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Worker Lawmaking, Sit-Down Strikes, and the Shaping of American Industrial Relations, 1935-1958

  • Jim Pope
Extract

Between 1936 and 1939, American workers staged some 583 sit-down strikes of at least one day's duration. In the latter year, the United States Supreme Court issued its opinion in NLRB v. Fansteel Metallurgical Corporation, resolving the official legal status of the tactic. Fansteel made it clear not only that a state could punish sit-downers for violating trespass laws, but also that an employer could lawfully discharge them—even if that employer had itself provoked the sit-down by committing unfair labor practices in violation of the National Labor Relations Act.

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1. Eisenberg, Walter L., “Government Policy in Sitdown Strikes” (Ph.D. diss., Columbia University, 1959), 318; 306 U.S. 240, 251–52 (1939).

2. Klare, Karl E., “Law-Making as Praxis,” Telos 40 (1979): 123, 124 n.5; Klare, Karl E., “Judicial Deradicalization of the Wagner Act and the Origins of Modern Legal Consciousness, 1937–1941,” Minnesota Law Review 62 (1978): 265, 321, 324–25; see also Brecher, Jeremy, Strike! 2d ed. (Boston: South End Press, 1997), 235.

3. Schwartz, Louis B., “With Gun and Camera Through Darkest CLS Land,” Stanford Law Review 36 (1984): 413, 443–44; Finkin, Matthew W., “Revisionism in Labor Law,” Maryland Law Review 43 (1984): 23, 30–31; Klare, Karl E., “Traditional Labor Law Scholarship and the Crisis of Collective Bargaining Law: A Reply to Professor Finkin,” Maryland Law Review 44 (1985): 731, 818–19.

4. Cf. Lynd, Staughton, “Introduction,” in We Are All Leaders, ed. Lynd, Staughton (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1996), 1, 5–6, 16.

5. Pope, James Gray, “The Thirteenth Amendment versus the Commerce Clause: Labor and the Shaping of American Constitutional Law, 1921–1957,” Columbia Law Review 102 (2002): 1, 96.

6. Cover, Robert M., “Foreword: Nomos and Narrative,” Harvard Law Review 97 (1983): 1, 53.

7. See, e.g.,Austin, John, The Province of Jurisprudence Determined, ed. Hart, H. L. A. (New York: Noonday Press, 1954), xliii.

8. Griffiths, J., “Four Laws of Interaction in Circumstances of Legal Pluralism: First Steps toward an Explanatory Theory,” in People's Law and State Law, ed. Allot, Antony and Woodman, Gordon R. (Dordrecht: Foris Publications, 1985), 217, 217.

9. Summit County Labor News (official organ, Summit County Federation of Labor, Akron Ohio), January 31, 1936, 1.

10. McKenny, Ruth, Industrial Valley (New York: Harcourt, Brace & Co., 1939), 261–62.

11. Jones, Alfred Winslow, Life, Liberty, and Property (1941; New York: Octagon, 1964), 99; Nelson, Daniel, American Rubber Workers and Organized Labor, 1900–1941 (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1988), 181–82.

12. Tom Owens, Firestone Local 7 activist, to Adolph Germer, CIO organizer, Adolph Germer Papers, State Historical Society of Wisconsin, Microform edition [hereafter Germer Papers], reel 3, frame 344.

13. Commons, John R., Legal Foundations of Capitalism (1923; Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1968), 301–5.Quotations are at 304, 301–2, and 305.

14. Montgomery, David, Workers’ Control in America: Studies in the History of Work, Technology, and Labor Struggles (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1979), 1518; Montgomery, David, The Fall of the House of Labor: The Workplace, the State, and American Labor Activism, 1865–1925 (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1987), 913; Rodgers, Daniel T., The Work Ethic in Industrial America, 1850–1920 (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1978), 165–66; Ulman, Lloyd, The Rise of the National Trade Union (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1955), 526, 541–42, 545–46, 551–52; Soffer, Benson, “A Theory of Trade Union Development: The Role of the ‘Autonomous’ Workman,” Labor History 1 (1960): 141, 152–53.

15. Slichter, Sumner H., Union Policies and Industrial Management (Washington, D.C.: Brookings, 1941), 1; Goodrich, Carter, The Miner's Freedom (Boston: Marshall Jones, 1925), 5861; Mathewson, Stanley B., Restriction of Output among Unorganized Workers (New York: Viking Press, 1931); Montgomery, , Workers’ Control, 1315; Schatz, Ronald W., The Electrical Workers: A History of Labor at General Electric and Westinghouse, 1923–1960 (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1983), 4244; Taylor, Frederick Winslow, Scientific Management (New York: Harper, 1947), 7985.

16. Brody, David, Workers in Industrial America (New York: Oxford University Press, 1980), 205.

17. See John D. House, Birth of A Union, Microform (unpublished book manuscript, Ohio Historical Society), 7–8, 12–14;Mathewson, , Restriction of Output, 5456; Nelson, , American Rubber Workers, 8687, 93–94.

18. Bernstein, Irving, Turbulent Years: A History of the American Worker, 1933–1941 (Boston: Houghton-Mifflin, 1971), 95, 100; Nelson, , American Rubber Workers, 121.

19. First Constitution of the United Rubber Workers of America, secs. 18(b) 2, 18(b)(11), November 7, 1935,American Labor Unions’ Constitutions, Proceedings, Officers’ Reports and Supplementary Documents (Microform) (Ann Arbor: University Microfilms International, 1986)[hereafter American Labor Unions’ Constitutions], Part II, Reel 120.

20. United Mine Workers of America,Proceedings of the 28th Consecutive and 5th Biennial Convention 2 (1921), 628; see generallyFinley, Joseph E., The Corrupt Kingdom: The Rise and Fall of the United Mine Workers (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1972).

21. Bernstein, , Turbulent Years, 382–83; Jones, , Life, Liberty, and Property, 8687; Nelson, , American Rubber Workers, 164–69.

22. Akron Beacon Journal, feb. 22, 1936, 1, 2; Akron Beacon Journal, March 23, 1936, 9; Akron Beacon Journal, Feb. 22, 1936, 15; Bernstein, , Turbulent Years, 594; Jones, , Life, Liberty, and Property, 99; McKenny, , Industrial Valley, 301–2; Nelson, , American Rubber Workers, 191.

23. Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co.,What is Happening in Akron (May 29, 1936)[hereafter Goodyear Sit-Down Report], in Germer Papers, reel 26, frame 369, 4–5;Akron Beacon Journal, July 14, 1936, 1, 6; Akron Beacon Journal, Aug 7, 1936, 1.

