Skip to main content
×
×
Home

Phenology and flowering periodicity of Neotropical dry forest species: evidence from herbarium collections

  • Rolf Borchert (a1)
Abstract

To examine the potential contribution of herbarium material to the description and analysis of tropical tree phenology, flowering times and geographical distribution were graphed for 1673 flowering collections from 18 species native to Neotropical dry forests and phenological differences between species were analysed. These include the timing and duration of flowering as well as morphological differences such as flowering on leafless twigs vs flowering on shoots bearing old or new foliage. Species-specific flowering periods of herbarium collections are similar to those observed in phenological field studies, but are often longer because of the larger geographical and temporal sampling range. Conspecific collections of different geographical origin show distinct differences in flowering periodicity, which are correlated with differences in the timing and intensity of the dry season. Interspecific differences in the timing of phenology relative to the dry season indicate differences in the control of phenology by seasonal drought. Herbaria thus represent a large potential source of phenological information which can either supplement and extend phenological field studies or provide phenological information for dry forest species not studied in the field but well represented in herbarium collections.

Copyright
References
Hide All
Ashton, P. S., Givnish, T. J. & Appanah, S. 1988. Staggered flowering in the Dipterocarpaceae: new insights into floral induction and the evolution of mast fruiting in the aseasonal tropics. American Naturalist 132:4466.
Augspurger, C. K. 1982. A cue for synchronous flowering. Pp. 133150 in Leigh, E. H., Rand, A. S. & Windsor, D. W. (eds). The ecology of a tropical forest. Seasonal rhythms and long-term changes. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington.
Bawa, K. S. & Frankie, G. W. 1983. Cochlospermum vitifolium (Poro-poro, Cochlospermum, silk-tree, cotton tree). Pp. 215219 in Janzen, D. H. (ed.). Costa Rican natural history. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
Borchert, R. 1980. Phenology and ecophysiology of the tropical tree, Erythrina poeppigiana O.F. Cook. Ecology 61:10651074.
Borchert, R. 1986. Erythrina. Pp. 95107 in Halevy, A. H. (ed.). CRC handbook of flowering, Vol. V. CRC Press, Boca Raton.
Borchert, R. 1992. Computer simulation of tree growth periodicity and climatic hydroperiodicity in tropical forests. Biotropica 24:385395.
Borchert, R. 1994a. Water status and development of tropical trees during seasonal drought. Trees 8:115–15.
Borchert, R. 1994b. Site water availability and stem water storage determine water status, phenology and distribution of trees in a tropical dry forest in Costa Rica. Ecology 75:14371449.
Borchert, R. 1994c. Induction of rehydration and bud break by irrigation or rain in deciduous trees of a tropical dry forest in Costa Rica. Trees 8:198204.
Bullock, S. H. 1986. Observations and an experiment on synchronous flowering. Madroño 33:223226.
Bullock, S. H. & Solis-Magallanes, J. A. 1990. Phenology of canopy trees of a tropical deciduous forest in Mexico. Biotropica 22:2235.
Daubenmire, R. 1972. Phenology and other characteristics of tropical semi-deciduous forest in northwestern Costa Rica. Journal of Ecology 60:147170.
Frankie, G. W., Baker, H. G. & Opler, P. A. 1974. Comparative phenological studies of trees in tropical wet and dry forests in the lowlands of Costa Rica. Journal of Ecology 62:881919.
Gentry, A. S. 1992. Bignoniaceae Part II (Tribe Tecomae). Flora Neotropica Monograph 25. New York Botanical Garden, New York.
Haber, W. A. & Frankie, G. W. 1983. Luehea Candida (guacimo molenillo, molenillo). Pp. 269270 in Janzen, D. H. (ed.). Costa Rican natural history. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
Hartshorn, G. S. & Gentry, A. H. 1983. Anacardium exulsum (espavél, espavé, acajou). Pp. 189190 in Janzen, D. H. (ed.). Costa Rican natural history. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
Holbrook, N. M., Whitbeck, J. L. & Mooney, H. A. 1995. Drought responses of neotropical deciduous forest trees. In press. As Mooney, H. A., Medina, E. & Bullock, S. H. (eds). Neotropical deciduous forests. Academic Press, New York.
Irwin, H. S. & Barneby, R. C. 1982. The American Cassiinae. Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 35:1454.
Janzen, D. H. 1983a. Pithecellobium soman (cenizero, genizero, raintree). Pp. 305307 in Janzen, D. H. (ed.). Costan Rican natural history. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
Janzen, D. H. 1983b. Guazuma ulmifolia (guacimo, guacima, caulote, tapulco). Pp. 246248 in Janzen, D. H. (ed.). Costa Rican natural history. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
Janzen, D. H. & Liesner, R. 1980. Annotated check-list of lowland Guanacaste province, Costa Rica. Brenesia 18:1590.
Lieberman, D. 1982. Seasonality and phenology in a dry tropical forest in Ghana. Journal of Ecology 70:791806.
Monasterio, M. & Sarmiento, G. 1976. Phenological strategies of plant species in the tropical savanna and the semi-deciduous forest of the Venezuelan llanos. Journal of Biogeography 3:325356.
Mooney, H. A., Medina, E. & Bullock, S. H. (eds). 1995. Neotropical deciduous forests. Academic Press, New York (in press).
Mori, S. A. & Prance, G. T. 1987. Phenology. Pp. 124–135 in Mori, S. A. (ed.). The Lecythidacea of a lowland neotropical forest: La Fumée mountain, French Guiana. Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden, Vol. 40.
Müller, L. E. 1967. Der Wasserhaushalt als begrenzender Faktor beim Anbau tropischer Nutzpflanzen. Berichte Deutsche Botanische Gesellschaft 80:5359.
Murphy, P. G. & Lugo, A. E. 1986. Ecology of tropical dry forest. Annual Reviews of Ecology and Systematics 17:6787.
Niewolt, S. 1977. Tropical climatology. John Wiley, London.
Opler, P. A., Frankie, G. W. & Baker, H. G. 1976. Rainfall as a factor in the release, timing and synchronization of anthesis by tropical trees and shrubs. Journal of Biogeography 3:321336.
Opler, P. A. & Janzen, D. H. 1983. Cordia alliodora (laurel). Pp. 219221 in Janzen, D. H. (ed.). Costa Rican natural history. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
Reich, P. B. & Borchert, T. 1982. Phenology and ecophysiology of the tropical tree, Tabebuia neochrysantha (Bignoniaceae). Ecology 63:294299.
Reich, P. B. & Borchert, R. 1984. Water stress and tree phenology in a tropical dry forest in the lowlands of Costa Rica. Journal of Ecology 72:6174.
Stevens, G. 1983. Bursera simarouba (indio desnudo, jiñocuave, gumbo limbo). Pp. 201202 in Janzen, D. H. (ed.). Costa Rican natural history. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
Windsor, D. S. 1982. The phenology of new leaf production and flowering for selected trees, shrubs and vines on Barro Colorado Island, Republic of Panama. –A preliminary data report. Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Panama.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Journal of Tropical Ecology
  • ISSN: 0266-4674
  • EISSN: 1469-7831
  • URL: /core/journals/journal-of-tropical-ecology
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed