Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
×
Home

“Most Hevynesse and Sorowe”: The Presence of Emotions in the Late Medieval and Early Modern Court of Chancery

  • Merridee L. Bailey
  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      “Most Hevynesse and Sorowe”: The Presence of Emotions in the Late Medieval and Early Modern Court of Chancery
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      “Most Hevynesse and Sorowe”: The Presence of Emotions in the Late Medieval and Early Modern Court of Chancery
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      “Most Hevynesse and Sorowe”: The Presence of Emotions in the Late Medieval and Early Modern Court of Chancery
      Available formats
      ×
Abstract
Copyright
Corresponding author
Footnotes
Hide All

She thanks her colleagues who read earlier drafts of this article, in particular Tim Stretton, John Hudson, Elizabeth Papp Kamali, Margaret Pelling, Jeremy Goldberg, Tom Johnson, the late Philippa Maddern, the Oxford Early Career Writers’ Workshop, and the anonymous reviewers for Law and History Review. Each has helped her to refine and develop particular arguments in her work on chancery records. She also thanks Sarah Randles who assisted with transcribing cases. Research for this article was funded by the Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for the History of Emotions, 1100–1800 (project number CE110001011).

Footnotes
References
Hide All

1. The National Archives (hereafter TNA), Kew, Surrey, C1/61/414 (1480-83).

2. The majority of cases examined in this article date between c.1480 and 1540.

3. See, for example, Eustace, Nicole, Lean, Eugenia, Livingston, Julie, Plamper, Jan, Reddy, William M., and Rosenwein, Barbara H., “AHR Conversation: The Historical Study of Emotions,” American Historical Review 117 (2012): 14871531; Rosenwein, Barbara H., “Worrying About Emotions in History,”  American Historical Review 107 (2002): 821–45; Plamper, Jan, “The History of Emotions: An Interview with William Reddy, Barbara Rosenwein, and Peter Stearns,”  History and Theory 49 (2010): 237–65; and Stearns, Peter N. and Stearns, Carol Z., “Emotionology: Clarifying the History of Emotions and Emotional Standards,”  American Historical Review 90 (1985): 813–36.

4. Barrett, Lisa Feldman, Lewis, Michael, and Haviland-Jones, Jeannette M., eds., Handbook of Emotions, 4th ed. (New York: Guilford Publications, 2018); Oatley, Keith and Jenkins, Jennifer M., eds., Understanding Emotions (Oxford: Blackwell, 1996); Parrott, W. Gerrod, “Ur-Emotions and Your Emotions: Reconceptualizing Basic Emotion,”  Emotions Review 2 (2010): 1421; Parrott, W. Gerrod, “Psychological Perspectives on Emotion in Groups,”  in Passions, Sympathy and Print Culture: Public Opinion and Emotional Authenticity in Eighteenth-Century Britain, ed. Kerr, Heather, Lemmings, David, and Phiddian, Robert (London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2016), 2044; Tileagă, Cristian and Byford, Jovan, eds., Psychology and History: Interdisciplinary Explorations (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2014); and Eustace et. al., “AHR Conversation,”  1506.

5. Early commentaries on the expanding social interest in legal history are: Hunt, Alan, “The New Legal History: Prospects and Perspectives,”  Contemporary Crises 10 (1986): 201–8; and Grossberg, Michael, “Social History Update: ‘Fighting Faiths’ and the Challenges of Legal History,”  Journal of Social History 25 (1991): 191201. On contemporary law and society, see Maroney, Terry A., “Law and Emotion: A Proposed Taxonomy of an Emerging Field,”  Law and Human Behavior 30 (2006): 119–43; Bandes, Susan A., “Centennial Address: Emotion, Reason, and the Progress of Law,”  DePaul Law Review 62 (2013): 921–30; and Abrams, Kathryn and Keren, Hila, “Who’s Afraid of Law and the Emotions?Minnesota Law Review 94 (2010): 19972074.