24. Goodyear Sit-Down Report, 4–6; Nelson, American Rubber Workers, 209.

25. Goodyear Sit-Down Report, 1, 4–6. The quotation is at 1.

26. Adamic, Louis, “Sitdown,” Nation, Dec. 5, 1936, 654 (quoting workers); Vincent, Melvin J., “The Sit-Down Strike,” Sociology and Social Research 21 (July-Aug. 1937): 524, 527; United Automobile Worker, Jan 22, 1937, 5; see alsoFine, Sidney, Sit-Down: The General Motors Strike of 1936–1937 (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1969), 122; Harris, Herbert, American Labor (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1939), 289.

27. Oral History Interview of Nick DiGaetano byWilliam A. Sullivan, University of Michigan—Wayne State University Institute of Labor and Industrial Relations, April 29 & May 7, 1959, 22. On the auto workers’ legislation of production limits, seeBrecher, , Strike!, 204–5; Gartman, David, Auto Slavery: The Labor Process in the American Automobile Industry, 1897–1950 (New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 1986), 155–58; Mathewson, , Restriction of Output, 62, 72, 7880, 86–88.On the early auto sit-downs, seeBrecher, , Strike!, 206; Fine, , Sit-Down, 116; Keeran, Roger, The Communist Party and the Auto Workers Union (New York: International Publishers, 1980), 155; Thompson, Fred W. and Murfin, Patrick, The IWW—Its First Seventy Years, 1905–1975 (Chicago: IWW, 1976), 166–69.

28. Galenson, Walter, The CIO Challenge to the AFL (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1960), 134; see alsoLevinson, Edward, Labor on the March (New York: University Books, 1938), 149; Dubofsky, Melvyn and Tine, Warren Van, John L. Lewis: A Biography (New York: Quadrangle/New York Times Book Co., 1977), 254; Monthly Labor Review, Aug. 1938, 360–62.

29. SeeBarclay, Hartley W., “We Sat Down with the Strikers and General Motors,” Mill & Factory (Feb. 1937): 33, 37, 40; Marquart, Frank, An Auto Worker's Journal: The UAW from Crusade to One-Party Union (University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1975), 77; Vorse, Mary Heaton, “Detroit Has the Jitters,” New Republic, April 7, 1937, 256, 257; Fine, , Sit-Down, 157–58; Keeran, , Communist Party, 168; Levinson, , Labor on the March, 177–78; Morris, George, “The Sit-Down and How It Grew,” New Masses (May 4, 1937):17, 18; Messan, Stuart, “The State of Cadillac,” Workers Age, Feb. 20, 1937, 2; Dodge Main News, March 14, 1937, 1; Jefferys, Steve, Management and Managed: Fifty Years of Crisis at Chrysler (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1986), 72.

30. Fine, , Sit-Down, 159–60, 165; Fuoss, Kirk W., Striking Performances/Performing Strikes (Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 1997), 56; Levinson, , Labor on the March, 124–25, 177–78; Morris, , “The Sit-Down and How It Grew,” 17, 18.

31. See,Fine, , Sit-Down, 156; Keeran, , Communist Party, 156; Detroit News, Feb. 19, 1937, 1; Detroit News, Feb. 24, 1937, 4.

32. SeeDetroit News, March 3, 1937, 1, 4; Keeran, , Communist Party, 169.

33. Morris, , “The Sit-Down and How It Grew,” 17, 18; Detroit News Feb. 18, 1937, 1(quoting strike leader); see alsoDetroit News Feb. 19, 1937, 1, 4; Detroit News April 17, 1937, 2.

34. Constitution of the International Union, United Automobile Workers of America, art. 2 (1936), American Labor Unions’ Constitutions (Microform);Meier, August and Rudwick, Elliott, Black Detroit and the Rise of the UAW (New York: Oxford University Press, 1979), 3435.

35. Fine, , Sit-Down, 162; Keeran, , Communist Party, 5, 151, 163; “Excerpts from Minutes of Dodge Strike Executive Committee (Official),” Dodge Main News, March 25, 1937, 2.According to Steven Jefferys, the Daily Worker was eventually excluded from the Dodge Main plant.Jefferys, , Management and Managed, 78.

36. See Kraus, Henry, Heroes of Unwritten Story: The UAW, 1934–39 (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1993), 9192; Messan, , “The State of Cadillac,” 2; Punch Press (newsletter of sit-down strikers occupying General Motors plants, Flint Michigan, 1937) No. 6, n.d. (c. Jan. 27, 1937), 1.

37. Morris, , “The Sit-Down,” 2; see alsoMorris, George, “Sitdown Strategy,” Daily Worker, March 3, 1937, 6; Levinson, , Labor on the March, 177; Dodge Main News, March 19, 1937, 3; Punch Press (newsletter of sit-down strikers occupying General Motors plants, Flint Michigan, 1937) No. 6, n.d. (c. Jan. 27, 1937), 1; Hy Fish, “With the Striking Auto Workers in Fisher Body Plant No. 1,” Socialist Call, Feb. 13, 1937, 2;Fuoss, , Striking Performances/Performing Strikes, 54.

38. Messan, , “The State of Cadillac,” 2; Fuoss, , Striking Performances/Performing Strikes, 5556; see also Francis O'Rourke, “General Motors’ Sit-In Strikers’ Thoughts” (diary of Fisher No. 2 sit-down striker), Francis O'Rourke Papers, Wayne State Archives; Hudson-News, Mar. 26, 1937, 7; PP No. 7, n.d., 2;Fine, , Sit-Down, 160.

39. PP No. 7, n.d., 1. For examples of hostile observers acknowledging orderliness of strikers, see Edwin H. Cassels, Attorney for Bendix Products Corp., to Perkins, Nov. 28, 1936, Office Files of Secretary of Labor Frances Perkins, Records of the Department of Labor, Record Group 174, National Archives II, College Park, Md.; Barclay, “We Sat Down with the Strikers,” 33.

40. See Fine, Sit-Down, 160, 166; Detroit News, Mar. 10, 1937, 39; Detroit News, Mar. 11, 1937, 2; Detroit News, Mar. 13, 1937, 1; Detroit News, Mar. 16, 1937, 4; Frank H. Bowen, Director, NLRB, Seventh Region, Sit-Down Strikes in the Detroit Area (typescript report, March. 25, 1937), Robert F. Wagner Papers, Georgetown University Special Collections, Washington, D.C., Labor Series, Box 5.

41. See Lichtenstein, Nelson, The Most Dangerous Man in Detroit (New York: Basic Books, 1995), 70.

42. Fine, , Sit-Down, 131; Detroit Labor News (official organ, Wayne County Federation of Labor) Dec. 18, 1936, 1; Detroit Labor News (official organ, Wayne County Federation of Labor) Dec. 18, 1936, 1.

