Skip to main content
×
×
Home

Free Traders and Drug Smugglers: The Effects of Trade Openness on States' Ability to Combat Drug Trafficking

  • Horace A. Bartilow (a1) and Kihong Eom (a2)
Abstract

The theoretical literature presents conflicting expectations about the effects of trade openness on the ability of states to interdict drug trafficking. One view expects that trade openness will undermine drug interdiction; a second argues the opposite; a third argues that trade openness does not necessarily affect drug interdiction. This article assesses empirically the effects of trade openness on drug interdiction for countries in the Americas using a pooled time-series cross-sectional statistical model. It finds that trade openness decreases the interdiction capabilities of states in drug-consuming countries while increasing those of states in drug-producing countries. Greater openness to trade does not have a consistently significant effect on the interdiction capabilities of states in drug transit countries.

Copyright
References
Hide All
Adams, Johnny [pseudonym]. 2002. Former Drug Trafficker. Author interview. Federal Correctional Complex, Coleman, FL, August 14.
Ahmad, Jaleel. 2004. Does Trade with Low-wage Countries Cause Wage Inequality? International Studies Review 5, 2: 8193.
Anderson, Malcolm, ed. 1995. Policing the European Union. Oxford : Clarendon Press.
Anderson, Thomas P. 1988. Politics and the Military in Honduras. Current History 87, 533: 425–31.
Andreas, Peter. 1998. Smuggling Wars: Law Enforcement and Law Evasion in a Changing World. Transnational Organized Crime 4, 2: 7590.
Bagley, Bruce M. 1989. The New Hundred Years War? U.S. National Security and the War on Drugs in Latin America. In The Latin American Narcotics Trade and U.S. National Security, ed. Mabry, Donald J.. New York : Greenwood Press. 4458.
Batchelor, A. 2006. Lieutenant, Coast Guard Division, Jamaica Defense Force. Author interview. Kingston, November 25.
Beck, Nathaniel. 2001. Time-Series Cross-Section Data: What Have We Learned in the past Few Years? Annual Review of Political Science 4: 271–93.
Beck, Nathaniel, and Katz, Jonathan. 1995. What to Do (and Not to Do) with Time-Series Cross-Section Data. American Political Science Review 89: 634–47.
Berdal, Mats, and Serrano, Mónica, eds. 2002. Transnational Organized Crime and International Security: Business as Usual? Boulder : Lynne Rienner.
Berry, William, and Feldman, Stanley. 1985. Multiple Regression in Practice. Beverly Hills : Sage.
Biersteker, Thomas J. 1981. Distortion or Development?: Contending Perspectives on the Multinational Corporation. Cambridge : MIT Press.
Cabana, Mike. 2006. Director General, Border Integrity, Federal and International Operations, Royal Canadian Mounted Police. Author interview. Ottawa, June 19.
Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). Various dates. World Fact Book. See section on transnational issues for information on country's classification in the global drug industry. <http://www.theodora.com/wfb/abc_world_fact_book.html>. Accessed October 3, 2007.
Clawson, Patrick L., and Lee, Renssalaer W. Iii. 1996. The Andean Cocaine Industry. New York : St. Martin's Press.
Clinton, William Jefferson. 1999. Speech at Conference on Progressive Governance in the 21st Century. Florence, Italy, November 21.
Colombian National Drug Council, ed. 1994. National Plans for Overcoming the Drug Problem. Bogotá : National Drug Council.
Craig, Raymond. 2006. Senior Superintendent of Police, Organized Crime and Firearm Bureau, Trinidad and Tobago Police Service. Author interview. Port of Spain, February 10.
Craig, Richard B. 1980. Human Rights and Mexico's Anti-drug Campaign. Social Science Quarterly 60, 4: 691701.
Crawford, Gordon, and Reuter, Peter. 1988. Simulation of Adaptive Response: A Model of Drug Interdiction. Santa Monica, CA : RAND Corporation.
Den Boer, Monica. 2002. Law-Enforcement Cooperation and Transnational Organized Crime in Europe. In Berdal, and Serrano, 2002. 103–16.
Den Boer, Monica, and Walker, Neil. 1993. European Policing after 1992. Journal of Common Market Studies 31, 1: 328.
Dillin, John. 1989. Andeans Hooked on Drug Money. Christian Science Monitor, March 7: 7.
Dodwell, David, and James, Canute. 1993. Gatt Attacks Lomé Convention over Bananas. Financial Times, June 16: 15.
Drake, Paul W. 1998. The International Causes of Democratization. In The Origins of Liberty: Political and Economic Liberalization in the Modern World, ed. Drake, and McCubbins, Mathew D.. Princeton : Princeton University Press. 7091.
