cordifolia. Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 310, p. 321.
Lee, Soon Leong Chua, Lillian S. L. Ng, Kevin K. S. Hamidah, Mamat Lee, Chai Ting Ng, Chin Hong Tnah, Lee Hong and Hong, Lay Thong 2013. Conservation management of rare and predominantly selfing tropical trees: an example using Hopea bilitonensis (Dipterocarpaceae). Biodiversity and Conservation, Vol. 22, Issue. 13-14, p. 2989.
Rabelo, Guilherme R. Vitória, Ângela P. da Silva, Marcos V. A. Cruz, Ricardo A. Pinho, Elis I. B. Ribeiro, Douglas R. Freitas, Anita V. and Da Cunha, Maura 2013. Structural and ecophysiological adaptations to forest gaps. Trees, Vol. 27, Issue. 1, p. 259.
Lima, Thaís Almeida and Vieira, Gil 2013. High plant species richness in monospecific tree plantations in the Central Amazon. Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 295, p. 77.
de Lima, Renato Augusto F. Prado, Paulo Inácio Martini, Adriana Maria Z. Fonseca, Leandro J. Gandolfi, Sérgius Rodrigues, Ricardo R. and Güsewell, Sabine 2013. Improving methods in gap ecology: revisiting size and shape distributions using a model selection approach. Journal of Vegetation Science, Vol. 24, Issue. 3, p. 484.
MEYER, SEBASTIAN T. LEAL, INARA R. TABARELLI, MARCELO and WIRTH, RAINER 2011. Ecosystem engineering by leaf-cutting ants: nests of Atta cephalotes drastically alter forest structure and microclimate. Ecological Entomology, Vol. 36, Issue. 1, p. 14.
ASHTON, MARK S. GUNATILLEKE, C. V. SAVITRI GUNATILLEKE, I. A. U. NIMAL GRISCOM, HEATHER P. ASHTON, PETER S. and SINGHAKUMARA, BALANGODA M. P. 2011. The effect of shade on leaf structure and physiology of tree seedlings from a mixed dipterocarp forest. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, Vol. 167, Issue. 3, p. 332.
d’Oliveira, Marcus V.N. and Ribas, Luciano A. 2011. Forest regeneration in artificial gaps twelve years after canopy opening in Acre State Western Amazon. Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 261, Issue. 11, p. 1722.
Present theories of tropical rain forest regeneration dynamics suggest that different tree species specialize on the microclimates of different sizes of canopy gap. A detailed analysis of the microclimates of closed forest and 10 canopy gaps of different sizes was carried out in lowland dipterocarp rain forest, Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. It reveals that gaps exhibit considerable spatial and temporal variation in microclimate. As a consequence the relationship between microclimate and gap sizes is not simple. Gaps of the same size do not necessarily have the same microclimate and may favour the growth of different seedling species. Chance location and timing of gap creation play an important role in regeneration dynamics.
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