43. See Fine, , Sit-Down, 18.

44. Fine, , Sit-Down, 172; see alsoPaper Makers’ Journal, April 1937, 20, 22; Seamen's Journal, Feb. 1, 1937, 27.

45. See Detroit News, Jan. 3, 1937, 1;Dubofsky, and Tine, Van, John L. Lewis, 262; Fine, , Sit-Down, 191(quoting GM statement).

46. United Mine Workers Journal, Jan. 15, 1937, 3.

47. Dalrymple, Sherman H., “Sit-Down Strikes—An Editorial,” United Rubber Worker, May 1936, 12; Adamic, Louis, “Sitdown: II,” Nation, Dec. 12, 1936, 702(quoting CIO Director John Brophy);Oil Workers International Union, Proceedings of the Eighth Convention, June 7–12, 1937, 62(quoting CIO organizer Adolph Germer); International Union,United Automobile Workers of America, Proceedings of the Second Annual Convention, Aug. 23–29, 1937, 131[hereafter UAW Proceedings 1937] (quoting ILGWU President David Dubinsky).

48. Galenson, , CIO Challenge, 145(quoting Lewis); see also Akron Beacon Journal, April 20, 1936, 19; Union News Service (official organ, Congress of Industrial Organizations), April 12, 1937, 1.

49. Fine, , Sit-Down, 170(quoting Lewis);Carlisle, John M., “Lid Clamped on Sit-Downs,” Detroit News, April 8, 1937, 1; NYT, April 8, 1937, 1, 18.

50. Howard, Charles P., “President,” Typographical Journal, April 1937, 327.

51. Akron Beacon Journal, June 4, 1936, 19; American Federationist, August 1936, 834–37.

52. SeeTomlins, Christopher, The State and the Unions: Labor Relations, Law, and the Organized Labor Movement in America, 1880–1960 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985), 172; American Federation of Labor, Minutes of the Meeting of the Executive Council 1930–1948 (Microform edition) (Frederick, Maryland: University Pulications of America, 1996) Feb. 8–19, 1937, 42–43; Proceedings of Conference of Representatives of National and International Unions Affiliated with the American Federation of Labor, May 24–25, 1937, 17–20.

53. American Federation of Labor, Minutes of the Meeting of the Executive Council 1930–1948 (Microform edition) (Frederick, Maryland: University Pulications of America, 1996), Feb. 8–9, 1937, 56; Telegram from John P. Frey to H. W. Anderson, GM, Jan. 7, 1937, reprinted in ibid., 43.

54. CIO, The Case for Industrial Organization (March 1936), 39; Union News Service (official organ, Congress of Industrial Organizations), Feb. 10, 1936, 1; Brody, Workers in Industrial America, 27.

55. Tomlins, The State and the Unions, 32 (quoting Gompers).

56. Ibid., 33–34; ibid., 57 (quoting Gompers and AFL Executive Council).

57. American Federation of Labor, Minutes of the Meeting of the Executive Council 1930–1948 (Microform edition) (Frederick, Maryland: University Pulications of America, 1996), Aug. 3, 1936, 4, 128, 129.

58. DN, Feb. 3, 1937, 2; DLN, March 5, 1937, 5; NYT, Mar. 29, 1937, 1.

59. U.S. Congress, House, Special Committee on Un-American Activities, Investigation of Un-American Propaganda Activities in the United States, Hearings before a Special Committee on Un-American Activities, House of Representatives on H. Res. 282, 75th cong., 3d sess., 1938, vol. 2, 1614 (reprinting list of sit-downs in Detroit compiled by the Detroit Police Department) [hereafter Detroit Police Sit-Down List]; Levinson, Labor on the March, 180; Dorothy Sue Cobble, Dishing It Out: Waitresses and Their Unions in the Twentieth Century (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1991), 99 (quoting Flore); New York Times, Mar. 24, 1937, 1 (quoting Martel).

60. United States Congress, Congressional Record, March 17, 1937, 2338 (Sen. King); Detroit News, March 13, 1937, 3(advertisement);Detroit News, March 14, 1937, 1; Detroit News, March 18, 1937, 1; Schwantes, Carlos A., “‘We've Got ‘em on the Run, Brothers’: The 1937 Non-Automotive Sit Down Strikes in Detroit,” Michigan History 56 (1972): 179, 195; Detroit News, March 19, 1937, 1; Detroit News, March 20, 1937, 5; Detroit News, March 23, 1937, 1; Gallup, George, “America Speaks: Majority Would Outlaw Sit-Down Strikes,” Detroit News, March 21, 1937, 10.

61. Howe, Irving and Widick, B. J., The UAW and Walter Reuther (New York: Random House, 1949), 51; Stolberg, Benjamin, The Story of the CIO (New York: Viking Press, 1938), 161–62; see alsoDubofsky, and Tine, Van, John L. Lewis, 259; Bernstein, , Turbulent Years, 508; Lichtenstein, , Most Dangerous Man, 112.

62. New York Times, Feb. 27, 1937, 1, col. 2.

63. Mr. Martin's Speech at Pontiac, Michigan, May 1, 1937 (typescript), Homer Martin Collection, Wayne State Archives, Box 3, at 1; see also speeches at Racine, Wisconsin and Newark, New Jersey, also in Box 3. On the narrative tradition of labor's freedom constitution, seePope, James Gray, “Labor's Constitution of Freedom,” Yale Law Journal 106 (1997): 978–80.

64. “Text of Martin Letter to Murphy on Chrysler Strike,” New York Times, Mar. 23, 1937, 16; A. F. Whitney, President, Bro. of Railroad Trainmen, “Thinking Clearly on Property Rights,” Railroad Trainman, March 1937, 136–37; DN, Mar. 21, 1937, 10 (quoting Martin); see also New York Times, Feb. 27, 1937, 1, col. 2.

65. United Rubber Workers, Proceedings of the First Convention, Sept. 15–20, 1936 [hereafter URW Proceedings 1936], 425. On the role of the thirteenth amendment in labor's constitutional thinking, seeForbath, William A., Law and the Shaping of the American Labor Movement (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1991), 136–39; Pope, , “Labor's Constitution of Freedom,” 962–66; Pope, , “Thirteenth Amendment,” 1524.

66. Paper Makers’ Journal, Feb. 1937, 25; see alsoFlint Auto Worker, January 12, 1937, 8; Mortimer, Wyndham, “History of the Sit-Down Strike,” United Auto Worker, January 22, 1937, 3.