Dreher, Axel. 2006. Does Globalization Affect Growth? Evidence from a New Index of Globalization. Applied Economics 38, 10: 1091–110.
Edwards, L. 2006. Major, Coast Guard Division, Jamaica Defense Force. Author interview. Kingston, November 24.
Feige, Edgar L. 1996. Overseas Holdings of U.S. Currency and the Underground Economy. In Pozo 1996. 559.
Financial Action Task Force on Money Laundering (FATF). 2002. Report on Money Laundering Typologies, 2001–2002. Paris : FATF Secretariat, OECD.
Financial Action Task Force on Money Laundering (FATF). 2003. Report on Money Laundering Typologies, 2002–2003. Paris : FATF Secretariat, OECD.
Fitzpatrick, Gary L., and Modlin, Marilyn J.. 1986. Direct-Line Distances. U.S. ed. Metuchen : Scarecrow Press.
Flynn, Stephen E. 1993. World Wide Drug Scourge: the Expanding Trade in Illicit Drugs. Brookings Review 11, 1: 611.
House, Freedom. 2007. Freedom in the World Country Ratings, 1972–2007. <http://www.freedomhouse.org>. Accessed September 23, 2007.
Frey, Bruno S., and Pommerehne, Werner W.. 1982. Measuring the Hidden Economy: Though This Be Madness, There Is Method in It. In Tanzi, 1982b. 327.
Galtung, Fredrick. 2000. A Global Network to Curb Corruption: The Experience of Transparency International. In The Third Force: The Rise of Transnational Civil Society, ed. Florini, Ann M.. Washington, DC : Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. 1747.
García, Jorge [pseud.]. 2002. Director, Anti-Narcotics, Colombian National Police. Author interview. Bogotá, November 20.
George, Susan. 1992. The Debt Boomerang: How Third World Debt Harms Us All. Boulder : Westview Press.
Gill, Stephen. 1996. Globalization, Democratization, and the Politics of Indifference. In Globalization: Critical Reflections, ed. Mittleman, James. Boulder : Lynne Rienner. 205–88.
Green, Jeff [pseud.]. 2002. Former Drug Trafficker. Author interview. Federal Correctional Complex, Coleman, FL, August 14.
Held, David, and McGrew, Anthony, eds. 2000. The Global Transformations Reader: An Introduction to the Globalization Debate. Malden : Polity Press.
Helson, Gary D. 2004. Supervisory Special Agent, U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration. Author interview. San Diego, July 14.
Hinds, A. C. P. 2006. Assistant Commissioner of Police, Jamaica Constabulary Force. Author interview. Kingston, November 21.
Hufbauer, Gary, and Schott, Jeffrey J.. 1992. North America Free Trade: Issues and Recommendations. Washington, DC : Institute for International Economics.
Hurrell, Andrew, and Woods, Ngaire, eds. 1999. Inequality, Globalization and World Politics. New York : Oxford University Press.
Hutchinson, Gladstone, and Schmacher, Ute. 1996. Nafta's Threat to Central American and Caribbean Basin Exports: a Revealed Comparative Advantage Approach. Journal of Interamerican Studies and World Affairs 36, 1 (Spring): 127–48.
International Institute for Strategic Studies. 19842006. The Military Balance. Various issues. London : International Institute for Strategic Studies.
Jaggers, Keith, and Robert Gurr, Ted. 1993. Tracking Democracy's Third Wave with the Polity III Data. Journal of Peace Research 32, 4: 409–82.
Jamaica Daily Gleaner (Kingston). 1996. Caribbean Drugs Problem Could Worsen. May 14: 6.
Johnson, Harry G. 1970. The Efficiency and Welfare Implications of the International Corporation. In The International Corporation: A Symposium, ed. Kindleberger, Charles P.. Cambridge : MIT Press. 3556.
Kaufmann, Daniel, and Wei, Shang-Jin. 1999. Does “Grease Money” Speed Up the Wheels of Commerce? Working Paper 7093. Cambridge, MA : National Bureau of Economic Research.
Kerry, John. 1998. The New War: The Web of Crime that Threatens America's Security. New York : Touchstone.
Kmenta, Jan. 1997. Elements of Econometrics. 2nd ed. Ann Arbor : University of Michigan Press.
Lawrence, Robert. 1996. Single World, Divided Nations: International Trade and OECD Labor Markets. Washington, DC : Brookings Institution Press.
Lee, Rensselaer W. Iii. 1989. The White Labyrinth: Cocaine and Political Power. New Brunswick : Transaction.
Leff, Nathaniel H. 1964. Economic Development through Bureaucratic Corruption. American Behavioral Scientist 8, 2: 814.