6. Miller, William Ian, Humiliation: And Other Essays on Honour, Social Discomfort, and Violence (New York: Cornell University Press, 1993); White, Stephen D., Feuding and Peacemaking in Eleventh-Century France (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2005); Hyams, Paul R., Rancor and Reconciliation in Medieval England (New York: Cornell University Press, 2003); Smail, Daniel Lord, “Hatred as a Social Institution in Late-Medieval Society,”  Speculum 76 (2001): 90126; Smail, Daniel Lord, Consumption of Justice: Emotions, Publicity, and Legal Culture in Marseille, 1264–1423 (New York: Cornell University Press, 2003); and Bossy, John, ed., Disputes and Settlements: Law and Human Relations in the West (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983, repr. 2003). Amanda Capern has argued that chancery suits involving wills are related to the emotional lives of people. Capern, Amanda L., “Emotions, Gender Expectations and the Social Role of Chancery, 1550–1650,”  in Authority, Gender and Emotions in Late Medieval and Early Modern England, ed. Broomhall, Susan (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2015), 187209. Capern has an interesting discussion about the (negative) emotions aroused by chancery and aimed toward the court, particularly in later centuries. Capern, “Emotions, Gender Expectations.”

7. See the recent special issues on law and emotions, Bailey, Merridee L. and Knight, Kimberley-Joy, eds., “Emotions in Legal History,”  The Journal of Legal History 38 (2017): 117227; and Holmes, Rachel E and Johnson, Toria, eds., “In Pursuit of Truth: Law and Emotion in Early Modern Europe,”  Forum for Modern Language Studies 54 (2018): 1114.

8. Kamali, Elizabeth Papp, “The Devil's Daughter of Hell Fire: Anger's Role in Medieval English Felony Cases,”  Law and History Review 35 (2017): 155200.

9. Simpson, A. W. Brian, A History of the Common Law of Contract: The Rise of the Action of Assumpsit (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1975), 100, 538; and Clark, Elaine, “Medieval Labor Law and English Local Courts,”  American Journal of Legal History 330 (1983): 330–53.

10. Clark, “Medieval Labor Law,” 339.

11. Neal, Derek G., The Masculine Self in Late Medieval England (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2008), 31.

12. Hudson, John, “Emotions in the Early Common Law (c. 1166–1215),”  in Bailey, Merridee L. and Knight, Kimberley-Joy, eds., “Emotions in Legal History,”  The Journal of Legal History 38 (2017): 130–54.

13. The social expectations people brought to the courts have been a particularly fruitful area of research in the field of gendered relationships; see Davis, Natalie Zemon, Fiction in the Archives: Pardon Tales and their Tellers in Sixteenth-Century France (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1987); Gowing, Laura, “Gender and the Language of Insult in Early Modern London,” History Workshop Journal 35 (1993): 121; Gowing, Laura, Domestic Dangers: Women, Words, and Sex in Early Modern London (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1996); Stretton, Tim, Women Waging Law in Elizabethan England (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998); Hawkes, Emma, “‘[S]he will … protect and defend her rights boldly by law and reason…’: Women’s Knowledge of Common Law and Equity Courts in Late-Medieval England,”  in Medieval Women and the Law, ed. Menuge, Noel James (Woodbridge: Boydell Press, 2000), 145–61; and Butler, Sara M., “The Law as a Weapon in Marital Disputes: Evidence from the Late Medieval Court of Chancery, 1424–1529,”  Journal of British Studies 43 (2004): 291316.

14. A similar disciplinary gulf lay between medicine and the law. See Turner, Wendy J. and Butler, Sara M., eds., Medicine and the Law in the Middle Ages, (Leiden: Brill, 2014).

15. See Bailey, Joanne, “Voices in Court: Lawyers' or Litigants'?Historical Research 74 (2001): 392408; Gowing, Domestic Dangers; and McIntosh, Marjorie Keniston, Working Women in English Society, 1300–1620 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005).

16. Kuehn, T., “Reading Microhistory: The Example of Giovanni and Lusanna,”  Journal of Modern History 61 (1989): 512–35, at 533.