67. Summit County Labor News (official organ, Summit County Federation of Labor, Akron Ohio), Feb. 12, 1937, 1; Punch Press (newsletter of sit-down strikers occupying General Motors plants, Flint Michigan, 1937) no. 8(1), n.d. [c. late January 1937], 2; American Teacher, May-June 1937, 26; Union News Service (official organ, Congress of Industrial Organizations), Feb. 17, 1936, 1; The Hosiery Worker, March 10, 1939, 2; New York Times, Feb. 27, 1937, 1; Martin's Speech at Newark, New Jersey, Feb. 26, 1937 (typescript), Homer Martin Collection, Box 3, at 6.

68. Flint Auto Worker, January 12, 1937, 8; see alsoSummit County Labor News, (official organ, Summit County Federation of Labor, Akron Ohio) Feb. 12, 1937, 1; Substitute For Resolutions Nos. 203 and 238 Sit-Down Strikes, UAW Proceedings 1937, 189–90;Detroit Labor News (official organ, Wayne County Federation of Labor), March 12, 1937, 8; The Lamp Maker (newspaper of UAW Local 146), April 15, 1937, 4; Letter fromMcCoy, Raymond to Editor, Detroit News, January 31, 1937, 22; UAW Proceedings 1937, 1011 (quoting Krzycki).

69. “Text of Martin Letter,” 16;New York Times, Feb. 27, 1937, 1, col. 2. On the roots of this claim, seeFitch, John, The Causes of Industrial Unrest (New York: Harper & Bros., 1924), 221–23; Sidney, and Webb, Beatrice, Industrial Democracy, 559–63 (London: Longmans, Green & Co., 1902).

70. Stark, Louis, “Sit-Down,” Survey Graphic, June 1937, 316, 320; see alsoWhite, William Allen, “Sit-Down: Harbinger of a New Revolution?” Detroit News, April 5, 1937, 1.

71. New York Times, March 30, 1937, 13; Dodge Main News, March 11, 1937, 3; see alsoLiven-good, J. B., “Human Rights Have Precedence,” Typographical Journal, April 1937, 338; Paper Makers’ Journal, April 1937, 2021.

72. New York Times, March 30, 1937, 22; Whitney, , “Thinking Clearly on Property Rights,” 136–37; Flint Auto Worker, January 12, 1937, 8; Speech Given by Mr. Martin to the Sit-Down Strikers in the Dodge Plant, Detroit, March 15, 1937, Homer Martin Collection, Box 3, at 3–4; “Text of Martin Letter,” 16;United Automobile Worker, May 8, 1937, 5; Paper Makers’ Journal, April 1937, 20; cf. O'Brien v. O'Brien, 66 N.Y.2d 576, 489 N.E.2d 712, 498 N.Y.S.2d 743 (Ct. App. 1985) (marital property interest in professional education);Baker, C. Edwin, “Property and Its Relation to Constitutionally Protected Liberty,” University of Pennsylvania Law Review 134 (1986): 741, 745–46.

73. Punch Press (newsletter of sit-down strikers occupying General Motors plants, Flint Michigan, 1937) No. 8(1), n.d. [c. late January 1937], 2; Flint Auto Worker, January 12, 1937, 8; Summit County Labor News (official organ, Summit County Federation of Labor, Akron Ohio) Feb. 12, 1937, 1; American Teacher, May-June 1937, 26; United States Congress, Congressional Record, March 23, 1937, 2642(Rep. Bernard);United Automobile Worker, May 8, 1937, 5; cf.Singer, Joseph, “The Reliance Interest in Property,” Stanford Law Review 40 (1987): 611, 711–18; Radin, Margaret Jane, “Property and Personhood,” Stanford Law Review 34 (1982): 957.

74. Local 157, UAW, Resolution on Sit-Down Strike Legislation (typescript), FMCS Records, RG 280, Entry 14, Box 419; see alsoDetroit Labor News (official organ, Wayne County Federation of Labor) April 9, 1937, 1; United Automobile Worker, May 8, 1937, 5.

75. Whitney, , “Thinking Clearly on Property Rights,” 136–37; Detroit News, Feb. 11, 1937, 22; Detroit News, April 4, 1937, 8; “Text of Martin Letter,” 16;Paper Makers’ Journal, April 1937, 20.

76. Lynd, Staughton, “Communal Rights,” Texas Law Review 62 (1984): 1417, 1423–24.

77. “Text of Martin Letter,” 16; NYT, Mar. 30, 1937, 13; Local 3, UAW to Frank Murphy (n.d., c. March 22, 1937), Kraus Papers, Reel 5, Wayne State Archives; Pope, “Thirteenth Amendment,” 78–80 (citing additional sources).

78. See The Oakmar, 20 F. Supp. 650 (D. Md. 1937); The Losmar, 20 F. Supp. 887 (D. Md. 1937); Plecity v. Local No. 37, International Union of Bakery and Confectionery Workers of America, Superior Ct., Los Angeles County, Cal., 4 U.S.L.W. 898, C.C.H. 16357; General Motors Corp. v. International Union, United Automobile Workers of America, Cir. Ct. Genesee County, Mich., 4 U.S.L.W. 678 (1937), C.C.H. 16354; Chrysler Corp. v. International Union, UAW, Cir. Ct., Wayne County, Mich., 4 U.S.L.W. 858 (1937), C.C.H. 16358; Apex Hosiery Co. v. Leader, 90 F.2d 144 (3d Cir. 1937), appeal dismissed, 302 U.S. 656 (1937).

79. Punch Press (newsletter of sit-down strikers occupying General Motors plants, Flint Michigan, 1937) No. 16, Feb. 12, 1937, 2; Chicago Daily News, Feb. 19, 1937, 1, 4; In re Matter of Fansteel Metallurgical Corporation, 5 N.L.R.B. 930, 942–43 (1938).

80. Voice of Labor (newspaper of UAW Local 206), March 27, 1937, 4; Livengood, , “Human Rights Have Precedence,” 338; Brookwood Labor College, Pointers for Organizers (brochure), reprinted in Barclay, “We Sat Down with the Strikers,” 48; see alsoDetroit News, March 21, 1937, 10.

81. Draft of Plymouth Local 51 Strike Bulletin, Kraus Papers, Reel 5, Wayne State Archives (1st quotation);Paper Makers’ Journal, April 1937, 20; Local 157, UAW, Resolution on Sit-Down Strike Legislation (typescript), FMCS Records, RG 280, Entry 14, Box 419 (second and third quotations);Typographical Journal, Feb. 1937, 103; Antonini, Luigi, “Apropos ‘Sit-Downs,'” Justice, April 15, 1937, 6; Resolution No. 238, Submitted by Kermit Johnson, Local No. 156, Flint, Mich., UAW Proceedings 1937, Appendix III, 97.