Lepgold, Joseph. 1998. Hypotheses on Vulnerability: Are Terrorist and Drug Traffickers Coercible? In Strategic Coercion: Concepts and Cases, ed. Freedman, Lawrence. New York : Oxford University Press. 131–50.
Levi, Michael. 2002. Liberalization and Transnational Financial Crime. In Berdal, and Serrano, 2002. 5366.
Lewin, Hardley. 2006. Rear Admiral, Coast Guard Division, Jamaica Defense Force. Author interview. Kingston, November 24.
Li, Quan, and Reuveny, Rafael. 2003. Economic Globalization and Democracy: an Empirical Analysis. British Journal of Political Science 33, 1: 2954.
Lui, Francis. 1985. An Equilibrium Queuing Model of Bribery. Journal of Political Economy 93, 4: 760–81.
Mabry, Donald J., and Perl, Raphael. 1989. Concluding Observations and Policy Recommendations. In The Latin American Narcotics Trade and U.S. National Security, ed. Mabry, . New York : Greenwood Press. 151–61.
Marshall, Monty G., and Jaggers, Keith. 2002. Polity IV Project: Dataset Users' Manual. College Park, MD : Center for International Development and Conflict Management.
Martin, Philip L. 1993. Trade and Migration: NAFTA and Agriculture. Policy Analyses in International Economics 38. Washington, DC : Institute for International Economics.
McLaughlin, Eugene. 1992. The Democratic Deficit: European Union and the Accountability of the British Police. British Journal of Criminology 32, 4: 473–87.
Mittleman, James. 1996. The Dynamics of Globalization. In Globalization: Critical Reflections, ed. Mittleman, . Boulder : Lynne Rienner. 119.
Molefsky, Barry. 1982. America's Underground Economy. In Tanzi, 1982b. 4767.
Monshipouri, Mahmood. 1995. Democratization, Liberalization, and Human Rights in the Third World. Boulder : Lynne Rienner.
Naylor, R. T. 2002. Wages of Crime: Black Markets, Illegal Finance, and the Underworld Economy. Ithaca : Cornell University Press.
Ogden, Derek. 2006. Chief Superintendent, Director-General of Drugs and Organized Crime, Federal and International Operations, Royal Canadian Mounted Police. Author interview. Ottawa, June 19.
Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Statistics Directorate; International Monetary Fund; Bureau of Statistics; International Labor Organization; Bureau of Statistics, Commonwealth of Independent States. Statistical Committee. 2002. Measuring the Non-Observed Economy: A Handbook. Paris : OECD.
Organization of American States (OAS). Inter-American Drug Abuse Control Commission (CICAD). n.d. Data on annual cocaine interdiction in Western Hemisphere countries. <http://www.cicad.oas.org/oid/Estadisticas/default.htm> Accessed September 19, 2007.
Paul, Trevor. 2006. Commissioner of Police, Trinidad and Tobago Police Service. Author interview. Port of Spain, February 9.
Perl, Raphael F. 199394. Clinton's Foreign Drug Policy. Journal of Interamerican Studies and World Affairs 35, 4 (Winter): 143–51.
Polity IV Project. 2007. Political Regime Characteristics and Transitions, 1800–2007. <http://www.systemicpeace.org/polity/polity4.htm> Accessed October 25, 2007.
Pozo, Susan, ed. 1996. Exploring the Underground Economy: Studies of Illegal and Unreported Activity. Kalamazoo : W. E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research.
Rosenberg, Matthew J. 2000. Jamaica Battling Cocaine Smuggling. Mountain Eagle ( Whitesburg, Kentucky ), February 16: 6.
Rother, Larry. 1997. Backlash from Nafta Batters Economies of Caribbean. New York Times, January 30.
Rueschemeyer, Dietrich, and Evans, Peter. 1985. The State and Economic Transformations: Towards an Analysis of the Conditions Underlying Effective Intervention. In Bringing the State Back In, ed. Rueschmeyer, Evans, and Skocpol, Theda. Cambridge : Cambridge University Press. 6992.
Serrano, Mónica. 2002. Transnational Organized Crime and International Security: Business as Usual? In Berdal, and Serrano, 2002. 1335.
Stares, Paul. 1996. Global Habit: The Drug Problem in a Borderless World. Washington, DC : Brookings Institution Press.
Tanzi, Vito. 1982a. Underground Economy and Tax Evasion in the United States: Estimates and Implications. In Tanzi, 1982b. 6992.
Tanzi, Vito, ed. 1982b. The Underground Economy in the United States and Abroad. Toronto : Lexington Books.