17. On the differences between “story-tellers” and “translators,” see Bailey's “Voices in Court.”  See also Davis, Fiction in the Archives; Gowing, “Gender and the Language of Insult”; Gowing, Domestic Dangers; Stretton, Women Waging Law; and Stretton, Tim, “Social Historians and the Records of Litigation,”  in Fact, Fiction and Forensic Evidence, ed. Sogner, Sølvi (Oslo: Skriftserie fra Historisk Institutt, Universitetet i Oslo, 1997), 1534.

18. Ormrod, Mark, “Introduction: Medieval Petitions in Context,” in Medieval Petitions: Grace and Grievance, ed. Ormrod, W. Mark, Dodd, Gwilym, and Musson, Anthony (York: York Medieval Press, 2009), 111, at 11.

19. On truthfulness in legal records, see Bailey, “Voices in Court.”

20. Davis's discussion of French pardon narratives shows that we do better to reposition our questions to see how legal documents reveal the contemporary representation of the events in question. Davis, Fiction in the Archives. See also Stretton, “Social Historians and the Records of Litigation,”  27–34.

21. On language and self-identity, see Dolan, Frances E., True Relations: Reading, Literature, and Evidence in Seventeenth-Century England (Philadelphia: University of Pennyslvania Press, 2013), 1.

22. On independent lawyers, see Haskett, Timothy S., “Country Lawyers: The Composers of English Chancery Bills,”  in The Life of the Law: Proceedings of the Tenth British Legal History Conference, Oxford, 1991, ed. Birks, Peter (London: Hambledon Press, 1993), 923.

23. Tucker, Penny, “The Early History of the Court of Chancery: A Comparative Study,”  The English Historical Review 115 (2000): 791811, at 796. Goldberg, P.J.P. addresses this in Communal Discord, Child Abduction and Rape in Late Medieval England (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007). See also Dolan, True Relations, 114–20.

24. Hanawalt, Barbara A., Growing Up in Medieval London: The Experience of Childhood in History (New York: Oxford University Press, 1993), 15.

25. Beattie, Cordelia, “Single Women, Work and Family: The Chancery Dispute of Jane Wynde and Margaret Clerk,”  in Voices from the Bench: The Narratives of Lesser Folk in Medieval Trials, ed. Goodich, Michael (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2006), 177202, at 180. On slips in the bill-writer's voice where the petitioner's words seem to emerge more directly, see Beattie, Cordelia, “Your Oratrice: Women’s Petitions to the Late Medieval Court of Chancery,”  in Women, Agency and the Law, 1300—1700, ed. Kane, Bronach and Williams, Fiona (London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2013), 1, 729. This can be contrasted with older views on “authentic voices.” See, for example, Stone, Lawrence, The Past and the Present Revisited (London: Routledge, 1987), 241; and Bailey, “Voices in Court.” Capern discusses the gendered nature of pleadings in “Emotions, Gender Expectations.”  Dodd also discusses the levels of expertise involved in writing private petitions to the crown, which he argues grew in the fifteenth century. Dodd, Gwilym, Justice and Grace: Private Petitioning and the English Parliament in the Late Middle Ages (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007), 304.

26. Beattie, “Single Women,”  182.

27. Haskett, Timothy S., “The Medieval English Court of Chancery,”  Law and History Review 14 (1996): 245313; and Beattie, “Your Oratrice,”  17–29.

28. Baker, J.H., An Introduction to English Legal History, 4th ed. (Oxford: Oxford University Press 2007), 104–5. For a detailed discussion of chancery practice, see Haskett, Timothy S., “The Curteys Women in Chancery: The Legacy of Henry and Rye Brown,”  in Women, Family, and Marriage in Medieval Christendom: Essays in Memory of Michael M. Sheehan, ed. Rosenthal, Joel T. and Rousseau, Constance M. (Kalamazoo: Medieval Institute Publications, Western Michigan University, 1998), 349–98, esp. 351–56; and Haskett, “The Medieval English Court of Chancery.”

29. See, for example, McIntosh, Marjorie K., Controlling Misbehaviour in England, 1370–1600 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998); and Gowing, Domestic Dangers.