82. SeeFortune, July 1937, 96(reporting that only 20.1 percent of all respondents and 32.9 percent of executives expressed the opinion that sit-downs “should be stopped, even if bloodshed is necessary”).

83. See Baldwin, Roger, “Organized Labor and Political Democracy,” in Baldwin, Roger and Randall, Clarence, Civil Liberties and Industrial Conflict (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1938), 37; American Civil Liberties Union, Let Freedom Ring: The Story of Civil Liberty, 1936–1937 (New York: ACLU, 1938), 25, 75; Fine, , Sit-Down, 176; Auerbach, Jerold S., Labor and Liberty: The LaFollette Committee and the New Deal (Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1966), 110–15, 129–30; Norwood, Stephen H., Strike-breaking and Intimidation: Mercenaries and Masculinity in Twentieth-Century America (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2002), 205.

84. Green, Leon, “The Case for the Sit-Down Strike,” New Republic, March 24, 1937, 90; New York Times, March 21, 1937, 18; New York Times, June 15, 1937, 19(paraphrasing Fortas).

85. Akron Beacon Journal, July 16, 1936, 4; Nelson, , American Rubber Workers, 214; Eisenberg, , “Government Policy,” 67, citingNew York Times, March 20, 1937, 4.

86. Detroit News, January 28, 1937, 22; New York Times, March 30, 1937, 22.

87. Nelson, , American Rubber Workers, 210–11; Akron Beacon Journal, April 20, 1936, 19; U.S. Senate, Subcommittee of the Committee on Education and Labor, Hearings Pursuant to S. Res. 266, Violations of Free Speech and Rights of Labor, 74th–76th Congs.,1936–1940, Part 45, Exhibit No. 7821, dated July 21, 1936, at 17072 (resolution of Goodyear Local 2).

88. URW Proceedings 1936, 440 (resolution submitted by Goodyear Local 2);Mortimer, W., “Need of Caution in Sit-Downs,” United Auto Worker, April 7, 1937, 3.

89. URW Proceedings 1936, 440 (resolution submitted by Goodyear Local 2); ibid., 422 (Burns); ibid., 424 (Howard); ibid., 429;Keller, James, “The Rubber Front in Akron,” The Communist, March 1937, 241, 242.

90. See UAW Proceedings 1937, 225; ibid., Appendix III, 87 (Resolution submitted by Local No. 217); ibid., Appendix III, 97 (Resolution submitted by Kermit Johnson, Local No. 156); ibid., 226–28 (Mortimer, Addes & Martin), 189–90 (text of enacted resolution).

91. Minutes of the 90th Regular Meeting, Feb. 7, 1937, Local 5 Minutebook, 21, 24, Local 5 United Rubber Workers Collection, University of Akron Archives, Akron, Ohio, Box F-1; Akron Beacon Journal, Aug. 3, 1936, 13; UAW Local 155, Midland Shop Rules, reprinted in Barclay, “We Sat Down with the Strikers,” 46.

92. I found only two occasions on which sitdowners ran machinery. On one occasion, striking power plant workers operated the plant in order to supply what they considered to be an essential service.Jones, , Life, Liberty, and Property, 358–59.On another, striking printers and type-setters published a strike bulletin using the employer's printing press. They claimed that they were “keeping a strict account of the materials used, and will pay back the company when the strike is settled.”Detroit Labor News (official organ, Wayne County Federation of Labor), March 19, 1937, 1.

93. See, e.g.,Detroit News, March 25, 1937, 1(Chrysler);Fine, , Sit-Down, 209(Janesville Fisher Body);Detroit News, April 14, 1937, 1(Yale & Towne).

94. SeeDetroit News, March 23, 1937, 1; Fine, , Sit-Down, 272–73; Detroit News, Feb. 3, 1937, 1.

95. Local 157, UAW, Resolution on Sit-Down Strike Legislation (typescript), Records of the Federal Mediation and Conciliation Service, Record Group 280, National Archives II, College Park, Maryland, RG 280, Entry 14, Box 419.

96. Paper Makers’ Journal, April 1937, 20, 22; see alsoAntonini, Luigi, “Apropos ‘Sit-Downs,’” 6.

97. Resolution Adopted By Goodrich Local # 5, U.R.W.A., c. April 17, 1937, Lewis CIO Files, Part I, Reel 11, Frame 353; Substitute For Resolutions Nos. 203 and 238 Sit-DownStrikes, , UAW Proceedings 1937, 190.

98. SeePope, , “Thirteenth Amendment,” 7172(collecting cases);Lucey, Lawrence, “Labor and Law,” The Commonweal (July 3, 1936): 347.

99. United Mine Workers Journal, January 15, 1937, 3; see alsoPope, , “Thirteenth Amendment,” 7881(collecting additional quotations).

100. E. L. Oliver, Vice President, Labor's Non-Partisan League, to Congressmen and Senators, Feb. 17, 1937, Lewis CIO Papers, Reel 26, Frame 1096; Union News Service (official organ, Congress of Industrial Organizations), Mar. 15, 1937, 1.

101. Cortner, Richard C., The Wagner Act Cases (Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1964), 175; Hansen, Drew D., “The Sit-Down Strikes and the Switch in Time,” Wayne State Law Review 46 (2000): 49, 109–10, 118–19.

102. Carter v. Carter Coal, 298 U.S. 238, 309 (1936); ibid., at 318–19, 321 (Hughes, C.J., concurring).

103. Akron Beacon Journal, May 25, 1936, 1, 6; Akron Beacon Journal, June 25, 1936, 1, 6; Akron Beacon Journal, June 29, 1936, 1, 6.

104. Akron Beacon Journal, May 25, 1936, 1, 6; Akron Beacon Journal, June 1, 1936, 1, 6.

105. Akron Beacon Journal, July 1, 1936, 1, 6; Akron Beacon Journal, July 2, 1936, 1, 6; Akron Beacon Journal, July 3, 1936, 1, 5; United Rubber Worker, Dec. 1936, 5.

106. See Eisenberg, , “Government Policy,” 107–11.

107. See Frankfurter, Felix and Greene, Nathan, The Labor Injunction (New York: MacMillan, 1930), 106–8; Detroit News, Feb. 2, 1937, 1, 23.

108. Detroit News, Feb. 3, 1937, 32(reprinting text of decision);I.J.A. Bull. March 1937, 101–2.

109. Detroit News, Feb. 3, 1937, 32; Pope, , “Thirteenth Amendment,” 71.

110. See, e.g,Apex Hosiery Co. v. Leader, 90 F.2d 144, 158 (3d Cir. 1937), rev'd as moot, 302 U.S.656 (1937); The Losmar, 20 F. Supp. 887, 891 (D. Md. 1937);Ohio Leather Co. v. De Chant, Ohio, 4 U.S.L.W. 951 (Court of Common Pleas, Trumbull County, Ohio 1937); I.J.A. Bull., Feb. 1938, 103.