Taylor, Ian. 2002. Liberal Markets and the Republic of Europe: Contextualizing the Growth of Transnational Organized Crime. In Berdal, and Serrano, 2002. 119–53.
Teeple, Gary. 1995. Globalization and the Decline of Social Reform. Atlantic Highlands, NJ : Humanities Press.
Tokatlian, Juan G. 1994. The Miami Summit and Drugs: a Placid, Innocuous Conference? Journal of Interamerican Studies and World Affairs 36, 3 (Fall): 7591.
Transparency International Perception Corruption Index. 19952008. <http://www.transparency.org/policyresearch/surveys_indices/cpi> Accessed September 1, 2007.
Treverton, F. Gregory. 1999. International Organized Crime, National Security and the Market State. In Transnational Crime in the Americas, ed. Farer, Tom. New York : Routledge. 3956.
Tulder, Frank van. 1992. Crime, Detection Rate, and the Police: a Macro Approach. Journal of Quantitative Criminology 8, 1: 113–31.
United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. 2000. World Drug Report 2000. United Nations.
United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. 2006. World Drug Report 2006. United Nations.
U.S. Agency for International Development. U.S. Overseas Loans and Grants, 19462006. Data on U.S. aid given to Western Hemisphere countries to support drug interdiction operations, 1984–2003. <http://qesdb.cdie.org/gbk/index.html> Accessed August 15, 2007.
U.S. Congressional Budget Office. 2003. The Effects of NAFTA on U.S.-Mexican Trade and GDP. Report. Washington, DC : Congressional Budget Office. <http://www.cbo.gov/ftpdocs/42xx/doc4247/Report.pdf>.
U.S. Customs and Border Protection. 2000a. The Commissioner's Message. U.S. Customs Today, July: 12.
U.S. Customs and Border Protection. 2000b. The Constant Change in Concealment Methods. U.S. Customs Today, July: 34.
U.S. Department of Defense. 1991. FDH General Staff Officer Reportedly Involved in Narcotic Trafficking. Declassified Memorandum. Washington, DC : U.S. Department of Defense.
U.S. Department of State. n.d. Data on U.S. maritime drug interdiction agreements with Western Hemisphere countries. <http://www.state.gov/s/l/2005/87199.htm> Accessed March 15, 2009.
U.S. Department of State. 1988. International Narcotics Control Strategy Report. Washington, DC : State Department.
U.S. Department of State. 1992. International Narcotics Control Strategy Report. Washington, DC : State Department.
U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA). n.d. Data on U.S. maritime drug interdiction agreements with Western Hemisphere countries. <http://www.usdoj.gov/dea/pubs/intel/01019/usvi#usvi>.
U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA). 2002. Statement by Asa Hutchinson, Administrator, Drug Enforcement Administration, before the Senate Judiciary Committee Subcommittee on Technology, Terrorism, and Government Information. March 13. <http://www.usdoj.gov/dea/pubs/cngrtest/ct031302p.html> Accessed March 13, 2007.
U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA). Strategic South American/Caribbean Unit. 2001. The Drug Trade in the Caribbean: A Threat Assessment. August. DEA document no. 01019. Washington, DC : DEA. <http://www.usdoj.gov/dea/pubs/intel/01019/01019.html> Accessed January 10, 2007.
Vernon, Raymond. 1975. Multinational Enterprises in Developing Countries: An Analysis of National Policies. New York : United Nations Industrial Development Organization.
Wallerstein, Immanuel. 1974. The Modern World System. New York : Academic Press.
Wallerstein, Immanuel. 1984. The Politics of the World Economy. Cambridge : Cambridge University Press.
Walters, Joe [pseud.]. 2001. Financial Investigator, U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration. Author interview. New York, June 11.
Watkis, Devon. 2006. Senior Superintendent, Organized Crime Branch, Jamaica Constabulary Force. Author interview. Kingston, November 21.
Williams, Phil. 1994a. Transnational Criminal Organizations and International Security. Survival 36, 1: 96113.
Williams, Phil. 1994b. Transnational Organized Crime: Strategic Alliances. Washington Quarterly 18, 1: 5772.
Williams, Phil. 2002. Cooperation among Criminal Organizations. In Berdal, and Serrano, 2002. 6782.
Wisotsky, Steven. 1986. Breaking the Impasse in the War on Drugs. Westport : Greenwood Press.
World Bank. 2006. World Development Indicators, 2006. Washington, DC : World Bank.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Latin American Politics and Society
  • ISSN: 1531-426X
  • EISSN: 1548-2456
  • URL: /core/journals/latin-american-politics-and-society
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 4 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 99 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between 2nd January 2018 - 18th September 2018. This data will be updated every 24 hours.