30. Although emotional language was not the focus of Butler's work on marital disputes in chancery, several of her examples show emotions in the petitions. For example she writes that: “Reading Margery of Longford's words to the chancellor that ‘she was sore aferd of hyr sayde husbond’…we are given an opportunity to hear the victim's side of the story” (TNA C1/6/318 1424–25). Butler, “The Law as a Weapon,”  296, 311–12, 314.

31. Barbour, W.T., “The History of Contract in Early English Equity,”  in Oxford Studies in Social and Legal History, Vol. IV, ed. Vinogradoff, Paul (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1914), 163.

32. Simpson, History of the Common Law of Contract, 399–400. Italics in original.

33. Penny Tucker has argued that in the fourteenth century, petitioners made initial oral complaints to the chancellor, but that by the second half of the fifteenth century, this was increasingly done through a written petition or bill of complaint in English. However, this does not explain the number of fourteenth-century written petitions that survive. On the early processes of the court, including taking oral testimony, see Tucker, “Early History”; Haskett, Timothy S., “Conscience, Justice and Authority in Late-Medieval English Court of Chancery,”  in Expectations of the Law in the Middle Ages, ed. Musson, Anthony (Woodbridge: Boydell Press, 2001), 151–63, at 155, fn 13; Baker, English Legal History, 103. The “Latin” side of chancery dealt with crown property matters and internal decisions within the court; see Haskett, “The Medieval English Court of Chancery,” 248; and Fisher, John H., “Chancery and the Emergence of Standard Witten English in the Fifteenth Century,”  Speculum 52 (1977): 870–99, at 888. Before the 1530s, no decrees or orders were routinely kept, meaning that it is difficult to know the outcome of a case or how far it progressed. Haskett, “The Medieval English Court of Chancery,”  281.

34. Beilby, Mark, “The Profits of Expertise: The Rise of the Civil Lawyers and Chancery Equity,”  in Profit, Piety and the Professions in Later Medieval England, ed. Hicks, Michael A. (Gloucester: Sutton Publishing, 1990), 7290, at 78–80. See also Pronay, N., “The Chancellor, the Chancery, and the Council at the End of the Fifteenth Century,”  in British Government and Administration: Studies Presented to S. B. Chrimes, ed. Hearder, Henry and Loyn, H.R. (Cardiff: University of Wales Press, 1974), 87103 (88–9, 93–9); Tucker,  “Early History,”  798–99; and Baker, English Legal History, 105.

35. Cases were selected from the List of Early Chancery Proceedings Preserved in the Public Record Office, 10 vols (London: H.M. Stationery Office, 1901–38), supplemented by TNA online catalogue. Information in the lists includes petitioner and defendant names, location, date, and subject matter.

36. TNA C 1/1037/39 (1538–44), TNA C 1/245/38 (1500–1501), TNA C 1/908/4 (1533–38).

37. TNA C 1/124/34 (1486–1493, or 1504–1515).

38. TNA C1/819/1 (1533–38).

39. TNA C1/711/36 (1532–38), TNA C1 235/71 (1493–1529).

40. Rosenwein, Barbara H., Emotional Communities in the Early Middle Ages (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2006), 2629. For examples of various word tables in Rosenwein, see 40, 52, and 74. Frevert, Ute, Emotions in History–Lost and Found (Budapest: Central European University Press, 2011); and Frevert, Ute, Eitler, Pascal, Scheer, Monique, Hitzer, Bettina, and Schmidt, Anne, Emotional Lexicons, Continuity and Change in the Vocabulary of Feeling 1700–2000 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014).

41. TNA, C1/72/66 (1386–1486).

42. TNA, C1/124/34 (1486–93 or 1504–15).

43. Musson, Anthony, Medieval Law in Context: The Growth of Legal Consciousness from Magna Carta to The Peasants' Revolt (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2001), 84134.

44. Dolan, True Relations, 120.

45. Klinck, Dennis R., Conscience, Equity and the Court of Chancery in Early Modern England (Farnham: Ashgate, 2010); Haskett, “The Medieval English Court of Chancery”; and Tucker, “Early History.”

46. A writ of certiorari was a writ from a superior court (in this case chancery) which plaintiffs could request when they believed that they would not receive justice in an inferior court. It could be used to demand that documents and official records be made available.