111. The Losmar, 20 F. Supp. 887, 890 (D. Md. 1937); Fansteel Metallurgical Corp. v. Lodge 66, Amalgamated Ass'n of Iron Workers (Lake County Circuit Court, No. 37551, June 8, 1937), reprinted in Transcript of Record, NLRB v. Fansteel Metallurgical Corp., 306 U.S. 240 (1939), 1724, 1726, 1732.

112. SeeNew York Times, March 24, 1937, 18; Eisenberg, , “Government Policy,” 121–22.

113. Sugar, Maurice, “Is the Sit-Down Legal?” New Masses (May 4, 1937): 19, 21.

114. Detroit News, Feb. 3, 1937, 1; Preis, Art, Labor's Giant Step (New York: Pathfinder, 1964), 60; Fine, , Sit-Down, 207–8, 293; Detroit News, Feb. 11, 1937, 1, 18; Detroit News, Feb. 12, 1937, 1.

115. Detroit News, Feb. 17, 1937, 4; Investigation of Un-American Propaganda Activities in the United States, 1680.

116. Schwantes, , “‘We've Got 'em on the Run,'” 179, 197–98; Cushman, Barry, Rethinking the New Deal Court: The Structure of a Constitutional Revolution (New York: Oxford University Press, 1998), 32 n.156.

117. See Monthly Labor Review, Aug. 1938, 360, 361, 362; Brecher, , Strike! 229–31; Hansen, , “The Sit-Down Strikes and the Switch in Time,” 8586.

118. SeeEisenberg, , “Government Policy,” 60; Arnold, Miles, “What a Strike Means to a Police Department,” City Manager Magazine 19 (Feb. 1937): 44; Stone, Donald C., “What Is the City's Role in Labor Disputes?Public Management 19 (Feb. 1937): 40.

119. Chicago Daily News, Feb. 26, 1937, 1, 3; Chicago Daily News, Feb. 26, 1937, 1; Detroit News, Feb. 26, 1937, 4; New York Times, Feb. 27, 1937, 1.

120. Detroit News, Feb. 26, 1937, 4; I.J.A. Bulletin, January 1938, 85.

121. SeeDetroit News, March 15, 1937, 1; Detroit News, March 17, 1937, 1; Brecher, , Strike! 227; Babson, Steve, Building the Union: Skilled Workers and Anglo-Gaelic Immigrants in the Rise of the UAW (New Brunswick: Rutgers University. Press, 1991), 186; Norwood, , Strike-breaking and Intimidation, 214; Eisenberg, , “Government Policy,” 8283 (quoting Murphy).

122. Schwantes, , “‘We've Got 'em on the Run,'” 194; Detroit News, March 18, 1937, 1; Eisenberg, , “Government Policy,” 67; Detroit News, March 21, 1937, 1, 12; New York Times, March 21, 1937, 1.

123. Chicago Daily News, March 24, 1937, 1, 2; Chicago Daily News, March 30, 1937, 5.

124. Porter, Russell B., “6,000 Chrysler Sit-ins Defy Gov. Murphy to Use Troops,” New York Times, March 21, 1937, 1; Detroit News, March 22, 1937, 1; Daily Worker, April 14, 1937, 3.

125. Daily Worker, April 14, 1937, 3; Detroit News, March 23, 1937, 1.

126. SeeNew York Times, March 24, 1937, 1; Detroit Labor News (official organ, Wayne County Federation of Labor), March 26, 1937, 1; Detroit News, March 24, 1937, 4; Mr. Homer Martin's Speech in Cadillac Square, March 23, 1937, UAW Local 9 Collection, Box 3, Wayne State University Archives of Labor and Urban Affairs, Detroit, Michigan.

127. Detroit News, March 25, 1937, 1; Detroit Police Sit-Down List, 1614;Detroit News, April 18, 1937, 2.

128. Local 205 Union Action, April 1, 1937, 1.

129. Eisenberg, , “Government Policy,” 56.

130. Ibid., 88–89;Detroit News, March 27, 1937, 1(quoting Lowell telegram);Patterson, James T., Congressional Conservatism and the New Deal: The Growth of the Conservative Coalition in Congress, 1933–1939 (Lexington: University of Kentucky Press, 1967), 135–36; Plotke, David, Building a Democratic Political Order: Reshaping American Liberalism in the 1930s and 1940s (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996), 128, 148.

131. Perkins, Frances, The Roosevelt I Knew (New York: Viking Press, 1946), 321–22; Patterson, , Congressional Conservativism, 135.

132. United States Congress, Congressional Record, March 24, 1937, 2728; New York Times, March 21, 1937, 1; Hansen, , “The Sit-Down Strikes and the Switch in Time,” 50, 109–10.

133. Patterson, , Congressional Conservativism, 136–37, 167–68.

134. See United States Congress, Congressional Record, March 23, 1937, 2642(Rep. Bernard);United States Congress, Congressional Record, March 30, 1937, 2925(Rep. Coffee);United States Congress, Congressional Record, April 7, 1937, 3247(Sen. Frazier);United States Congress, Congressional Record, April 1, 1937, 3038(Rep. Bradley);United States Congress, Congressional Record, April 2, 1937, 3074 (Sen. Brown).

135. United States Congress, Congressional Record, March 19, 1937, 2486; see alsoUnited States Congress, Congressional Record, March 19, 1937, 2491(Sen. O'Mahoney).

136. United States Congress, Congressional Record, April 7, 1937, 3242–43 (Sen. Wagner); United States Congress, Congressional Record, April 8, 1937, 3282 (Rep. Maverick); see alsoUnited States Congress, Congressional Record, March 30, 1937, 2921(Rep. Scott);United States Congress, Congressional Record, March 30, 1937, 2930 (Rep. Colden); United States Congress, Congressional Record, April 7, 1937, 3234 (Sen. Robinson).

137. United States Congress, Congressional Record, April 8, 1937, 3296(Rep. Boileau);United States Congress, Congressional Record, April 8, 1937, 3283(Rep. Sadowski);United States Congress, Congressional Record, March 23, 1937, 2639(Rep. Harlan).

138. United States Congress, Congressional Record, March 19, 1937, 2472(Sen. Ellender);United States Congress, Congressional Record, April 5, 1937, 3169(Rep. Anderson); see alsoUnited States Congress, Congressional Record, March 23, 1937, 2637 (Rep. Dies).

