This study investigates whether increases in elephant populations may influence the structure of African savannas, and consequently may affect other herbivores through changes in habitats. Two contrasting periods in terms of elephant population densities were compared in Hwange National Park, Zimbabwe: the early 1980s and the late 1990s. Elephant population density and other ungulate population densities were estimated for a c. 400-km2 area from road counts. Vegetation structure at the landscape scale was assessed using aerial photographs for the same area. All browsers and grazers declined between the early 1980s and the late 1990s, whereas elephants experienced a 16-fold increase. At the landscape scale, vegetation structure changed little with no evidence of an opening of the habitats. These results do not support any kind of medium-term facilitation between elephants and other herbivores. They rather suggest a negative effect of elephants on other herbivore species when elephants are present at high densities. This study rules out a scenario where the decrease of the different herbivore populations was caused by large changes in vegetation structure due to elephant activity.
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