47. TNA, C1/564/3 (1518–29).

48. Hudson, “Emotions in the Early Common Law,”  135, 151.

49. Karras, Ruth Mazo, From Boys to Men: Formations of Masculinity in Late Medieval Europe (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2013), 119, 124; and Hanawalt, Growing Up, 147–49.

50. White, Stephen D., “The Politics of Anger,”  in Anger's Past: The Social Uses of an Emotion in the Middle Ages, ed. Rosenwein, Barbara H. (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1998), 127–52; and Hyams, Rancor and Reconciliation, 50–59.

51. “malicyous” is a later insertion.

52. TNA, C1/606/65 (1529–32).

53. My emphasis.

54. “spurned hym,” meaning to kick against or to strike the foot against something.

55. Klinck refers to the need to establish the “remediable impact” of sinful actions and that the nature of either the petitioner or defendant's “outward actions” needed to be established through “actual conduct.” Klinck, Conscience, Equity, 28, 38–39. On the court's correlation with morality, see Dodd, Gwilym, “Reason, Conscience and Equity: Bishops as the King’s Judges in Later Medieval England,” History 99 (2014): 213–40.

56. Klinck, Conscience, Equity, 38–39.

57. On malice in criminal cases, defamation and tort, see Baker, English Legal History.

58. Chancery did not necessarily deal in cases that were more moral or emotional; for example, it did not deal with homicide, one of the most morally and emotionally charged areas in law.

59. Klinck, Conscience, Equity, 65.

60. Ibid., 39.

61. Ibid., 39.

62. Dodd, “Reason, Conscience and Equity,”  230.

63. Simpson, History of the Common Law of Contract, 399–400.

64. TNA, C1/38/40 (1433–72).

65. TNA, C1/33/20 (1465).

66. TNA, C1/67/167 (1475–85).

67. TNA, C1/61/540 (1480–83).

68. TNA, C1/241/33 (1500–1501).

69. C 1/1037/39 (1538–44). Numerous other examples could have been cited.

70. Crofts focuses on malitiam in medieval homicide cases. Crofts, Penny, Wickedness and Crime: Laws of Homicide and Malice (Abingdon: Routledge, 2013), 85.

71. See Miner, Robert, Thomas Aquinas on the Passions: A Study of Summa Theologiae, 1a2ae 22–48 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009); Nussbaum, Martha C., Upheavals of Thought: The Intelligence of Emotions (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001); Bagnoli, Carla, ed., Morality and the Emotions (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011); and Roberts, Robert C., Emotions in the Moral Life (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2013).

72. Here begynneth the book of the subtyl historyes and fables of Esope whiche were translated out of Frensshe in to Englysshe by wylham Caxton at westmynstre in the yere of oure Lorde M. CCCC. Xxxiij (Westminster: Caxton, 1484), CXVr. My emphasis.

73. John Lydgate, Lydgate's Troy Book, ed. H. Bergen, parts 1–3, Early English Text Society, Extra Series 97, 103, 106 (London: Early English Text Society, 1906, 1906, 1910; repr. as one vol. 1996).

74. The Book of Common Prayer, 1549.

75. “An Excellent Sonnet of the Unfortunate Loves of Hero & Leander,”  Magdalene College, Oxford, Pepys 3.322 (1684–95?), “The Chimney–Men's Grief,” Magdalene College, Oxford, Pepys 4.309 (1689).

76. Macnaire, Mike, “Equity and Conscience,”  Oxford Journal of Legal Studies 27 (2007): 659–81. On the moral meaning of conscience, see Beilby, “The Profits of Expertise,”  72–90; Baker, English Legal History, 106; and Doe, Fundamental Authority.

77. Klinck, Conscience, Equity, ix, 44–53; and Doe, Fundamental Authority, 3–6. See also Capern, “Emotions, Gender Expectations.”