139. United States Congress, Congressional Record, March 19, 1937, 2472(Sen. Ellender); ibid., 2521 (Rep. Hoffman);United States Congress, Congressional Record, April 2, 1937, 3072(Sen. Bailey);United States Congress, Congressional Record, April 8, 1937, 3280(Rep. Rich).

140. United States Congress, Congressional Record, March 19, 1937, 2522(Rep. Hoffman); see alsoUnited States Congress, Congressional Record, April 2, 1937, 3072(Sen. Bailey);United States Congress, Congressional Record, March 17, 1937, 2337(Sen. Johnson);United States Congress, Congressional Record, March 23, 1937, 2637–38(Rep. Dies);United States Congress, Congressional Record, March 19, 1937, 2485(Sen. Vandenberg).

141. United States Congress, Congressional Record, March 30, 1937, 2922(Rep. Voorhis);United States Congress, Congressional Record, March 23, 1937, 2639(Rep. Harlan);United States Congress, Congressional Record, March 18, 1937, 2379(Sen. Brown);United States Congress, Congressional Record, April 8, 1937, Appendix, 829–30(Rep. Ellenbogen);United States Congress, Congressional Record, April 8, 1937, Appendix, 758–59 (Rep. Engel).

142. Patterson, , Congressional Conservativism, 137, 168; United States Congress, Congressional Record, April 7, 1937, 3248; Catledge, Turner, “Senate Denounces Sit-Ins and Spies,” New York Times, April 8, 1937, 1; Business Week, May 1, 1937, 8.

143. Hansen, , “The Sit-Down Strikes and the Switch in Time,” 131–32; NLRB v. Jones & Laughlin Steel Corp., 301 U.S. 1, 41 (1937)(distinguishingA. L. A. Schechter Poultry Corp. v. United States, 295 U.S.495 [1935], andCarter v. Carter Coal Company, 298 U.S.238 [1936]).

144. NLRB v. Fruehauf Trailer Company, 301 U.S.49 (1937); NLRB v. Friedman-Harry Marks Clothing Company, 301 U.S.58 (1937); Jones & Laughlin, 301 U.S. at 43; ibid., 85 (McReynolds, J., dissenting) (reporting the number of workers employed by each company).

145. See Gross, James A., The Making of the National Labor Relations Board: A Study in Economics, Politics, and the Law (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1974), 194(quoting oral history interview with NLRB chairman Warren Madden).

146. Pope, , “Thirteenth Amendment,” 8997; Detroit Police Sit-Down List (providing data on size of sit-downs);Irons, Peter, The New Deal Lawyers (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1982), 263(quoting Fahy); Letter from Charles Wyzanski, Labor Solicitor, to Felix Frankfurter (Apr. 14, 1937), John Knox Papers, Harvard Law Library Manuscript Div., box 1.

147. See Detroit Labor News (official organ, Wayne County Federation of Labor), April 16, 1937, 1; Detroit News, April 12, 1937, 4; Lichtenstein, , Most Dangerous Man, 81; Cousins, Fred W., “Girls of Cleared Plant Are Dubbed ‘Gas Eaters,’” Detroit News, April 15, 1937, 1; Detroit News, April 15, 1937, 1, 4; Local 205 Union Action, April 17, 1937, 4.

148. New York Times, April 13, 1937, 20; see alsoKrock, Arthur, “Wagner Act Decisions Viewed from Political Angle,” New York Times, April 13, 1937, 24; Stark, Louis, “Sit-Down,” Survey Graphic, June 1937, 316, 320.For additional quotations, seeHansen, , “The Sit-Down Strikes and the Switch in Time,” 125–26.

149. SeeHoward, Charles P., CIO Secretary, “President's Page,” Typographical Journal, May 1937, 435; New York Times, April 13, 1937, 20; Brecher, , Strike! 225–26; Bernstein, , Turbulent Years, 481–97; Monthly Labor Review, Aug. 1938, 360, 361.

150. Detroit News, April 15, 1937, 1, 4; Norwood, , Strike-breaking and Intimidation, 220; Dobrzynski, Art, “One Eviction—Two Sit-Downs” (poem), Local 205 Union Action, April 17, 1937, 4; Letter from “D.” to Union Action, ibid., 4; Letter from Noel Johnson, chief shop steward, to Union Action, ibid., 4; Germer to Lewis, July 9, 1937, The CIO Files of John L. Lewis (ed. M. Dubofsky), Microform, reel 1, frame 793 [hereafter Lewis CIO Papers];Foster, William Z., “The Significance of the Sit-Down Strike,” The Communist, April 1937, 339; see alsoColeman, McAlister, “Law to Order,” Socialist Call, Feb. 13, 1937, 5; Miles, George F., “Trade Union Notes,” Workers Age (official organ of the Communist Party-Opposition), Feb. 20, 1937, 2.

151. UAW Local 155, Midland Shop Rules, reprinted in Barclay, “We Sat Down with the Strikers,” 46.

152. See Jefferys, , Management and Managed, 70, 74–75, 8386; Jefferys, , “‘Matters of Mutual Interest': The Unionization Process at Dodge Main, 1933–1939,” in On the Line: Essays in the History of Auto Work, ed. Lichtenstein, Nelson and Meyer, Stephen (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1989), 100, 114; Atleson, James B., “Wartime Labor Regulation, the Industrial Pluralists, and the Law of Collective Bargaining,” in Industrial Democracy in America: The Ambiguous Promise, ed. Lichtenstein, Nelson and Harris, Howell John (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996), 142, 153 (quotation).

153. Jefferys, , Management and Managed, 98–101, 112–13; Minutes of the Regular Business Meeting, Dodge Local No. 3, April 24, 1938, UAW Local 3 Collection, Wayne State Archives, at 5;Montgomery, , Workers’ Control, 142, 147–50.

154. “Text of GM-Union Constitution,” Detroit News, March 13, 1937, 4, sections I.A, I.C and V.

155. Bernstein, , Turbulent Years, 559; Galenson, , CIO Challenge, 154; Brecher, , Strike! 223–24; see alsoEdsforth, Ronald, Class Conflict and Cultural Consensus: The Making of a Mass Consumer Society in Flint, Michigan (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1987), 177–78.

156. Adolph Germer to Lewis, July 18, 1937, Lewis CIO Papers, reel 1, frame 694;Jefferys, , Management and Managed, 7880; Morgan, Ted, A Covert Life: Jay Lovestone, Communist, Anti-Communist, and Spy Master (New York: Random House, 1999), 124 (1999).

157. Lichtenstein, , Most Dangerous Man, 119–21; Bernstein, , Turbulent Years, 563; Brecher, , Strike! 225; Cochran, Bert, Labor and Communism (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1977), 138–39; Galenson, , CIO Challenge, 158.

158. See Lichtenstein, Nelson, “Great Expectations: The Promise of Industrial Jurisprudence and Its Demise,” in Industrial Democracy in America, ed. Lichtenstein, and Harris, , 113, 138; Lichtenstein, , Most Dangerous Man, 122–23.

159. NLRB v. Fansteel Metallurgical Corp., 306 U.S. 240, 247–48 (1939); Fansteel Metal-lurgical Corp., 5 N.L.R.B.930, 931,enforcement denied,Fansteel Metallurgical Corp. v. NLRB, 98 F.2d 375 (7th Cir. 1938), reversed in part, 306 U.S.240 (1939).

160. Transcript of Record, NLRB v. Fansteel Metallurgical Corp., 306 U.S. 240 (1939), at 302, 1413–14, 523; see also ibid., 277.

161. 5 N.L.R.B. 945, 949, 952–53 (1938); Eisenberg, “Government Policy,” 197–98.

162. See In re McNeely & Price Co., 6 N.L.R.B. 800 (1938); In re Kuehne Mfg. Co., 7 N.L.R.B. 304 (1938); In re Electric Boat Co., 7 N.L.R.B. 572, 573 (1938); In re Douglas Aircraft Co., Inc., 10 N.L.R.B. 242, 248 (1938); In re Swift & Co., 10 N.L.R.B. 991 (1939); Note, “Termination of Relation of Master and Servant,” Chicago-Kent Law Review 17 (1939): 290, 293.

163. Brief for Fansteel Metallurgical Corporation,NLRB v. Fansteel Metallurgical Corporation, 306 U.S.240 (1939), 26(quotingAssociated Press v. NLRB, 301 U.S. 103, 132 [1937]); ibid., 26 (quotingJones & Laughlin, 301 U.S. at 4546); ibid., 34.

164. Ibid., 35, 35–52.

165. NLRB v. Fansteel Metallurgical Corp., 306 U.S. 240, 252, 253, 255, 259 (1939); ibid., 265 (Stone, J., concurring).

166. 306 U.S. at 256 (emphasis added); ibid., 256–57; ibid., 253;Hart, Henry M. Jr, and Pritchard, Edward F. Jr, “The Fansteel Case: Employee Misconduct and the Remedial Powers of the National Labor Relations Board,” Harvard Law Review 52 (1939): 1275, 1280–81.

167. 300 U.S. 379 (1937);Tribe, Laurence H., American Constitutional Law, 2d ed., (Mineola, N.Y.: Foundation Press, 1988), 567.

168. Smith, J. Denson, “From Nose-Thumbing to Sabotage,” Louisiana Law Review 1 (1939): 577, 577, 580; see alsoMiller, Frank Thomas Jr, “Sit-Down Strikes—Reinstatement of Employees under the Wagner Act,” North Carolina Law Review 17 (1939): 438, 439; Note,Power of the National Labor Relations Board to Order Reinstatement of Sit-Down Strikers,” California Law Review 27 (1939): 470, 473; Krock, Arthur, “Implications in the Dissents of Reed and Black,” New York Times, March 1, 1939, 20.

169. Wirtz, Willard, “Dean Green,” Texas Law Review 56 (1978): 571, 574; Ritchie, Donald A., James M. Landis: Dean of the Regulators (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1980), 84.

170. See, e.g.,Shipyard Worker, March 10, 1939, 4; Caux, Len De, “Looking Ahead,” Union News Service (official organ, Congress of Industrial Organizations), March 3, 1939, 1; Fleisher, Henry C., “See Wagner Act Amended by Court Ruling,” Union News Service (official organ, Congress of Industrial Organizations), March 3, 1939, 1.

171. Eisenberg, , “Government Policy,” 316–18; New York Times, March 3, 1939, 18; Federated Press, Nov. 3, 1949, 2; Federated Press, January 8, 1954, 2; Federated Press, Oct. 14, 1954, 3; Federated Press, Nov. 17, 1954, 2.

172. See Gallup, George, “America Speaks: Majority Would Outlaw Sit-Down Strikes,” Detroit News, March 21, 1937, 10(reporting that the “chief objection maintains that sit-downs are illegal seizure of company property”).

173. Becker, Craig, “‘Better Than a Strike’: Protecting New Forms of Collective Work Stoppages under the National Labor Relations Act,” University of Chicago Law Review 61 (1994): 351, 368–69 nn.77, 83.

174. Finkin, , “Revisionism in Labor Law,” 32; Bernstein, , Turbulent Years, 743–46; Preis, , Labor's Giant Step, 103–6.

175. Atleson, James B., Labor and the Wartime State: Labor Relations and Law during World War II (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1998), 5766; Stepan-Norris, Judith and Zeitlin, Maurice, “‘Red’ Unions and ‘Bourgeois’ Contracts?American Journal of Sociology 96 (1991): 1151, 1186.

176. See Zetka, James R. Jr, Militancy, Market Dynamics, and Workplace Authority: The Struggle over Labor Process Outcomes in the U.S. Automobile Industry, 1946 to 1973 (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1995), 3436; Lichtenstein, Nelson, “Life at the Rouge: A Cycle of Workers’ Control,” in Life and Labor: Dimensions of American Working-Class History, ed. Stephenson, Charles and Asher, Robert (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1986), 237, 242–43; Roberts, Harold S., The Rubber Workers (New York: Harper & Bros., 1944), 254; Kuhn, James W., Bargaining in Grievance Settlement (New York: Columbia University Press, 1961), 139.

177. Jefferys, , Management and Managed, 112–13, 140–41; Amberg, Stephen, “The Triumph of Industrial Orthodoxy: The Collapse of Studebaker-Packard,” in On the Line, ed. Lichtenstein, and Meyer, , 190, 202; Zetka, , Militancy, Market Dynamics, and Workplace Authority, 113–17; Brody, , Workers in Industrial America, 204; Slichter, Sumner H., Healy, James J., and Livernash, E. Robert, The Impact of Collective Bargaining on Management (Washington: Brookings, 1960), 667, 670.

178. Brody, , Workers in Industrial America, 206, 199–207; see alsoGartman, , Auto Slavery, 268–80.

179. Jefferys, , Management and Managed, 111, 112–14.

180. Brody, David, “Workplace Contractualism in Comparative Perspective,” in Industrial Democracy in America, ed. Lichtenstein, and Harris, , 176, 204.

181. Ibid., 203–4; DiGaetano Oral History Interview, 14, 74, 71.

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Law and History Review
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  • EISSN: 1939-9022
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