78. Smail, “Hatred as a Social Institution,”  90–126.

79. Early legal scholars focused on what constituted a felonious crime unrelated to state of mind, and were uneasy with exploring felony's extralegal meaning in other, usually literary and religious, contexts. Kamali, Elizabeth Papp, “Felonia Felonice Facta: Felony and Intentionality in Medieval England,”  Criminal Law and Philosophy 9 (2015): 397421, at 401.

80. Kamali, “Felonia Felonice Facta,”  401.

81. See also Butler's work on chancery bills intending to create a story that the chancellor would find “reprehensible.” Butler, “The Law as a Weapon,”  295.

82. Haskett, Timothy S., “The Presentation of Cases in Medieval Chancery Bills,” in Legal History in the Making: Proceedings of the Ninth British Legal History Conference, ed. Gordon, William M. and Fergus, T. D. (London: Hambledon Press, 1991), 1128.

83. Dodd, Justice and Grace, 283–84.

84. Dodd, Gwilym, “Thomas Paunfield, the ‘heye Court of rightwisnesse’ and the Language of Petitioning in the Fifteenth Century,” in Medieval Petitions: Grace and Grievance, ed. Ormrod, W. Mark, Dodd, Gwilym, and Musson, Anthony (York: York Medieval Press, 2009), 222–40, at 235.

85. Neal, Masculine Self, 47.

86. Ibid.

87. See also Butler on fear in petitions concerning marital disputes; “The Law as a Weapon,”  296.

88. On strategically displaying anger, see Pollock, Linda A., “Anger and the Negotiation of Relationships in Early Modern England,”  Historical Journal 47 (2004): 567–90, at 574. Butler also cites a case of “fury” in a chancery petition concerned with marital disputes, which echoes the cases I have seen concerning the wrongdoer's fury and irrationality, “that he wolde punysshe his wyff at shi pleasour and the more for his…and then in a greate fury departyd.”  Butler, “The Law as a Weapon,”  314 (TNA C1/287/47, 1504–9).

89. White, “Politics of Anger,” 127–52.

90. On inequitable social relations between petitioners and defendants in early chancery, see Beilby, “Profit, Piety and the Professions,” 77.

91. Dodd, Justice and Grace, 298. My emphasis.

92. On the development of precise English language usage from 1443 onwards, see Haskett, “Country Lawyers,”  15.

93. Bourke, Joanna, “Fear and Anxiety: Writing About Emotion in Modern History,”  History Workshop Journal 55 (2003): 111–33, at 117, 124. Later she writes that emotions “align people with others within social groups” (125).

94. Dodd has explored the attempts that petitioners made to align details of the case with community values. Dodd, Justice and Grace, 302.

95. Neal, Masculine Self, 7.

96. Scheer, Monique, “Are Emotions a Kind of Practice (And is That What Makes Them Have a History)? A Bourdieuian Approach to Understanding Emotion,”  History and Theory 51 (2012): 193220, at 195.

97. Butler, “The Law as a Weapon,”  293.

98. Stretton, “Social Historians and the Records of Litigation.”

99. Klinck, Conscience, Equity, 129–39.

100. See Miner, Thomas Aquinas on the Passions; Nussbaum, Upheavals of Thought; Bagnoli, ed., Morality and the Emotions; and Roberts, Emotions in the Moral Life.

101. Bagnoli, ed., Morality and the Emotions; and Fredrickson, Barbara L., “Gratitude, Like Other Positive Emotions, Broadens and Builds,”  in The Psychology of Gratitude, ed. Emmons, Robert A. and McCullough, Michael E. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004), 145–66.

She thanks her colleagues who read earlier drafts of this article, in particular Tim Stretton, John Hudson, Elizabeth Papp Kamali, Margaret Pelling, Jeremy Goldberg, Tom Johnson, the late Philippa Maddern, the Oxford Early Career Writers’ Workshop, and the anonymous reviewers for Law and History Review. Each has helped her to refine and develop particular arguments in her work on chancery records. She also thanks Sarah Randles who assisted with transcribing cases. Research for this article was funded by the Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for the History of Emotions, 1100–1800 (project number CE110001011).

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Law and History Review
  • ISSN: 0738-2480
  • EISSN: 1939-9022
  • URL: /core/journals/law-and-history-review
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed